TEXT            Why do we learn the English language?



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TEXT            Why do we learn the English language?



Оглавление

Предисловие. 4

Введение. 5

UNIT ONE.. 6

LESSON 1. 6

TEXT  Why do we learn the English language?. 6

LESSON 2. 11

TEXT   Russia. 11

LESSON 3. 16

TEXT   Moscow.. 16

LESSON 4. 20

TEXT  Volgograd. 20

LESSON 5. 23

TEXT  Me and the world I live in. 23

LESSON 6. 27

TEXT  The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northen Ireland. 27

LESSON 7. 31

TEXT London. 31

LESSON 8. 35

TEXT  The United States of America. 35

LESSON 9. 38

TEXT  Washington. 38

LESSON 10. 42

TEXT  The Environment 42

UNIT TWO Texts for Additional Reading. 46

UNIT THREE CRAMMAR EXERCISES. 61

UNITE FOUR REFERENCE GRAMMAR.. 96

Приложение. 143

Заключение. 146

Библиографический список. 147

 

 


Предисловие

Данное пособие предназначено для студентов I курса.

Целью данного учебно-практического пособия является формирование и дальнейшее совершенствование у студентов средних специальных учебных заведений навыков устной речи, овладение разговорной речью по общественно-политическим, историческим, культурным и бытовым темам, овладение навыками диалогической и монологической речи.

Одним из основных достоинств является тот факт, что весь материал, предлагаемый в пособии, является познавательным, информационно насыщенным, интересен разнообразными лексическими и грамматическими упражнениями и посильный для усвоения.

Здесь представлены наиболее употребительные разговорные фразы и клише, пословицы и цитаты, образцы тематических диалогов и т.д. Все это обеспечивает высокую степень усвоения и активизации учебного материала и создает прочную базу для дальнейшего изучения иностранного языка.

                                                                   


Введение

Данное учебно-практическое пособие состоит из 4 разделов и приложения:

Раздел 1 – Тематические тексты,

Раздел 2 – Тексты для дополнительного чтения,

Раздел 3 – Грамматические упражнения,

Раздел 4 – Грамматический справочник.

Раздел «Тематические тексты» содержат и тексты, и серию упражнений, которые очень содержательны, познавательны и полезны при изучении тем. Тексты включают материалы по истории, о государственном устройстве, особенностях географического положения и экономического развития, культуре и искусстве. Тексты носят учебный характер и соответствуют программным требованиям.

Разнообразные задания и упражнения к текстам помогут студентам активизировать навыки аудирования, чтения, проговаривания и систематизирования учебног материала.

Раздел «Тексты для дополнительного чтения» включают тексты страноведческого характера, дополняющие основные тематические тексты и расширяющие кругозор студентов о традициях, обычаях англо-говорящих стран. Дополнительные тексты информационно насыщены и богаты по лексическому материалу. Данный раздел носит не обязательный, а рекомендательный характер.

В раздел «Грамматические упражнение» входят упражнения, в основном, по всем главным разделам грамматики английского языка, и они расположены по мере возрастания сложности. Поэтому они могут использоваться студентами с разным уровнем подготовки. Преподаватель вправе, по своему усмотрению, в зависимости от уровня знаний студентов, увеличить или сократить количество упражнений.

Раздел «Грамматический справочник» включает основной материал по грамматике английского языка.

Материалы пособия учитывают разную степень сложности подготовки студентов и включают разноуровневые задания.

Работа по данному пособию расширит кругозор студентов, поможет им сделать сообщения по определенной теме, а также окажет существенную помощь при общении с носителями английского языка.


UNIT ONE

LESSON 1

ASSIGNMENT

 

1. Phonetic difficulties. Practise the following:

1. What’s the first word?

2. It’s a verb.

3. And what’s the third?

4. It’s an adverb.

5. When’s Ernest’s birthday?

6. I believe it’s on Thursday.

 

2. Pronounce the following words and word combinations:

 

Foreign language, necessary, original, to be busy, develop, clothes, international friendship, to be able to, American, exhibition, different, each other, without, advertisements, easy, literature, knowledge, scientist, politician, traffic controller.

3. Give Russian equivalents to the following words:

 

To be busy, to be able to, it is necessary, the native language, the official language, the semiofficial language, businesspeople, to mean, nation, to try, without any help, widespread, standard.

 

4. Find in the text English equivalents to the following Russian words and word combinations:

Международный язык, разные страны, область, наука, международный лагерь дружбы, иностранная выставка, образование, компьютерные программы, Организация Объединенных Наций, какой – либо другой язык, как следует, средства массовой информации, политические организации.

