Пропозиція допомоги. Згода та відмова



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Пропозиція допомоги. Згода та відмова



Пропонуючи допомогу, звертайтесь до співбесідника з ввічливим питанням (прямим або опосередкованим):

Can I help you?

Can I help you with that?

Would you like me to get it for you?

Do you think you can manage this on your own?

If you want, I could get it for you.

Any point in my getting it for you?

How about me getting it for you?

Is there anything I can do for you?

What seems to be the trouble?

Як звичайно, форма питання залежить від ступеня знайомства, віку співбесідників та інших обставин. Будьте обережні, інколи занадто ввічлива фраза може бути сприйнята як іронічна або навіть саркастична.

Ваша пропозиція може бути сприйнята або відхилена. Форма відповіді знов-таки суттєво залежить від вищезазначених факторів:

Thanks.

Thanks a lot.

Oh, would you? Thanks.

That’s nice of you, thanks.

Thank you, kind sir.

No, don’t bother, I can do it myself.

Thanks a lot, but I’m OK.

You could if I needed something.

Exercise 1. Work with your classmate. Offer some help: to pass something, to find out direction, to get acquainted with something, etc.

Exercise 2. Listen to partner’s problems (terrible headache, homework isn’t done, watch has stopped, etc.). Offer your assistance.

Вправи для самостійної роботи

Exercise 1. Translate the text into Ukrainian (Russian).

At its present stage of electronics development, the transistor is as effective as a vacuum tube, both of which can amplify to an upper limit of about 1000 megahertz. Among the advantages of the transistor are its small size and very small power requirements. Therefore, transistors have replaced most vacuum-tube amplifiers in light, portable electronic equipment, such as airborne navigational aids and the control systems of guided missiles, in which weight and size are prime considerations. Commercial applications include very small hearing aids and compact portable radio and television receivers. In addition, transistors have completely replaced vacuum tubes in electronic computers, which require a great many amplifiers.

Transistors are also used in miniaturized diagnostic instruments, such as those used to transmit electrocardiograph, respiratory, and other data from the bodies of astronauts on space flights. Nearly all transmitting equipment used in space-exploration probes employs transistorized circuitry. Transistors also aid in diagnosing diseases. Miniature radio transmitters using transistors can also be implanted in the bodies of animals for ecological studies of feeding habits, patterns of travel, and other factors. A recent commercial application is the transistorized ignition system in automobiles.

During the late 1960s a new electronic technique, the integrated circuit, began to replace the transistor in complex electronic equipment. Although roughly the same size as a transistor, an integrated circuit performs the function of 15 to 20 transistors. A natural development from the integrated circuit in the 1970s has been the production of medium-, large-, and very large-scale integrated circuits (MSI, LSI, and VLSI), which have permitted the building of a compact computer, or minicomputer, containing disk storage units and the communication-control systems on the same frame.

The so-called microprocessor, which came into use in the mid-1970s, is a refinement of the LSI. As a result of further miniaturization, a single microprocessor can incorporate the functions of a number of printed-circuit boards and deliver the performance of the central processing unit of a much larger computer in a hand-held, battery-powered microcomputer.

Exercise 2. Translate the following sentences into English using the Infinitive.

1) Повідомляють, що учасники конференції вже прибули.

2) Ми сподіваємось розмістити їх у готелі “Авіатор”.

3) Так трапилось (to happen), що я це чув.

4) Мабуть ми скоро дізнаємось про це.

5) Кажуть, що він дуже розумний.

6) Я сподіваюсь, що ви зробите все вчасно.

7) Це ви маєте вирішувати.

Lesson 5

ВИВЧЕННЯ ТЕРМІНОЛОГІЇ ЗА ТЕМОЮ МОДУЛЯ

Exercise 1. Draw simple amplifying circuit on either transistor or vacuum tube and explain its action.

Exercise 2. Skim during 5-7 minutes the text below and answer the questions about it content.

The earliest type of the transistor is the bipolar one invented in 1948 as a replacement for the triode vacuum tube. It consists of three layers of doped material, forming two p-n (bipolar) junctions with configurations of p-n-p or n-p-n. One junction is connected to a battery so as to allow current flow (forward bias), and the other junction has a battery connected in the opposite direction (reverse bias). If the current in the forward-biased junction is varied by the addition of a signal, the current in the reverse-biased junction of the transistor will vary accordingly. The principle can be used to construct amplifiers in which a small signal applied to the forward-biased junction causes a large change in current in the reverse-biased junction.

