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III. Reconstruct the text below putting the extracted fragments (a-j) into their correct places (1-10). Make a written translation of the passage into Ukrainian
⇐ ПредыдущаяСтр 13 из 13
PCR and recombinant DNA techniques create large amounts of DNA segments. To study the structure of these segments, (1)____. This technique can be used to identify genes in humans, (2)____ such as fruit flies. It can also be used to compare the DNA found from blood or hair samples at a crime scene (3)____. In gel electrophoresis, restriction enzymes break up the DNA under study (4)____. Solutions containing these fragments are placed within a thick gel. An electric current is applied to the gel, (5)____. All of the restriction fragments begin to move from the negative end of the gel toward the positive end. The smaller fragments move faster than the larger fragments. When the current shuts off, typically after several hours, (6)____, with the smaller ones closer to the positive end. The dispersed fragments display a pattern resembling a bar code. Each bar in this pattern contains DNA fragments of a certain size. Scientists can identify specific restriction fragments (7)____. A complementary sequence of DNA can be used as a probe to (8)____. Scientists may use DNA found in blood at a crime scene as the probe to see (9)____. If pairing occurs, the DNA from the crime scene is from the same person (10)____.
a) by their location on the gel;
b) causing one end of the gel to have a positive charge and the other to have a negative charge;
c) find a restriction fragment on the gel that has a particular nucleotide sequence;
d) if it pairs up with any of the DNA fragments in the gel electrophoresis;
e) into restriction fragments of varying lengths;
f) researchers use a process known as gel electrophoresis;
g) that have previously been identified in other organisms;
h) the DNA fragments have spread out across the gel;
i) who provided the DNA sample for the gel electrophoresis;
j) with the DNA of a suspect in the crime.
IV. Read the extracts from the article “Biotechnology, Ethics, and the Politics of Cloning” by Steven Best and Douglas Kellner. Consider and discuss the questions following the text
As we move into a new millennium fraught with terror and danger, a global postmodern cosmopolis is unfolding in the midst of rapid evolutionary and social changes co-constructed by science, technology, and the restructuring of global capital. We are quickly morphing into a new biological and social existence that is ever-more mediated and shaped by computers, mass media, and biotechnology, all driven by the logic of capital and a powerful emergent technoscience. In this global context, science is no longer merely an interpretation of the natural and social worlds, rather it has become an active force in changing them and the very nature of life. In an era where life can be created and redesigned in a petri dish, and genetic codes can be edited like a digital text, the distinction between "natural" and "artificial" has become greatly complexified. The new techniques of manipulation call into question existing definitions of life and death, demand a rethinking of fundamental notions of ethics and moral value, and pose unique challenges for democracy.
As technoscience develops by leaps and bounds, and as genetics rapidly advances, the science-industrial complex has come to a point where it is creating new transgenic species and is rushing toward a posthuman culture that unfolds in the increasingly intimate merging of technology and biology. The posthuman involves both new conceptions of the "human" in an age of information and communication, and new modes of existence as flesh merges with steel, circuitry, and genes from other species. Exploiting more animals than ever before, technoscience intensifies research and experimentation into human cloning. This process is accelerated because genetic engineering and cloning are developed for commercial purposes, anticipating enormous profits on the horizon for the biotech industry. Consequently, all natural reality – from microorganisms and plants to animals and human beings – is subject to genetic reconstruction in a commodified "Second Genesis."