 

5. Fill in the gaps with the word and expressions from the text:

1. Knowledge of…… ……. helps young people of different …….  to understand each other.

2. There are …. …… camps in the world.

3. If I know ….. well, I’ll be able to go to the library.

4. You can see a lot of ….. , signboards, names in the streets.

5. English is so ….. that it has become the …… language for all kinds of ……. communication.

6. The English language is the … ….  one of 12 nations.

7. I understand that I have to learn English in …….. way.

  

6. Answer the following questions:

 

1.  Is it necessary to learn English?

2.  What kind of foreign languages do you know?

3.  Is it difficult for you to learn foreign languages?

4.  Where do you learn foreign languages?

5.  Whom do you learn English with?

6.  Who teaches you English?

7.  Do you use your knowledge of foreign languages in your life?

8.  Where do you use your knowledge of foreign languages?

9.  Do you like to learn it?

10. Do you learn English at the college?        

11. How many foreign languages do you know?

12. In what areas is English mostly used nowadays?

 

Retell the text.

LESSON 2

 

TEXT                     Russia

ASSIGNMENT

 

Retell  the text.

LESSON 3.

 

TEXT                     Moscow

Rome wasn’t built in a day.

Не сразу Москва строилась .

Moscow is the capital of Russia, its political, economic, commercial and cultural centre. It was founded 8 centuries ago by Prince Yuri Dolgoruky. Historians have accepted the year of 1147 as the start of Moscow's history. Gradually the city became more and more powerful. In the 16th century under Ivan the Terrible Moscow became the capital of the new united state. Though Peter the Great moved the capital to St. Petersburg in 1712, Moscow remained the heart of Russia. That is why it became the main target of Napoleon's attack. Three-quarters of the city was destroyed by fire during Napoleon's occupation, but by the mid-19th century Moscow had been completely restored. After the October revolution Moscow became the capital again.

Now Moscow is one of the largest cities in Europe. Its total area is about nine hundred square kilometres. The population of the city is over 9.5 million.

Moscow is one of the most beautiful cities in the world. The heart of Moscow is Red Square. The Kremlin and St.Basil's Cathedral (Vasily Blazheny) are masterpieces of ancient Russian architecture. The main Kremlin tower, the Spasskaya Tower, has become the symbol of the country.

There are a lot of beautiful palaces, cathedrals, churches and monuments in Moscow. Now Moscow is being reconstructed and we all hope that in a few years the city will become even more beautiful.

There are more than 80 museums in Moscow. The largest museums are the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts and the State Tretyakov Gallery. We say the Tretyakov Gallery is a treasure-house of Russian art.

Several skyscrapers decorate Moscow, including Moscow University and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Moscow is famous for its theatres. The best-known of them is the Bolshoi Theatre. Drama theatres and studios are also very popular.

Moscow is a city of students. There are over 80 higher educational institutions in it, including several universities. One of the highest building in Moscow is the State Moscow University. It was founded in 1755 by the great scientist Mikhail Lomonosov.

There are a lot of big plants and factories in Moscow that produce cars, lorries, home electrical appliances and so on.

 A lot of tourists from different countries come to Moscow to see its beauty and to admire its cultural achievements.

 

Words and word combinations:

to move – переезжать, переселять;

to accept – допускать, признавать;

prince – князь;

target – цель, план;

to destroy – разрушать;

ancient – древний;

masterpiece – шедевр;

heart – сердце;

treasure-house – сокровищница;

to admire – восхищаться;

the Ministry of Foreign Affairs – Министерство иностранных дел;

skyscraper – небоскреб;

achievements – достижения;

to be famous for smth. – славиться чем-либо;

lorry – грузовик;

electrical appliances – электрические приборы.

 

ASSIGMENT

 

1. Pronounce the following words and word combinations:

 

Commercial, powerful, Ivan the Terrible, remained, masterpiece, cathedral, reconstruct, destroyed, ancient, population, economic, famous for, achievements, architecture.

 

2. Answer the following questions:

 

1. Moscow is the capital of Russia, isn’t it?

2. When was Moscow founded?

3. Who was founded Moscow?

4. What is Moscow famous for?

5. What is the heart of Moscow?

6. What are the places of interest in Moscow?

7. What are the world –famous theatres of Moscow?

8.  What are the most famous museums of Moscow?

9. Is Moscow an industrial center?

10.Do many guests and tourists visit our capital?

 

3. Complete the sentences:

 

1. Moscow is a capital of …….

2. Moscow is one of the largest ….

3. One of the highest building in Moscow is……

4. The population of Moscow is ……..

5.  There are a lot of beautiful places, ……., ……., ….. in Moscow.

6. Moscow was founded by……

7. There are a lot of big plants…..

8. A lot tourists from different countries…..

                                 

Retell the text.


LESSON 4.

 

TEXT                    Volgograd

 

Volgograd is a big city with the population of more than one million people. Magnificent, green and beautiful Volgograd stands on the Volga as a monument. Volgograd was founded in 1589 as a small fortress on the Russian river and quickly grew into a city with developed industry and culture. The city has changed its name three times: Tsaritsyn - Stalingrad - Volgograd.

In the years of the Great Patriotic War the battle of Stalingrad lasted for 200 days and nights. Stalingraders stood to the death, but defended the city.Our warriors gave the country more than 112 heroes: Putilov, Serdukov, Panikaha, etc. Glorious generals commanded and won the battle: Jhukov, Shumilov, Tchuikov, Rokossovsky and others. After the war the city was ruined. But its people restored it and it has become even more beautiful. Our legendary Hero-City stands as a memorial to the people who defended it during the war and to those, who repaired it after the war.