Another type of transistor is the field-effect transistor (FET). Such a transistor operates on the principle of repulsion or attraction of charges due to a superimposed electric field. So they are voltage rather than current controlled, and the base, collector, and emitter functions of the bipolar junction transistor are replaced by the so-called gate, drain, and source terminals, respectively. The control voltage is applied at right angles to the current to be controlled. In contrast to bipolar transistors the function of the field-effect transistors involves only one type of current carriers (electrons or holes), so sometimes they are considered as unipolar type. Different types of field effect transistors include the junction-gate field effect transistor (JFET), the metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET), and the insulated-gate field effect transistor (IGFET). The smallest MOSFET is 1/75,000 as wide as a human hair. The MOSFET has for the most part replaced the bipolar junction transistor in computer memory chips. Usually a memory unit consists of two metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors, one N-type and one P-type, integrated on a single silicon chip. Field-effect transistors operate more efficiently than bipolar types, because a large signal can be controlled by a very small amount of energy. These devices have very high speed and extremely low power consumption. They are, however, easily damaged by static electricity.

bias drain field-effect gate right зміщення стік (рос.: сток) польовий (транзистор) затвор прямий (кут) oxide source static unipolar to superimpose оксид джерело (рос.: исток) статичний уніполярний накладатися

1) What types of transistor do you know?

2) When was the earliest type of transistor invented?

3) What are the advantages of the field effect transistors over the bipolar ones?

4) Why field effect transistors are considered as unipolar type?

5) How big are the contemporary transistors?

Exercise 3. Find words in Exercise 2 that have an opposite meaning to:

to destroy multi-polar plural identical reverse-biased suppressor to exclude similarly emitter to separate large repulsion dynamic drain with difficulties

Граматичні відомості

Герундій (the Gerund)

 

Герундій – це форма дієслова з закінченням -ing, яка використовується як іменник. В нашій мові відповідної граматичної форми, проміжної між дієсловом і прикметником, нема, хоча звичайно суттєвих труднощів з перекладом висловів, які містять герундій, не виникає, щонайменше для простих форм:

 

I am fond of reading. – Я люблю читати (читання).

I remember reading this book. – Я пам’ятаю, що читав цю книгу.

 

Як й інфінітив, герундій змінюється за часом і має активний та пасивний способи (табл. 11), хоча на практиці всі форми, за винятком Indefinite Active, використовуються надзвичайно рідко.

Таблиця 11

Форми герундія

  Simple Past
Active informing having informed
Passive being informed having been informed

 

He likes being invited by his friends. – Він любить, коли його запрошують друзі.

У деяких випадках замість пасивного стану використовується активний:

The book is worth reading. – Книгу варто прочитати.

 

Декілька прикладів використання герундія в технічних текстах:

 

Recognizing plaintext may or may not be easy. – Розпізнавання нешифрованих текстів може бути як простим, так і складним.

We start out by enciphering the data in the first block. – Ми починаємо, шифруючи дані в першому блоці.

The advantage is the ability to cipher individual characters, instead of requiringaccumulation into a block before processing. – Перевагою цього є можливість шифрування окремих символів замість того, щоб вимагати їх накопичення у вигляді блоку перед обробленням.

Conception can be proven by disclosure to others, preferably in documents, which can be signed and dated after being read and understood. – Концепція може бути підтверджена шляхом публікації, переважно в документах, які можуть бути підписані і датовані після того, як їх прочитають і зрозуміють.

Поряд з позитивною, існує також заперечна форма герундія, яка утворюється за допомогою частки not:

We discussed about not going to the conference.

Exercise 1. Translate the sentences explaining the functions of the Gerund.

1) In this case the ciphertext needs deciphering before transmittance to the customer.

2) Another problem, however, is how to prevent the radio-wave emissions from computers and printers from being picked up by electronic listening equipment.

3) Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is responsible for making sure the entire message is received in the correct format.

4) Unlike Babbage’s idea of using perforated cards to instruct the machine, Hollerith’s method used cards to store data information.

5) On finding that the engine is working in irregular rate the pilot must take steps for emergency landing.

6) You will never speak good English without learning grammar.

Exercise 2. Translate the sentences.

1) Flares have the advantage of being under control of the pilot all the tame.

2) Combinatorics is often related to counting the subsets of finite sets.

3) For the Comet 4.3.5 kVA variable-frequency supply is available from the alternator output for demisting and deicing the wind screens, in addition to the 350-amp D. C. supply.

4) Be careful in performing the instruction.

5) Customers insisted on the software being supplied with adequate support.

6) Before leaving the firewall messages can be transformed into compressed representation.

7) This offer is made subject to receiving your confirmation within ten days.

Комунікативна практика



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