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The British Steel Industry Today
Most of the early developments in iron and steel production originated in Britain, the world’s eighth largest steel-production nation in 1979. The Iron and Steel Act 1967 brought together into public ownership 14 major companies and created the British Steel Corporation (BSC). In recent years BSC has produced about 82 per cent of Britain’s crude steel and is the largest steel undertaking in Western Europe. As a result of the widespread industrial recession, employment in the steel industry has been declining, both in Britain and in other countries.
The remaining (private sector) companies are represented by the British Independent Steel Producers’ Association whose members employ some 60,000 people and account for over a third of the value of the industry’s turnover. The private sector is particularly strong in the manufacture of alloy and stainless steels and of finished products for the engineering industry. The main steel producing areas are Yorkshire and Humberside (32 per cent of crude steel output in 1979), Wales (32 per cent), the Northern region (15 per cent), Scotland (8 per cent) and the West Midlands (5 per cent).
About 75 per cent of British steel producers’ deliveries of finished steel products are used by home industry and the remainder for direct export, the major markets for which are the rest of the European Community and the United States. A large part of the steel used by industry in Britain is also subsequently exported as part of other finished products.
The castings industry plays an important role in meeting the needs of manufacturers for essential components for products sold both in Britain and abroad. Its main customers are the vehicle, mechanical engineering, building and construction industries. The British Cast Iron Research Association, the Steel Casting Research and Trade Association conduct much of the research and development in the industry.
Britain’s non-ferrous metal processing and fabricating industry is one of the largest in Europe. Its major products are aluminium (both virgin and secondary metal), secondary and refined copper, lead and primary zinc. Tin mining in Cornwall supplies about 25 per cent of Britain’s tin requirements but otherwise British metal smelting and refining industries are based on imported ores. Britain is also a major producer of the newer specialised metals including uranium, zirconium and beryllium for the nuclear energy industry, niobium for aircraft production and selenium, silicon, germanium and tantalum for electronic apparatus. Titanium and titanium alloys are also produced and used in aircraft production, power generation and North Sea oil production, where their lightness, resistance to stress, flexibility and resistance to oxidisation are especially valued. Nearly half the industry is situated in the Midlands. Other centres include south Wales, London, Tyneside and Avonmouth, where a zinc smelter of some 100,000 tonnes capacity operates. Three large-scale aluminium smelters provide 85 per cent of Britain’s requirements for primary aluminium. The large non-ferrous metals fabricating industry uses large quantities of imported refined metals such as copper, lead, zinc and aluminium. A wide range of semi-manufactures is produced in these metals and their alloys, and, particularly in aluminium, firms are engaged in smelting, casting and fabrication by rolling, extrusion and drawing; advanced techniques of powder metallurgy and pressure die-casting are also employed. In recent years considerable progress has been made in the development of ‘superplastic’ alloys, which are more ductile and elastic than conventional alloys.
Scientific and technological research for the industry is conducted by the Warren Spring Laboratory of the Department of Industry and by the British Non-Ferrous (BNF) Metals Technology Centre.
Practise after the speaker and learn to pronounce the words given below :
originated /'‘rijineitid/; per cent / p' ‘sent/; crude /kru:d/; brought /bro:t/; major /’meij'/; recession /ri’seò n/; product /’prod' kt/; produce /pr' ‘dju:s/; production
/pr'‘d/\k òn/; subsequently /’s/\bsikw'ntli/; manufacturer / m'nju ‘fжktò'r'/; component /k'm’poun'nt/; vehicle /’vi: ikl/; aluminium /'lju’minj'm/; uranium /ju'‘reinj'm/; zirconium /z':’kounj'm/; berillium /b':’rilj'm/; niobium /nai'‘bj'm/; silicon /’silik'n/; germanium /j':’meini' m/.
Exercise 1. Find the English equivalents for the words and word- combinations
given below. Use them in the sentences of your own.
необработанная сталь; объединить; предприятие; спад производства; частный сектор; занятость (рабочей силы); выпуск стали; конечный продукт; машиностроение; литейное производство; производитель; очищенная медь; добыча олова; самолетостроение; ударостойкость; мощностью в 100 тонн; прокатка; горячая штамповка; прогрессивные технологии; порошковая металлургия; оборот.
Exercise 2.Match the English words and word-combinations
given below with their Russian equivalents.
1. to be represented 1. обрабатывающая промышленность
2. alloy 2. сплав
3. stainless steel 3. обычные (традиционные) сплавы
4.deliveries of finished steel products 4. устойчивость к окислению
5.to play an important role/part in 5.сталеплавильная промышленность
6. to meet the needs of manufac- 6. необработанный металл
7. essential components 7. полуфабрикат
8. virgin metal 8. поставки конечных продуктов
9. secondary metal 9. вторичный (обработанный) металл
10. resistance to oxidation 10. основные компоненты
11. smelting industry 11. играть важную роль
12. refining industry 12. сверхэластичные сплавы
13. processing industry 13. удовлетворять потребности
14. superelastic alloys 14. быть представленным
15. conventional alloys 15. аффинажная промышленность
16. semi-manufacture 16. нержавеющая сталь
Exercise 3.Answer the following questions.