The symbol of the city is Mamayev Hill with its Hall of Glory, Statue of Motherland. You can hardly keep tears visiting this complex. Alleys of Heroes. Panorama - Museum, Pavlov House are also the places, which attract people.

I am proud that I live in Volgograd, the city which gave us such famous people as composers Pakhmutova, Panomarenko, poets M.Agashina, Lukonin, actors: Rybnikov, Lapikov, Smoktunovsky.

 Now my city is an industrial, cultural, education and sport center.We have got a lot of plants, factories, offices, business - centers here.

 It's a city of students. There are over ten higher education institutions, a lot of colleges, technical schools.

I love my city, its green squares, its Embankment, charming rest - centers.

 And I am happy that I study at the Economic-Technical College which is a leading college of the city. My college trains specialists practically for all the spheres of economic activities: management, marketing, programming, law, economics, finance, banking, insurance. Sure to say, these professions are in great demand. And we'll be useful as specialists. No doubt my city meets a lot of problems as well as any other industrial city.

Industrial progress brings about serious consequences. Today pollution has become a universal problem. It's a fact that the waters of the Volga are so much polluted that you can't drink it, bathe in it. Plant and factory wastes influence harmfully all the living beings, greenery, and fish. Thus, there is much to do to oppose the problems dealing with ecology.

The problem of corruption is another serious one.

The problem of crime and criminal, homelessness and orphanage are problems of our city too. I think, when we become specialists, we'll have to deal with these problems.

Words and word combinations:

magnificent – величавый;

fortress – крепость;

warrior – воин, боец;

economics – экономика (наука);

economy – экономика;

crime – преступление;

criminal – преступник;

economic activities – экономическая деятельность;

harmfully – вредный, вред;

law – юридическое дело, закон;

orphanage – сиротство;

to pollute –  загрязнять;

pollution – загрязнение;

insurance – страховое дело;

to be characteristic of – быть характерным для;

to be in great demand – быть очень востребованным;

to bring about – приносить, являться причиной;

to deal with – заниматься;

to influence – влиять;

to oppose – препятствовать, мешать.

ASSIGMENT

 

1. Read the following words and word combinations:

The Great Patriotic War, magnificent, legendary Hero-City, Hall of Glory, Statue of Motherland, Embankment, industrial , marketing, management, higher education institutions, famous, serious consequences, corruption, homelessness, pollution.

 

2. Find in the text English equivalents to the following Russian words and word combinations:

Был основан; стояли насмерть; величавый; такие известные актеры; высокоразвитая промышленность; едва сдерживать слезы; высшие учебные заведения; все сферы экономической деятельности; продолжалась 200 дней и ночей; готовит специалистов; проблема коррупции; промышленный прогресс.

 

9.

10. 3. Fill in the gaps:

1. Glorious generals …. and …. the battle.

2. …. ….. brings about serious consequences.

3. The symbol of the city is ….. ….. with its Hall of Glory.

4. After the war the city was …. .

5. I study at the college which is a …… …….. of the city.

6. The city has ….. its name three names.

7. My college ….. specialists practically for all the spheres of    …

8. Volgograd was ….. in 1589 as a small ….. on the Russian river.

 

Retell the text.


LESSON 5.

 

Retell the text.

 

LESSON 6.

ASSIGMENT

 

Retell the text.

LESSON 7.

TEXT                              London.

 London is the capital of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It is an ancient city. London was founded more than two thousand years go. Today it is one of the largest cities in the world. Julius Ceasar named it  Londinium. It became the state's capital in 1066.

London is situated in the South-Eastern part of Great Britain on the banks of the Thames river. Its population is over 9 million.

Traditionally it is divided into several parts: the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End. They differ much from each other.

The City is the oldest part of London, its financial and business centre. Numerous banks, offices and companies are concentrated here. Few people live here, but over a million come to work to the City.

Two famous buildings are situated within the City: St.Paul’s Cathedral and the Tower of London. Sir Christopher Wren built the Cathedral in the 17th century. The Tower was created in the 11th century and was used as a fortress, a palace and a prison. Now it is a museum.

Westm inster is the aristocratic official part of London. It includes Buckingham Palace where the Queen resides and the Houses of Parliament.

The Clock Tower of the Houses of the Parliament is famous for its big hour bell, known as "Big Ben".

Westminster Abbey is the church where nearly all British kings were crowned and buried after their death. Charles Dickens, Isaac Newton, Redyard Kipling, are buried here too.

Whitehall is the street of Britain's ministers. It runs between Parliament Square and Trafalgar Square. The British government itself is often called Whitehall because there are many government officies in this street.

The Prime Minister has his official residence there at number 10 Downing Street.

The West End is the place where rich and famous people live. It is the symbol of wealth and luxury. The best hotels, restaurants, shops, clubs, parks and houses are situated here. English aristocracy lives in this area.

One of the busiest streets in the West End is Oxford Street.

