INDUSTRY AND AGRICULTURE OF THE UK



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INDUSTRY AND AGRICULTURE OF THE UK



In the past English industrial prosperity rested on a few important products, such as textiles, coal and heavy machinery. Now the UK has a great variety of industries, for example heavy and light industry, chemical, aircraft, electrical, automobile and many other industries. The United Kingdom is considered one of the world’s major manufacturing nations. Now high technology industries are more developed than heavy engineering. Heavy engineering and other traditional industries have experienced a certain decline.

Certain areas are traditionally noted for various types of industries. For instance, Newcastle is famous for coal industry, the county of Lancashire for its textile industry. The Midlands, or the central counties of England, are famous for the production of machinery, coal, motor cars and chemicals. In recent times regional industrial distinctions have become less clear as more and more new factories are built in the different parts of the country.

Speaking about the cities of the United Kingdom the first mention should be made of London, the capital of the UK. It is a big port on the River Thames, a major commercial, industrial centre.

Leeds is a centre of clothing industry producing woolen articles. Glasgow is a major port on the River Clyde where shipbuilding industry is developed. Liverpool on the River Mersey is a flour milling and engineering centre. Birmingham is an iron and steel centre. Manchester is famous for textile manufacturing.

Three-quarters of the United Kingdom’s land is dedicated to agriculture. About two per cent of the population of the United Kingdom are engaged in agriculture, but the yields of English farms and pastures are very high. Wheat, barley, oats and potatoes are the most important crops grown. Sheep, cattle and pigs are the most numerous types of livestock.

Sheep is a source of both wool for textile industry and mutton for food industry. Mutton is the best liked English meat.

 

1.2. Для перевірки правильності розуміння прочитаного тексту виконайте наступні ситуаційні вправи:

Ситуація 1. Доповніть повідомлення про економіку Великої Британії наступними словами:

Food, meat, textile, yields, crops, types of livestock, source, dedicated, engaged

Three quarters of United Kingdom’s land is ………… to agriculture. About two per cent of the population are ……….in agriculture, but the ……… of English farms are very high. Wheat, barley, oats and potatoes are the most important ………. grown. Sheep, cattle and pigs are the most numerous ……….. . Sheep is a …….. of both wool for …….. and mutton for ……. industry. Mutton is the best liked English ……….. .

Ситуація 2. Людина, яка промовляє наступні фрази, часом, не могла згадати деякі англійські сова. Допоможіть їй/йому знайти їх:

In the past English industrial (багатство)……………… rested on a few important products, such as textiles, coal and heavy machinery. Now high (технологічні)……………. industries are more developed than heavy engineering. Heavy engineering and other traditional industries have (переживали)………….. a certain decline. The Midlands, or the central (графства)……………. of England, are famous for the production of (машинобудування).......…, coal, motor cars and (хімікатів)…………….. .

London, the capital of the UK, is a big (порт) …………… on the River Thames, a major (комерційний)…........., (промисловий)………………… centre. Leeds is a centre of (тканинної)……. industry producing woolen (вироби)……….. .

Liverpool on the River Mersey is a (мукомельний)…………. …………. and (машинобудівний)……… centre. Birmingham is an (заліза)……….. and (сталі)………….. centre. Manchester is famous for (текстильною)………… manufacturing.

2.1. Прочитайте (швидко) текст 2, намагаючись зрозуміти його якомога точніше та повніше.

TEXT 2

ECONOMY OF THE USA

The United States of America is a highly developed industrialized country. Shipbuilding, electronics, automobile industry, aircraft industry, space research are highly developed in the States.

Each region of the United States has characteristics of its own due to the differences in climate, landscape and geographical position.

Great Lakes, Atlantic Coast, Pennsylvania, New Jersey are biggest industrial regions of the country.

The United States has a lot of mineral deposits or resources such as coal, gold, silver, copper, lead and zink. The south, especially Texas is rich in oil. The coalfields of Pennsylvania are rich in coal. There are plenty of coal mines.

Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska is the richest farming region of America and it is known as the Corn Belt. The land is fertile and well watered. They grow mostly corn and wheat there. Much livestock is also raised here.

There is a lot of fruit raising area. For example, California oranges, grapefruit, lemons, as well as other fruits, wines and vegetables are shipped all over the States and to other parts of the world. The most important crops grown in the States are also tobacco, soy-beans, peanuts, grapes and many others.

 

2.2. Для перевірки правильності розуміння прочитаного тексту виконайте наступні ситуаційні вправи:


 

 

Ситуація 3. Така лекція була прочитана українцям, а яка англійцям?

Завдяки відмінностям у кліматі, природі і географічному положенні, кожен регіон США має свої специфічні риси. Землі тут родючі і добре зрошувані. Вирощують в основному кукурудзу і пшеницю. Також розводять багато худоби. Великі площі зайняті фруктовими садами. Фрукти та овочі Каліфорнії вивозяться в інші штати та країни.

Ситуація 4. Людина, яка повідомляє наступну інформацію, часом, не може згадати деякі англійські слова. Допоможіть їй/йому знайти їх:

The United States of America is a highly developed (промислова) ………….country. Shipbuilding, electronics, automobile industry, aircraft industry, space research are highly (розвинуті)…………. in the States. The Great Lakes, the Atlantic coast, Pennsylvania, New Jersey are (найбільші промислові) …………regions of the country. The (вугільні поля)………… of Pennsylvania are rich in coal. There are plenty of (вугільних)…………. mines there. Illinois, Iowa, and Nebraska make up richest (сільськогосподарський)…………. region of America. The most important (культури) …………..grown in the States are tobacco, soy-beans, peanuts, grapes.

 

3.1. Прочитайте текст 3, намагаючись зрозуміти його якомога точніше та повніше.

 

TEXT 3

ENGLISH BANKNOTES AND COINS

The official currency of the United Kingdom is the pound sterling which is equal to one hundred pence.

English banknotes are issued by the Bank of England. As to coins they are minted also by this state bank.

There are banknotes of the following denominations: £1, £5, £10, £20, £50, £100. The following coins are in circulation: halfpenny, one penny, two pence, five pence, ten pence, fifty pence.

On the face of English banknotes one can read the denomination given both in figures and in words.

Then the inscription on the face of the banknote reads: I promise to pay the bearer on demand the sum of… And then there are two signatures. The first signature is that of the person authorized by the Government and the Bank of England. The second signature is that of the Chief Cashier.

The backs of English banknotes, like many other banknotes, feature portraits of different famous people.

· The one pound banknote, for example, features Isaac Newton (1642-1727) a well-known English scientist who made a few very important discoveries including gravitation law.

· The back of the five pound note portrays the Duke of Wellington (1769-1852), a famous Irish general who defeated Napoleon at Waterloo, Belgium in 1815.

· On the back of the ten pound note one can see Florence Nightingale (1820-1910), founder of the nursing profession. She volunteered as a nurse to Turkey to take care of the wounded soldiers from Crimean War, war of England and France versus Russia.

· And the back of the twenty pound banknote features William Shakespeare (1564-1616), the greatest playwright of all time.

 

3.2. Для перевірки правильності розуміння прочитаного тексту виконайте наступні ситуаційні вправи:

Ситуація 5. Доповніть повідомлення про британську фінансову реальність наступними словами:



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