1. What was the purpose of the Iron and Steel Act? 2. What organization represents the private sector in British metallurgy? 3. Where are the finished products of steel industry used? 4. Why is the castings industry so important? 5. Does non-ferrous metal processing play an important part in British metallurgy?
Exercise 4. Agree or disagree with the following statements.
1. The private sector of British metallurgy is not particularly strong.
2. Britain uses all its steel producers deliveries of finished steel products only for the needs of home industry.
3. The castings industry is underdeveloped in Great Britain.
4. Britain’s non-ferrous metal processing and fabricating industry is one of the largest in Europe.
5. Nearly half of the industry is situated in the Midlands.
6. Britain does not produce the newer specialised metals (uranium, beryllium, etc.)
Exercise 5.Circle the letter of the answer that best matches the
meaning of the underlined word.
1. The Iron and Steel Act 1967 brought together into public ownership 14 major steel companies.
a) united b) desintegrated
2. The major steel producing areas in England are Yorkshire and Humberside.
a) minor b) main
3. This institute conducts much of the research in the industry.
a) fulfils b) carries out
4. All these qualities are highly valued.
a) appreciated b) demanded
5. About 75 per cent of steel products are used by home industry.
a) domestic b) foreign
6. The private sector is very strong in the manufacture of stainless steel.
a) processing b) production
7. Advanced techniques are highly employed in modern industry.
a) used b) applied
8. I think this is the most advancedmethod in language-learning.
a) modern b) progressive
Exercise 6.Give a written translation of the following passage.
The output of non-ferrous metals and their alloys in 1993 included primary and secondary (recycled) aluminium and copper, as well as aluminium and copper and copper alloy semi-manufactures. The production of metal relies mainly on imported ores and recycled material of both domestic and overseas origin.
Britain is a major producer of specialised alloys for high-technology requirements in the aerospace, electronic, petrochemical, nuclear and other fuel industries. Aluminium, lithium, developed by British Alcan Aluminium, is ideal for use in aircraft, being lighter, stronger and more rigid than normal aluminium.
There is also an important sector producing copper and copper alloy semi-manufactures for use in a wide variety of products like electric wire and cable; tube and fittings for plumping and valves; components for the engineering and transport industries.
Exercise 7.Phrasal verb GIVE
Match each of the collocations with the right description
1. give in 1. become exhausted, collapse
2. give out 2. submit, surrender
3. give up 3. pass
4. give-and-take 4. cease from trying
5. give over 5. to receive smb coldly
6. give away 6. to exchange on equal or fair terms
7. to give smb a hand 7. to say ‘good morning’,’good afternoon’
8. to give smb the cold shoulder 8. present; miss an opportunity
9. to give on the nail 9. to pay at once
10.to give the time of the day 10. to help smb
Exercise 8.Paraphrase the underlined collocations with the verb ‘give’
by those given at the end.
1. The ice gave way and we nearly went through the water.
2. ‘Can you give me a lift to Picadilly Circus?’ I asked.
3. We must give ground, the enemy is too close to us.
4. He has given himself up to music.
5. At last she decided to give her hand to Oliver.
6. Don’t give way to despair.
7. How much did you give for that coat?
8. Please, give me back the book you borrowed from me.
return; drive; break; devote; marry; pay; retreat; be overcome by.
Focus on Grammar
Modal Verbs Expressing Ability and Permission
Present can can not can he
is able to is not able to is he able to
may may not may he
is allowed is not allowed is he allowed
is permitted is not permitted is he permitted
Past could could not could he
was able to was not able to was he able to
was allowed was not allowed was he allowed
was permitted was not permitted was he permitted
Future he will be able to will not be able to will he be able to
he will be allowed will not be allowed will he be allowed
he will be permitted will not be permitted will he be permitted
Exercise 1.Fill in the blanks with an appropriate modal verb. Give more than one variant if possible.
1. I . . . him to use my notes to prepare for the seminar. 2. . . . the students choose what they wanted to study? 3. You . . . keep the book for a month. After that you . . . return it to the library. 4. . . . you type? I . . . type, but I know a very good typist who will do this work for us. 5. . . . you lend me 5 quid. I’ll pay you back tomorrow morning. 6. Since the accident I . . . to drive a car. 7. He read the letter but he . . . to understand it. 8. . . . I leave my bag with you? No, you . . .. I am leaving now. 9. I had the right visa so they . . . me to cross the border. 10. Who . . . answer my questions? 11. Do not leave for tomorrow what you . . . do today. 12. King Philip of France was not a good fighter and he . . . take part in the Crusades. 13. In Trafalgar Square you . . . see two beautiful fountains. 14. With the help of this guide book you . . . to see the most important London sights. 15. Taking a trip down the River Thames to the Tower of London you . . . get a glimpse of six London bridges. 16. . . . you tell us about your trip to London?
Exercise 2.You are a guest at your friend’s home. What do you say in these situations:
1. You want another cup of tea.
2. You want to phone home.
3. You want to smoke.
4. You want to take a bath.
5. You want to borrow a towel.
6. You want an evening newspaper.
7. You want to watch TV.
8. You want your friend to wake you up next morning.
Pre - reading Task
Scan the following passage in three minutes and find information
about the following:
a) the aim of Imperial College;
b) the structure of Imperial College;
c) the fields of work;
d) research programmes of Department of Materials;
e) links with the humanities.
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