Trafalgar Square is the geographical centre of London. It was named in the memory of Admiral Nelson's victory at the battle of Trafalgar in 1805. The Nelson's column stands in the middle of the square.

The East End is the industrial district of the capital. There are many factories and plants here.

Words and word combinations:

 

ancient – древний, старинный;

to divide – делить, разделять;

financial – финансовый;

numerous – многочисленный;

prison – тюрьма;

to reside – проживать,жить, находиться;

to crown – короновать;

wealth – богатство;

luxury – роскошь;

aristocracy – аристократия;

to include – включать;

district – район, округ;

peninsula – полуостров.

 

ASSIGMENT:

1. Phonetic difficulties. Practise the following:

a) Which is this switch?

Which switch is which?

b) Does George enjoy teaching geography?

 Teaching geography is the joy of his life.

 

2. Find in the text the English equivalents to the following words and word combinations:

Расположен в юго-восточной части; несколько частей; финансовый и деловой центр; Собор св. Павла; официальная часть; промышленный район; после их смерти; богатство и роскошь в память о победе адмирала Нельсона; в середине площади; был основан; традиционно.

 

3. Fill in the gaps:

2. London is an …… city.

3. It is situated in the ……. part …. of …… .

4. Julius Ceasar …… London Londinium.

5. Traditionally London is ….. into ….. parts: the City, Westminster, the West-End and the East- End.

6. The ….. is the oldest part of London.

7. The Tower of London was …… in the eleventh century.

8.  The Prime Minister has his …… …… there at number 10 Downing Street.

9. English ….. lives in this area.

10.It was named in ……. of Admiral Nelson’s victory at the battle of …….. in 1805.

11.……. ……. is the church where nearly all British kings were crowned and …… after their death.

 

Retell the text.

 

LESSON 8.

ASSIGMENT

1. Phonetic difficulties. Practise the following:

 

  1. She sells sea shells on the sea shore.
  2. The shells that she sells are sea shore shells, I’m sure.

2. Give Russian equivalents to the following words:

 

Stars and stripes, occupies, the ceremony of hoisting the flag, subtropical climate, heavy snow, several, highly developed industrial country, oil-field, especially, ship-building, House of Representatives.

 

Ask questions of 4 types:

 

1. The USA lies in the central part of the North American continent.

2. The flag was adopted in 1777.

3. The greatest part has a continental climate.

4. There are two main political parties.

 

4. Answer the questions according to the text:

 

1. What is the official name of the country?

2. How many stripes and stars has the American flag got?

3. When was the flag adopted?

4. The USA occupies a small territory, doesn’t it?

5. Where is America situated? 

6. Where is the coldest climate in the USA?

7.  What are the main rivers in the country?

8. Is America rich in natural resources?

9. Who lives in the USA?

10.  Is the USA a federal republic or a constitutional monarchy?

11. Who is at the head of the state?

12.  What is the official residence of the president?

13.  What does Congress consist of?

14.  What are the main political parties in the USA?

 

Retell the text.

 


LESSON 9.

TEXT                        Washington

Washington is the capital of the United States of America. The city is on the left bank of the Potomac River. Washington, D.C. does not belong to a state. It’s a city and district – the District of Colambia (D.C.).The city was named after the first President George Washington. The population of the city is nearly three million people.

There are many libraries, museums, art galleries in the city, for example, you can see The National Gallery of Art, It was opened in 1941. It has a lot of art collec­tions by the great masters from the 14th to the 19th centuries. It is one of the finest picture galleries in America. The NASA ; Museum is devoted to the US achievements in the exploration of space.

The Capitol is the centre of the city. It was made of stone and marble and contains 540 rooms. It is situated on Capitol Hill. Capitol Hill is the highest place in the city. There is a law that forbids to build houses higher than the Capitol. The Capitol is the seat of Con­gress.

Congress consists of two Chambers: The Senate and the House of Representatives. From the Capitol to the White House runs Pennsylvania Avenue used for all processions and parades. The White House is the place where the President of the USA lives and works. It is the official residence the USA presidents.

This house was first occupied in 1800. George Washington died in 1799 and he     did not live in that House. John Adams was the first President who lived in that     House.

The White House has 132 rooms.

There are a lot of sights in Washington. It is difficult to find a park or a square without a monument or a memorial. The Lincoln Memorial and Washington Monu­ment are the most famous and nice ones.

The Lincoln memorial was dedicated on Memorial Day - May 30, 1922. It has 36 columns. Each column represents the state in the Union at the time of Lin­coln's death.

The Washington Monument is one of the city's most impressive sights. It is situated in Potonic Park. It was erected to the me­mory of the first President of the USA in 1888. It is called "The Pencil", because it is one of the tallest stone constructions in the world and the tallest stone structure in the USA. There is the Pentagon in Washington. It is a building-and it was built between 1941— 1943. Now it is the US military centre. A lot of people work there.

Washington is a city almost without in­dustry.

Words and word combinations:

devote – посвящать;

achievement – достижение;

erect – устанавливать, воздвигать, сооружать;                                                                                                                                                                                      

marble – мрамор;

bank – берег реки;

forbid – запрещать;

to contain – включать;

exploration – исследование;

sights – достопримечательности;

to belong – принадлежать.