At present, the issues of cloning and biotechnology are being heatedly debated in the halls of science, in political circles, among religious communities, throughout academia, and more broadly in the media and public spheres. Not surprisingly, the discourses on biotechnology are polarized. Defenders of biotechnology extol its potential to increase food production and quality; to cure diseases and prolong human life; and to better understand human beings and nature in order to advance the goals of science. Its critics claim that genetic engineering of food will produce Frankenfoods that pollute the food supply with potentially harmful products; that biotechnology-out-of-control could devastate the environment, biodiversity, and human life itself; that animal and human cloning will breed monstrosities; that a dangerous new eugenics is on the horizon; and that the manipulation of embryonic stem cells violates the principle of respect for life and destroys a bona fide "human being"…
…As the debates over cloning and stem cell research indicate, issues raised by biotechnology combine research into the genetic sciences, perspectives and contexts articulated by the social sciences, and the ethical and anthropological concerns of philosophy. Consequently, intervening in the debates over biotechnology require supradisciplinary critical philosophy and social theory to illuminate the problems and their stakes. In addition, debates over cloning and stem cell research raise exceptionally important challenges to bioetbics and a democratic politics of communication. Biotechnology is thus a critical flashpoint for ethics and democratic theory and practice. For contemporary biotechnology underscores the need for more widespread knowledge of important scientific issues; participatory debate over science, technology, values, and our very concept of human life; and regulation concerning new developments in the biosciences, which have such high economic, political, and social consequences…
We need to discuss the numerous issues involved in the shift to a posthuman, postbiological mode of existence where the boundaries between our bodies and technologies begin to erode as we morph toward a cyborg state. Our technologies are no longer extensions of our bodies, as Marshall McLuhan stated, but rather are intimately merging with our bodies, as we implode with other species through the genetic crossings of transgenic species. In an era of rapid flux, our genotypes, phenotypes, and identities are all mutating. Under the pressure of new philosophies and technological change, the humanist mode of understanding the self as a centered, rational Subject has transformed into new paradigms of communication and intersubjectivity, and information and cybernetics…
…Scientists should recognize that their endeavors embody specific biases and value choices, subject them to critical scrutiny, and seek more humane, life-enhancing, and democratic values to guide their work. Respect for nature and life, preserving the natural environment, humane treatment of animals, and serving human needs should be primary values embedded in science. And when these values might conflict, as in the tension between the inherent value of animals and human "needs," the problem must be addressed as sensitively as possible.
This approach is quite unlike how science so far has conducted itself in many areas. Most blatantly, perhaps, scientists, hand in hand with corporations, have prematurely rushed the genetic manipulation of agriculture, animals, and the world's food supply while ignoring important environmental, health, and ethical concerns. Immense power brings enormous responsibility, and it is time for scientists to awaken to this fact and make public accountability integral to their ethos and research. A schizoid modern science that rigidly splits facts from values must give way to a postmodern metascience that grounds the production of knowledge in a social context of dialogue and communication with citizens. The shift from a cold and detached "neutrality" to a participatory understanding of life that deconstructs the modern subject/object dichotomy derails realist claims to unmediated access to the world and opens the door to an empathetic and ecological understanding of nature…
…Science and technology, however, not only require responsibility and accountability on the part of scientists, but also regulation by government and democratic debate and participation by the public. Publics need to agree on rules and regulations for cloning and stem cell research, and there need to be laws, guidelines, and regulatory agencies open to public input and scrutiny. To be rational and informed, citizens need to be educated about the complexities of genetic engineering and cloning, a process that can unfold through vehicles such as public forums, teach-ins, and creative use of the broadcast media and internet…
…The human species is thus at a terribly difficult and complex crossroads. Whatever steps we take, it is imperative we do not leave the decisions to the scientists, anymore than we would to the theologians (or corporate-hired bioethicists for that matter), for their judgment and objectivity is less than perfect, especially for the majority who are employed by biotechnology corporations and have a vested interest in the hastening and patenting of the brave new world of biotechnology. The issues involving genetics are so important that scientific, political, and moral debate must take place squarely within the public sphere. The fate of human beings, animals, and nature hangs in the balance, thus it is imperative that the public become informed on the latest developments and biotechnology and that lively and substantive democratic debate take place concerning the crucial issues raised by the new technoscience.
1. How, according to the authors of the article, has the role of science changed in the new millennium?
2. Why has the distinction between “natural” and “artificial” become complexified?
3. The authors of the article refer to a “posthuman culture”. What do they mean? Do you agree that we are entering a “posthuman” era?
4. What arguments do proponents and opponents of cloning and biotechnology provide to support their lines?
5. Who, according to Steven Best and Douglas Kellner, should be involved in the debates over biotechnology?
6. What accusations do the authors level against modern scientists employed by biotechnology corporations?
7. Why do you think the recent developments in biotechnology pose a challenge for democracy?
8. What is your personal opinion on the issues raised in the article?
V. If you solve the following puzzle you will be able to read an epigraph to the article “Biotechnology, Ethics, and the Politics of Cloning” (see ex.4). The clues below will help you – each symbol on the right corresponds to a letter in the English words defined on the left.
Discuss with your classmates why Steven Best and Douglas Kellner chose this quotation as an epigraph for their article?
we are ready to go because we think
that the genie is out of her bottle
(Dr. Panos Zavos)
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