An American College/University

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An American College/University

The period of study in an American college or University is four years. Each year comprises two terms or semesters.The first term usually begins the last week of August and continues until the midlle of December with approximately four weeks intermission for the Christmas holidays.

The second semester begins in January and continues until the end of May. The students are usually given three to five days for the Easter holidays. In addition to the regular academic yaer, many colleges offer cources of study during the summer months. These sessions are attended by students who are interested in making up coursework or by those who would like to accelerate their program.

The average student is expected to take 15 or 16 credits each semester. In this way he may earn 32 credits during the academic year. When the student has accumulated more than 30 credits he passes to the next class and becomes a second-year student. After a student has successfully completed four years of study and aquired 124 or 150 credits he becomes a candidate for the degree of Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science and is ready for graduation.


Words and word combination:


to comprise – включать в себя;

intermission – перерыв;

Christmas – Рождество;

Easter holidays – пасхальные каникулы;

in addition to – помимо;

to accelerate – ускорять;

average – средний, нормальный;

credit – зачет (ам.);

academic year – учебный год;

to acquire – приобрести;

Bachelor of Arts – бакалавр искусств;

Bachelor of Science – бакалавр наук;

graduation – окончание учебного заведения.


American food and drink


What is “American” food? The answer is that it is a part Italian, part British, part German, part Mexican, part Chinese….

When people from other countries came to live in the US, they brought different cooking traditions. Some of them opened restaurants. Today Americans enjoy food from all over the world.

Maybe the US is the most famous for “fast foods”. The first fast food restaurants served hamburgers, but now they serve other kinds of food too.

Americans eat a lot, and when they go to a restaurant, they don’t expect to be hungry afterwards. Most restaurants will put a lot of food on your plate – sometimes it can be too much. But if you can’t finish it all, don’t worry: they will give you a “doggy bag” and you can take it home.

Most Americans now have a light breakfast instead of the traditional eggs, bacon, toast, orange juice and coffee. But on weekends ther is more time, and a large late breakfast or early lunch (“brunch”) is often eaten with family or friends.

The protection of nature

Since ancient times Nature was the source of people's life. For thousands of years people lived in harmony with environment and they thought that natural riches were unlimited. The development of civilisation, increased man's harmful interference in nature.

Large cities with thousands of smoky industrial en­terprises pollute the air we breathe and the water we drink. Every year world industry pollutes the atmosphere with about 1000 million tons of dust and other harmful substances. Many cities suffer from smog. Beautiful old forests disappear forever. Their disappearance upsets the oxygen balance. As a result some rare species of animals, birds, fish and plants disappear forever, a number of lakes and rivers dry up.

The pollution of air and destruction of the ozone layer are the results of man's attitude towards Nature.

The protection of the environment is a universal con­cern. We must be very active to create a serious system of ecological security.


Words and word combinations:

ancient – древний;

source – источник;

natural riches – природные богатства;

to increase – увеличиваться;

harmful interference – вредное воздействие;

industrial enterprises – промышленные предприятия;

to pollute – загрязнять;

substances – вещества;

suffer – мучиться;

to upset – зд. нарушать;

rare – редкий;

to dry up – высыхать;

ozone layer – озоновый слой;

attitude – отношение;

universal concern – всеобщая забота.



1. What is the main reason of ecological problems?

2. What are the main ecological problems?

3. Why should the ecological problems should be a universal concern?

4. What steps are taken to fight ecological problems?


Save the Environment.

(Some hints on how you can make a difference!)


It is personal action that will help preserve the world’s environment. Actions which are simple and quick. Yet overall they will make an effective and positive contribution to the environment. There are many actions that each person can take every day.

The following is a list of tips that are given to students to save energy. Which of these tips are applicable for where you live? Which of these do you already practice?

§ Walk or ride a bike whenever possible

§ Turn off lights and other electrical equipment when not in use

§ Take shortershowersto save water

§ Buy products that are recycled, recyclable, repairable, refillable, reusable

§ Write on both sides of paper

§ Put on more clothing in winter instead of turning up the heater

§ Try to cook several meals at a time

§ Use public transport or your bike instead of a car

§ Walk to the local shops if possible; don’t drive there

§ Recycle oil, metal, paper, glass and plastic

§ Repair laeking taps

§ Do not leave the taps running

§ Use mugs or glasses instead of paper cups

§ Make sure the refrigerator door is fully closed

§ Use the clothes line rather than a dryer

§ Plan your trips to save petrol

§ Use energy efficient light bulbs

§ Do not pour oil, fat, milk or chemicals down the sink

Words and word combinations:

hint – намек, подсказка;

overall – совместные (усилия);

contribution – вклад;

equipment – приборы;

recycled – переработанный на вторсырье;

recyclable – пригодный для переработки;

reliable – надежный, достоверный;

repairable – поддающийся ремонту;

refillable – дозаправляющийся;

reusable – повторно используемый;

heater – нагревательный прибор;

leaking tap – текущий кран;

clothes line – бельевая веревка;

dryer – сушильный апппарат;

petrol – бензин;

efficient – эффективный;

bulb – электрическая лампа.






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