 

ASSIGMENT

1. Phonetic difficulties. Practise the following:

“I’m sure they’ll enjoy the tour.”

“Sure, especially if the weather is fair.”

 

2. Answer the following questions:

 

1. What is the capital of the USA?

2. Where is Washington situated?

3. Who was the first President of the USA?

4. What kind of interesting places are there in the city?

5. When was the National Gallery of Art opened ?

6. What is the Capitol?

7. Where is the Capitol?

8. What do you know about the White House in Washington?

9. Did George Washington live in the White House?

10. Name the most famous monuments in the city.

11. The Pentagon is a military centre, isn't it?

12. Is there any industry in Washington?

 

Retell the text.

 


LESSON 10.       

 

Think globally,

Act locally!!!

Ecology is a science about nature and about relations of man with it.

Practically, it is a science studying whether we, human beings, keep our common house, our planet Earth, in a good state and how we use the gifts it is giving us: water, air, land, plants, animals, and minerals.

Ecology is a science which studies the rela­tionship between all forms of life on our plan­et with its environment.

They are polluted with all kinds of techno­logical, agricultural, chemical, nuclear and other wastes. When air, land, or water be­comes dirty, we say it is polluted.

We know that polluted air, land, and water are harmful to plants, animals, and people.

Air pollution, smog, water pollution, de­struction of natural resources.

The ozone layer in the upper atmosphere protects the world from the sun's harmful rays. The chemical used widely in aerosol cans, refrigerators, and other products are de­stroying this precious layer.

If you throw a glass bottle on the ground it will litter the Earth forever. Never throw glass bottles on the ground. You damage the land.

Aluminium cans and plastic bottles last up to 500 years.

If you throw an aluminium can on the ground, it will still litter the Earth up to 500 years later.

Tin cans last 100 years.

We must not throw litter on the ground. We must always throw garbage in the garbage can. Litter is not only ugly, but it can be harmful to wild life. Small animals can get hurt on sharps cans or broken bottles.

Many people like to pick up wild flowers. But the problem is that they may all disap­pear.

Turn off the lights when you leave the room and turn off lights in the room that you really don't need. Turn off the TV or the ste­reo when you are not watching or listening The electric power station burn coal to pro­duce the energy that keeps your light on- That burning coal gives off gases that came the greenhouse effect and acid rain.

Yes, we shoud always turn off taps when we don't need water any more.

Most paper thrown away in the office just has printing on one side.

We can ask our parents to bring home some of this paper so you can use the blank side for drawing or writing.

Old newspapers should be reused because making newspaper from "old" paper requires less energy than making paper from trees.

Besides it takes 500.000 trees just to make the newspaper we reach every Monday.

 

Words and word combinations:

acid rains – кислотные дожди;

beneficial – полезный;

blank – чистый, пустой;

efficient – эффективный;

environment – окружающая среда;

environment protection – защита окружающей среды;

garbage – отбросы;

greenhouse effect – «парниковый эффект»;

litter – мусор;

nuclear waste – ядерные отходы;

on the brink of extinction – на грани исчезновения;

pollution – загрязнение;

species – вид, ряд;

 layer – слой;

destruction – разрушение, уничтожение;

precious – драгоценный;

to destroy – разрушать;

to damage – повреждать;

to hurt ( hurt , hurt ) – болеть, причинять боль;

to require – требовать;

rubbish – мусор, бытовые отходы;

extinct – вымерший;

nuclear – ядерный.

 

ASSIGNMENT

2. 1. Pronounce the following words and word combinations:

Ecology, science, Earth, human beings, environment, technological, chemical, nuclear, dirty, pollute, atmosphere, harmful, garbage, aluminium can, damage, litter,wastes.

Retell the text.

 


UNIT TWO

The Kremlin

 

The Kremlin is the heart of Moscow. It is the oldest historical and architectural centre of Moscow.

First it was a wooden fortress. Under Dmitry Donskoy the Kremlin was built of white stone. During the reign of Ivan III the walls of white stone were replaced by new red brick walls and towers. The Tsar invited Italian architects to construct the cathedrals. The Assumption Cathedral was built in 1475-1479 and all Russian Tsars and Emper­ors were crowned there. The Archangel Cathedral was the burial place of the Russian Princes and Tsars. The An­nunciation Cathedral was built in 1484. It is famous for the icons painted by Andrey Rublev and his apprentices.

Ivan the Great is the Bell Tower, one of the most re­markable structures of the 16-th century. It rises in the centre of the Kremlin. It unites all the Kremlin Cathe­drals into a majestic ensemble.

On the stone pedestal at the foot of the Bell Tower there is a Tsar-Bell — the largest bell in the world. Not far from it one can see a Tsar-Cannon.

Another fine example of Russian architecture is the Faceted Palace. It was built in 1487-91.

One of the well-known Kremlin museums is the Ar­moury Chamber. It was built in 1851. The famous gold­en cap of Monomach, the first Russian imperial crown of Catherine II, made of gilt silver and many other pre­cious historical items are exhibited there.

