Структурные особенности сложноподчиненных предложений, союзы и союзные слова, способы их перевода

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Структурные особенности сложноподчиненных предложений, союзы и союзные слова, способы их перевода

(А, В, С) Упражнение 1. Проанализируйте следующие сложноподчиненные предложения.

1) Найдите главное предложение (его подлежащее и сказуемое);

2) Найдите придаточное предложение (его подлежащее и сказуемое);

3) Найдите союз, который связывает главное и придаточное предложение;

Переведите предложение на русский язык.

1) He told them what he had seen there.

2) I saw him when I was on the farm.

3) The fertilizers which were applied had all the necessary elements in them.

4) He said that he had already visited the farm.

5) This motor works better because it is new.


(А) Упражнение 2. Соедините главное и придаточное предложения при помощи подходящего союза или союзного слова. Переведите их на русский язык.

1) Everybody knows (who, that, because) agriculture is connected to human life.

2) We know (that, which, where) the sun is our most important source of energy.

3) The greatest problem in dry regions is (when, where, who) one can get water.

4) Many things (that, because, while) we use in the everyday life are made from plants.

5) I know the engineer (which, where, who) is standing at the door.


(А) Упражнение 3. Какой союз следует употребить при переводе данных предложений.

1) Мы еще не решили, будем ли мы вносить удобрения завтра. (that, when, how, if, why)

2) Я не был уверен, имеется ли этот справочник в библиотеке. (how, if, what, when, that)

3) Все знают, что химия тесно связана с прогрессом. (that, if, when, how, what)

4) Интересно знать, чье открытие мы обсуждали на последней конференции. (why, whose, when, that, who)

5) Студенты имеют возможность работать в современных лабораториях, где они могут проводить различные эксперименты. (where, when, who, what, why)

(А, В) Упражнение 4. Определите, какие предложения являются простыми, а какие сложными. Переведите сложные предложения на русский язык.


1) He shows me the results of his work.

2) He shows me what results he has obtained.

3) On receiving his diploma the engineer doesn’t finish his education.

4) When an engineer receives his diploma, he does not finish his education.

5) The students know how to conduct this experiment.

6) The students know how they have to conduct this experiment.


(В) Упражнение 5. Переведите следующие предложения в соответствии с типом придаточного предложения и способом его перевода.

1) придаточное дополнения:

a) All students know that they must study hard.

b)As a rule a mechanic tells you what is wrong with your car.

2) придаточное обстоятельства:

a) After the engineer receives his diploma he does not finish his education

b) The engineers of the Research Institute test all the parts of the machines before any device is put into mass production.

3) придаточное подлежащего:

a) What the head engineer said is very important.

b) When he will come is not known.

4) придаточное сказуемого:

a) The fact is that they are very good engineers.

b) The achievements of science that are applied increase the productivity in all branches.

5)придаточное определения:

a) The KAMAZ incorporates 6 enterprises, which are well-known all over the world.

b) There are numerous ways in which industry and education can cooperate.


(В) Упражнение 6. Дополните высказывание, добавив предложение и присоединив его при помощи союза.

Модель: Force is an effort. It results in physical change. - Force is an effort that results in physical change.

1) This material is very important. It is widely used in machine-building.

2) The changes in the material technology are not only quantitative but also qualitative. These changes are taking place at present.

3) I will describe a new method. It was primarily used not long ago.

4) Our industry needs high-strength materials. They will find a wide variety of applications.

5) It is a device. It transmits motion into work.


(В, С) Упражнение 7. Преобразуйте бессоюзные предложения в сложноподчиненные предложения. Переведите полученные предложения на русский язык.

1) The district you will go to is in Russia.

2) The irrigation work the farmer had to do will help him grow vegetables.

3) The laboratory you wanted to see is in our university.

4) The machines the farm got last year can be used both for harvesting and cultivating.

5) The man you wanted to see is in the hall.


(А, В, С) Упражнение 8. Переведите предложения с союзами и союзными словами на русский язык. Пользуйтесь таблицей перевода союзов и союзных слов.

1) While the farmer was sowing, the engineer phoned to the manager to speak about the delivery.

2) While trying to repair the car, I cut my hand.

3) Unless changed, this law will make life difficult for farmers.

4) Whether we can really help the farmers I do not know yet.

5) Wherever he turned he saw corn and wheat fields.



Темы УСРС: Agriculture, Engineering Specialties, Educating Tomorrow’s Engineers, Mechanical Engineer’s Activities.


Методические рекомендации

Студентам необходимо перевести предложенный текст на русский язык (устно или письменно) и выполнить задания, предлагаемые к тексту. Уровень А, В, С определяется степенью сложности текстов и заданий к ним.

Образцы УСРС

Уровень A

Упражнение 1. Прочтите текст и выполните упражнения к нему.

The Ford Company

1. The Ford Company is known to be a technologically advanced manufacturer of vehicles. For many years the Ford Company has been deeply involved in the manufacture of tractors, cars, and trucks. Ford tractors enable farmers to work quickly and efficiently.

2. The cab is a comfortable and efficient workplace. Modern acoustic systems have greatly reduced the noise levels inside the cab. Transmission controls have been mounted on the flat floor. Individual adjustable halogen work lights have been installed into the cab roof.

3. The driver’s seat has been equipped with the pneumatic suspension and it turns easily and gives the driver a more comfortable view. Air filtration, efficient heating and ventilation with air-conditioning further enhance comfort and the driver’s efficiency. These tractors have also been equipped with climate control filters and anti-burst door locks.

4. Ford tractors have been trusted by generations of farmers due to their high quality.

Упражнение 2. Ответьте на следующие вопросы.

1) What is the Ford Company known to produce?

2) What is the driver’s seat equipped with?

3) Why is the cab considered to be a comfortable workplace?

Упражнение 3. Выберите предложения, соответствующие содержанию текста.

1) The Ford Company produces not only cars but tractors and lorries.

2) Modern transmission controls have reduced the noise levels.

3) The driver’s seat turns easily due to the pneumatic suspension.

4) Ford cars help farmers work quickly and efficiently.

5) These tractors have also been equipped with work lights.


Упражнение 4. Переведите абзацы 2 и 3. Используйте словарь.

Уровень B

Упражнение 1. Прочтите текст и выполните упражнения к нему.


1. An engine produces power by burning air and fuel. The fuel is stored in a fuel tank. The fuel tank is connected to a fuel pipe. The fuel pipe carries the fuel to a fuel pump. The fuel pump is connected to the carburetor. The fuel pump pumps the fuel into the carburetor. In the carburetor the fuel is mixed with air. The fuel and air are drawn into the engine cylinder by the piston. Then the fuel and air are compressed by the piston and ignited by the spark plug. They burn and expand very quickly and push the piston down. Thus the power is produced. The burned fuel and air are expelled from the cylinder by the piston.

2. The flow of gases into and out of the cylinder is controlled by two valves. There is an inlet valve allowing fresh fuel mixture into the cylinder and an exhaust valve, which allows the burnt gases to escape. There are two basic engine operating cycles: the four-stroke cycle and the two –stroke cycle.


Упражнение 2. Ответьте на следующие вопросы.

1) Where do you know the power to be produced?

2) What is the fuel tank?

3) What unit is proved to be connected to the carburetor and what is its function?

4) Where is the fuel mixed with air?

5) What is the function of the piston?

6) What part of the engine is considered to control allowing fresh fuel mixture into the cylinder and escaping the burnt gases out of it?


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