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# Висловлення думок. Пояснення причин

Listen to the conversation, then use it as a model to make up you own dialogue.

A: Hello, how are you?

B: Great! And how are you?

A: OK. We called you yesterday after classes, but no one answered.

B: I was probably cleaning my room when you called. You know my vacuum cleaner is so noisy!

A: Why didn’t you attend our last party?

B: I was so busy with my classes. I have such a huge test next Friday.

A: Well, speaking of classes, what do you think about our new teacher, what’s she like?

B: My friend knows her, because the teacher used to work in his school. She is very smart, but could be very demanding at times.

A: I think it could be only plus for us, because will make us work harder.

B: It’s the thought that counts.

Вправи для самостійної роботи

Exercise 1. Translate the text from pages 79-80 into Ukrainian (Russian).

Exercise 2. Find out in the text sentences with Passive Voice. Change them into Active Voice changing meaning.

Exercise 3. Change Active to Passive whenever it possible.

1) They made this processor in South Korea.

2) Hackers stole confidential information from the database.

3) My plane arrives at 10:00.

4) When did Popov invent the radio?

5) Translator has transformed the program into machine codes.

6) Dinosaurs existed millions of years ago.

7) Prof. Nelson developed that theory.

Lesson 6

ВИВЧЕННЯ ТЕРМІНОЛОГІЇ ЗА ТЕМОЮ МОДУЛЯ

Make a draft of a simple electric circuit consisting of a source of voltage and a few of loads (appliances, instruments, etc.). Explain to your classmate how to calculate the properties of this circuit (resistance, current and power consumption).

Граматичні відомості

Пасивний стан: сполучення дієслова TO BE з діє ­ прикметником минулого часу

Сполучення різних часів дієслова to be з формою Past Participle смислового дієслова може виконувати різні функції і відповідно перекладатись українською мовою різними способами.

Якщо справа стосується дії, вищевказане сполучення є одним з форм пасивного стану, розглянутого під час попереднього уроку і, таким чином, відповідає простому присудку української мови:

Нові програми завантажуються в сервер нашим системним адміністратором.

Якщо не вказана особа, що виконує дію, то звичайно мається на увазі лише стан на теперішній час:

Нові програми завантажені.

У випадку, коли мається на увазі, що стан на теперішній час є наслідком попередньої дії, в англійській мові часто використовується форма Present Perfect Passive:

При цьому переклад українською мовою лишається незмінним (як у попередньому випадку).

Таким чином, речення, в яких згадується тільки стан об’єкту на теперішній час перекладаються з української англійською мовою двома способами:

 Лист написаний. The letter is written. The letter has been written.

 Робота зроблена. The work is done. The work has been done.

Якщо чітко вказано про дію, яка відбувалась, про те хто цю дію виконував, використовуємо тільки Present Perfect Passive:

Лист написаний мною. The letter has been written by me.

Робота зроблена Петром. The work has been done by Peter.

Речення зі сполученням to be + Past Participle перекладаються іншим чином:

The letter is written by me. Лист пишеться мною. (Я пишу листа.)

The work is done by Peter. Робота робиться Петром. (Петро ро-

бить цю роботу.)

Якщо у сполученні to be + Past Participle використовуються форми дієслова to be минулого та майбутнього часу, тобто was/were та will be, це відповідає українським був/були та буде:

 The work was done when I came. The work had been done when I came. Коли я прийшов, робота була зроблена. The letter will be written when he comes.[‡] The letter will have been written when he comes. Коли він прийде, лист буде написаний.

Аналогічно вищесказаному:

The work was done by me yesterday. – Вчора я виконував цю роботу.

The work had been done by me yesterday. – Вчора робота вже була зроблена мною.

The letter will be written by me tomorrow. – Завтра я буду писати цього листа.

The letter will have been written by me tomorrow. – Я напишу цього листа завтра.

Інколи, зазвичай у розмовній мові, у сполученнях, що показують стан особи, чи предмета замість to be + Past Participle використовується сполучення get + Past Participle:

I got tired. = I am tired.

Nobody got hurt. = Nobody was hurt.

Did he get invited? = Was he invited?

Для проміжного (перехідного) стану інколи вживається get у формі Continuous:

I’m getting tired, I need a rest.

Exercise 1. Fill in each blank with suitable form of the verb from brackets. Discuss with your teacher when it is possible to use “get” instead of “be”.

1) My computer doesn’t work. It __________. (break)

2) Peter is looking for a new job. He __________ with his present salary. (satisfy)

3) Excuse me madam, it seems I _____________. I was wondering if you could tell me how can I get a bus to the station. (loose)

4) _______ you _____________ with Prof. Green? Have you ever met him? (acquaint)

5) Table salt ___________ of sodium and chlorine. (make)

6) Poor cat. It _____________ and killed by a car. (run over)

7) He _____________ in Kyiv. (bear)

8) There was an earthquake, but fortunately nobody _________. (hurt)

Exercise 2. Read the text and find different forms of Passive Voice. Explain their usage and meaning.

A Daniell cell consists of metallic zinc immersed in a solution of zinc sulfate and metallic copper immersed in a solution of copper sulfate, the zinc being charged negatively and the copper positively. On joining the two metals, or poles, of this cell by a wire, the temperature of the wire rises. If the wire is cut and its ends then are attached to the two small squares of platinum foil which are then immersed in a solution of copper sulfate, red metallic copper is deposited on one of the pieces of foil. These phenomena indicate that something takes place in the wire joining the poles of Daniell cell – a current of electricity is said to flow through the wire. Since a magnetic needle placed above the wire that is being connected to the poles of Daniell cell is always deflected in the same direction, and since copper is always deposited on the piece of platinum foil being connected to the zinc pole, we may infer that the current flows in a definite direction. The direction of the current has been arbitrarily defined as the direction in which the positive current would have to flow in order to produce observed magnetic effects. It has been found that the weight of copper deposited upon the platinum foil in a given time is less, when the length of the wire joining the poles of the Daniel cell is increased. It would appear, therefore, that the resistance to the flow of the electric current through the wire is augmented by increasing its length.

When two Daniell cells are connected in series by joining the zinc pole of one to the copper pole of the other, then, on attaching a piece of platinum foil to the other pole of each cell and immersing them in a solution of copper sulfate, it is found that the weight of copper deposited on the foil, in a given time, is twice as great as when only one cell is employed, i.e. a greater current of electricity flows through the wire. In some way this combination of the two cells increases the electrical pressure of force – electromotive force (E) – which drives the electric current through the circuit. The current strength varies directly as this electrical pressure of electromotive force.

Exercise 3. Use either active or passive, in any appropriate tense, for the verb in parentheses. If you use passive you have to add auxiliary into write place.

Read-only Memory (ROM), also known as firmware, is an integrated circuit programmed with specific data when it (manufacture). ROM chips (use) not only in computers, but in most other electronic items as well. Data stored in these chips is nonvolatile – it not (lose) when power (remove).

Carl Gauss (recognize) as a mathematical genius when he was ten. One day a teacher gave him an arithmetic problem. Carl (ask) to add up all the numbers from 1 to 100 (1 + 2 + 3, etc.). It (take) him a few seconds to solve the problem. How was he able to do it so quickly? He (know) that each pair of numbers with the equal distance from the beginning or from the end of sequence (1 + 100, 2 + 99, 3 + 98…) equaled 101. So he (multiply) 50x101 and (come) up with the result: 5,050.

Комунікативна практика

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