 

Words and word combinations:

 

heart – сердце;

reign – царствование;

brick – кирпич;

burial place – место погребения;

apprentice – ученик, подмастерье;

remarkable – замечательный;

majestic ensemble – величественный ансамбль;

Tsar – Cannon – Царь – Колокол;

Assumption Cathedral — Успенский собор;

Annunciation Cathedral – Благовещенский собор;

Faceted Palace – Грановитая палата;

Armoury Chamber – Оружейная палата;

Bell Tower – колокольня;

gilt silver – позолоченное серебро;

precious historical items – драгоценные исторические предметы;

to exhibit – выставлять, экспонировать (на выставке).

 

Questions:

1. When were the red walls constructed?

2. Where were the Russian Tsars and Emperors crowned?

3. Which Cathedral is connected with Andrey Rublev?

4. What is Annunciation Cathedral famous for?

5. What is exhibited in the Armoury Chamber?

 

Education in Russia

 

People in our country have the right for education. It is our Constitutional right. But it is not only a right, it is a duty, too. Every boy and every girl in Russia must go to school, that is, they must get a full secondary educa­tion. So, when they are 6 or 7 years old they begin to go to school. There are thousands of schools in Russia. There are schools of general education, where the pupils study Russian (or a native language), Literature, Mathemat­ics, History, Biology, Music, Arts, Foreign Languages. There is also a number of specialised schools, where the pupils get deep knowledge of foreign languages, or Maths, or Physics.

After finishing 9 classes of secondary school young people can continue their education at different kinds of vocational or technical schools or colleges. They not only learn general subjects, but receive a speciality there. Having finished a secondary school, a technical school or a college young people can start working, or they may enter an Institute or a University. Professional training makes it easier to get higher education. As for high schools, there are a lot of them in our country. Some of them train teachers, others — doctors, engineers, archi­tects, actors and so on. Many institutes have evening and extra-mural departments. That gives the students an opportunity to study at an institute without leaving their jobs.

 

Words and word combinations:

right – право;

duty – обязанность;

secondary – зд. среднее;

deep – глубокий;

vocational school – профтехучилище;

general – общий;

to receive – получать;

training – обучение;

higher – высшее;

extra-mural – заочный;

opportunity – возможность.

 

Questions:

1. Is education in our country free?

2. Is education in Russia right or duty?

3. What kind of schools are there in Russia?

4. What are the possible ways to continue education after the finishing of the secondary school?

5. What are the main types of educational institutions in our country?

6. What are the types of higher education institutions in Russia?

 

Twin cities.

There are some cities which we call twin cities. During the Great Patriotic War in 1942, the people of Stalingrad (Volgograd) received a telegram from England. The people of Coventry, one of the oldest cities in England, sent their greetings to the heroic defenders of Volgograd. The fact was that the centre of Coventry was much destroyed by fascist bombs. The city was bombed by German planes and more than 70,000 houses were ruined.Thousands of people were killed, among them there were a lot of women, children and old people. The inhabitants of Coventry proposed friendship to the people of our city. So Coventry is the twin city of Volgograd. This was the beginning of the Twin Towns Organization. Delegations from Coventry visited Volgograd many times and the citizens of our heroic city came to visit Coventry.

There is a Defence Museum in the centre of Volgograd and many visitors can see in it a lot of things sent from Coventry. One of them is a table-cloth with the names of many women of Coventry on it made in silk. The English people collected money in the war years to buy medicines for the heroic people of Stalingrad.

The delegation that came to Volgograd from Coventry in 1981, visited many interesting places in that city. They visited The Defence Museum and the chocolate factory, where they tried some very nice sweets.

The Coventry delegation went to the Mamayev Hill, which was the centre of fighting during the heroic defence of Stalingrad. The members of the delegation laid flowers at the foot of the monument to Victory.

Today, lots of cities have friendly relations with cities in other countries. Moscow has friendly relations with more than 50 other capitals. St.Petersburg is the twin city of Manchester. Such cities organize different exhibitions, visits, festivals, competitions and meetings in which young people take an active part. So friendship in between the people of twin cities helps world peace.

 

Words and word combinations:

twin cities – породненные города, города-побратимы;

to destroy – разрушать;

to propose – предлагать;

relation – отношения;

table-cloth – скатерть;

medicine – лекарство;

foot – подножие;

inhabitants – жители;

defence – оборона.

 

                   To the 60-th Anniversary of the Great Victory.

 

We will never forget…

 

The 9-th of May is celebrated in our country as Victory Day. It is a special holiday, different from all others.It is to war and labour veterants that Russia owes its Great Victoryin the bloodiest of all wars. It is a national holiday and a very personal one. Sixty years have passed since that victory, but it is still in the hearts and memory of people. Time cannot take the historic day away from people. There is hardly a family in our country where those who fell for our Motherland are not commemorated on the 9-th of May.

Every year veterans come together to celebrate Victory Day and to remember their brother-soldiers. They visit war memorials to honour the memory of the fallen. Veterans share their war stories with the young generation.

The famous writer Konstantin Simonov said, “we, living people, have many rights. We have the right to work in the name of our Motherland, and the right to defend it, the right to love, the right to be happy. But we have no right to forget what our comrades did in the name of Victory, in the name of Motherland, in the name of life on Earth.”

Sixty years have passed since those heroic and tragic days. We are living in a different country today. Everything has changed: economy and policy, money and food, standards and cost of living. Even its name. New heroes have come, new fashions and new ways of thought.

We live in a great country, which deserves a better future. The future belongs to the young. But there is no future without the past. We have no right to forget the people who perished in the prime of life. They also dreamt to live long and be happy. It is our privilege that many wartime veterans have lived to see the 21-st century and we are their contemporaries. They need care and moral support. It is not difficult to be tolerant and humane.

 

Words and word combinations:

  

to owe – быть в долгу(перед к/л), быть обязанным;

to commemorate – праздновать, отмечать;

young generation – молодое поколение;

war and labour veteran – ветеран войны и труда;

to honour – чтить, удостаивать;

standard living – жизненный уровень;

cost of living – прожиточный минимум;

to deserve – заслуживать, быть достойным;

to belong – принадлежать;

to perish – погибать;

in the prime of life – во цвете лет;

privilege – привилегия, преимущество;

contemporary – современник, сверстник;

tolerant – терпимый;                                          

humane – гуманный, человечный.

 

Buckingham Palace .

 

There are two addresses in London that the whole world knows. One is 10 Downing Street, where the Prime Minister lives. The other is Buckingham Palace. This famous palace, first built in 1703, is in the very centre of London.

It is two places, not one. It is a family house, where children play and grow up. It is also the place where presidents, kings, and politicians go to meet the Queen.

Buckingham Palace is like a small town, with a police station, two post offices, a hospital, a bar, two sports clubs, a disco, a cinema, and a swimming pool. There are 600 rooms and three miles of red carpet. Two men work full-time to look after the 300 clocks. About 700 people work in the Palace.

the queen's day

When the Queen gets up in the morning, seven people look after her. One starts her bath, one prepares her clothes, and one feeds the Royal dogs. She has eight or nine dogs, and they sleep in their own bedroom near the Queen's bedroom. Two people bring her breakfast. She has coffee from Harrods, toast, and eggs. Every day for fifteen minutes, a piper plays Scottish music outside her room and the Queen reads The Times.

Every Tuesday evening, she meets the Prime Minister. They talk about world news and have a drink, perhaps a gin and tonic or a whisky.

an invitation то the palace

When the Queen invites a lot of people for dinner, it takes three days to prepare the table and three days to do the washing-up. Everybody has five glasses: one for red wine, one for white wine, one for water, one for port, and one for liqueur. During the first and second courses, the Queen speaks to the person on her left and then she speaks to the person on her right for the rest of the meal. When the Queen finishes her food, everybody finishes, and it is time for the next course!

 

ASSIGNMENT

Answer the questions.

a Buckingham Palace is two places, not one.' How?

b Why is it like a small town?

с Are there a lot of clocks?

d How many dogs does the Queen have?

e What newspaper does she read?

f What sort of music does the piper play?

g Why do people have five glasses on the table?

h Who does the Queen speak to during a meal?

i What happens when the Queen finishes her food?

 

Charles Dickens (1812 – 1870)

 

Charles Dickens is one of the greatest novelists in the English language. He wrote about the real world of Victorian England and many of his characters were not rich, middle-class ladies and gentlemen, but poor and hungry people.

dickens the child

His family lived in London. His father was a clerk in an office. It was a good job, but he always spent more money than he earned and he was often in debt. There were eight children in the family, so life was hard.

Charles went to school and his teachers thought he was very clever. But suddenly, when he was only eleven, his father went to prison for his debts and the family went, too. Only Charles didn't go to prison. He went to work in a factory, where he washed bottles. He worked ten hours a day and earned six shillings а week. Every night, after work, he walked four miles back to his room. Charles hated it and never forgot the experience. He used it in many novels, especially David Copperfield and Oliver Twist.

 dickens the writer

When he was sixteen, he started work for a newspaper. He visited law courts and the Houses of Parliament. Soon he was one of the Morning Chronicle's best journalists.

He also wrote short stories for magazines. These were funny descriptions of people that he met. Dickens' characters were full of colour and life – good people were very, very good and bad people were horrible. His books became popular in many countries and he spent a lot of time abroad, in America, Italy, and Switzerland.

dickens the man

Dickens had ten children, but he didn't have a happy family life. He was successful in his work but not at home, and his wife left him. He never stopped writing and travelling, and he died very suddenly in 1870.

 

ASSIGNMENT

1. Are the sentences true or false? Correct the false sentences.

 

 a. Charles Dickens wrote novels.

 b. He wrote only about the lives of rich and famous people.

 c. His father had a good job.

 d. Charles never went to school.

 e. He went to prison when he was eleven.

 f. His first job was in a factory.

 g. He became a journalist when he was fifteen.

 h. He never married.

Answer the questions.

 

a. How old was Dickens when he died?

b. How many brothers and sisters did he have?

c. Was he good at school?

d. Why did he leave school when he was eleven?

e. Who was in prison?

f. What did Charles do in his first job?

g. What was his next job?

h. Was he happy at home?

i. When did he stop writing?

 

Meals in Britain

M

Ешь вволю, пей в меру.

A traditional English breakfast is a very big meal - sausages, bacon, eggs, tomatoes, mushrooms. But nowadays many people just have cereal with milk and sugar, or toast with marmalade, jam, or honey.

Marmalade and jam are not the same! Marmalade is made from oranges and jam is made from other fruit. The traditional breakfast drink is tea, which people have with cold milk. Some people have coffee, often instant coffee, which is made with just hot water.Many visitors to Britain find this coffee disgusting!

For many people lunch is a quick meal. In cities there are a lot of sandwich bars, where office workers can choose the kind of bread they want - brown, white, or a roll - and then all sorts of salad and meat or fish to go in the sandwich. Pubs often serve good, cheap food, both hot and cold. Schoolchildren can have a hot meal at school, but many just take a snack from home - a sandwich, a drink, some fruit, and perhaps some crisps.

“Tea” means two things. It is a drink and a meal! Some people have afternoon tea, with sandwiches, cakes, and, of course, a cup of tea. Cream teas are popular. You have scones (a kind of cake) with cream and jam.

The evening meal is the main meal of the day for many people. They usually have it quite early, between 6.00 and 8.00, and often the whole family eats together.

On Sundays many families have a traditional lunch. They have roast meat, either beef, lamb, chicken, or pork, with potatoes, vegetables, and gravy. Gravy is a sauce made from the meat juices.

The British like food from other countries, too, especially Italian, French, Chinese, and Indian. People often get take­-away meals - you buy the food at the restaurant and then bring it home to eat. Eating in Britain is quite international!

 

Vocabulary Food

Look at the word search below. There are seventeen words connected with food.

They go across and down.

Find them and write them here. The words begin with these letters.

 

M------------------------B-----------------------------C-----------------------

C-------------------------R-----------------------------F-----------------------

B-------------------------V----------------------------Y-----------------------

P-------------------------E----------------------------G------------------------

S teak-------------------B-----------------------------H-----------------------

J-------------------------L-----------------------------

 

L С Y P N С R 1 S P S M
A V Z О В P В A N A N A
M U S T E A K N В Т R R
В Z Q A M О Y R Y J A M
К G F Т G H О D F G H A
В A С O N F G R A P E L
H J К F I S H Т Y U I A
H О N E Y В U В R E A D
R A S D F G R Z К L P E
I В V E G E Т A В L E I
С Z X С V В N M L P G J
E W E С E R E A L В G U

Make your own word search. Use words connected with drinks. Give it to a partner.

 

Holidays in The USA

 

Every country has its own holidays. They reflect the history of the country and its cultural and religious tra­ditions. Some religious holidays are common in differ­ent countries. They are Christmas and Easter.

Americans celebrate Christmas on the 25th of Decem­ber. They buy a lot of presents for each other, for their parents, children and friends.

The New Year's Day, the 1-st of January is not so wide­ly celebrated in the United States as we do it in Russia.

Of course, the most important holiday in America is the 4-th of July, the Independence Day. People like to watch colourful fireworks in the evening. The 4-st of July is the day-off and people don't go to work.

The holidays when people don't go to work are: Mar­tin Luther King's day on the 20-th of January, Labour Day on the 7-th of September and Thanksgiving on the last Fri­day of November. On Thanksgiving Americans usually eat turkey. This holiday reminds the time when the first colonists (pilgrims) from England came to America in 1620 and could survive in the unknown land. There is still a big white stone on the shore in Plymouth in Mas­sachusetts, that the pilgrims landed on. It is called «The Plymouth Rock*.

The 31-st of October is the children's most favourite holiday — Halloween. On this day children, dressed in funny dresses visit their neighbours and say «Trick or treat!» and get sweets.

The rest of the holidays are usually on weekends. They are: the Flag's Day, Mother's Day, Armed Forces Day. Americans also celebrate Lincoln's birthday, Washing­ton's birthday, President's Day in February.

The 14-th of February is Valentine's day or as it is called «All lovers day».

 

Words and word combinations:

to reflect – отражать;

Christinas – Рождество;

Easter – Пасха;

widely celebrated – широко празднуется;

day-off – выходной;

fireworks – фейерверк;

turkey – индейка;

to remind – напоминать;

to survive – выживать.

 

Questions:

 

1. What do the holidays reflect?

2. When do Americans celebrate Christmas?

3. Is 1st of January widely celebrated?

4. What is the most important holiday in USA?

5. What are the holidays when people stay off work?

6. What is and where is Plymouth Rock?

7. What's children most favourite holiday?

American food and drink

 

What is “American” food? The answer is that it is a part Italian, part British, part German, part Mexican, part Chinese….

When people from other countries came to live in the US, they brought different cooking traditi



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