BIOLOGY – THE SCIENCE OF LIFE



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BIOLOGY – THE SCIENCE OF LIFE



Unit 1

Lesson 1

BIOLOGY – THE SCIENCE OF LIFE

PRE-READING TASKS

I. Answer the following questions

· What is the subject matter of biological science?

· What branches of modern biology can you name?

· Why did you choose to study biology?

II. Listen to the following words and practice their pronunciation

Biology, science, discipline, zoology, botany, molecule, molecular, population, biophysics, biochemistry, nucleic acid, protein, heredity, organismal, cellular, multicellular, developmental, physiology, nervous, neurophysiology, behaviour, ethology, evolutionary, gene, genetics, ecology, natural, habitat, sociobiology, human, biomedicine, anthropology.

READING COMPREHENSION AND VOCABULARYDEVELOPMENT

I. Match each word on the left to its correct definition on the right

1) encompass, v 2) scope, n 3) segregation, n 4) cogent, adj 5) span, v 6) breakthrough, n 7) interaction, n 8) neglect, n 9) boundary, n 10) habitat, n 11) fluid, adj a) a mutual or reciprocal action or influence; b) to stretch or extend across, over, or around; c) lack of due care or attention; negligence; d) separation, setting apart; e) the range of things that a subject, activity, book, etc. deals with; f) the natural home of a plant or animal; g) forcefully convincing; h) something that indicates the farthest limit, as of an area; i) to include entirely or comprehensively; j) a significant development or discovery, esp. in science; k) (1) liquid; (2) constantly changing or apt to change.

II. Read the following text paying attention to the highlighted words. Explain or interpret the contextual meaning of the underlined phrases

Biology is the science of life. The term biology was introduced in Germany in 1800 and popularized by the French naturalist Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck as a means of encompassing the growing number of disciplines involved with the study of living forms. The scope of biological science is so broad that it has been subdivided into separate branches for convenience of study. Despite apparent differences, all the subdivisions are interrelated by basic principles that underlie all biological manifestations.

It was once the custom to separate the study of plants (botany) from that of animals (zoology), and the study of the structure of organisms (morphology) from that of function (physiology). The English zoologist Thomas Henry Huxley was the first to insist that the conventional segregation of zoology and botany was intellectually meaningless and that all living things should be studied in an integrated way. Huxley’s approach to the study of biology is even more cogent today, because scientists now realize that many lower organisms are neither plants nor animals. The limits of the science, however, have always been difficult to determine, and as the scope of biology has shifted over the years, its subject areas have been changed and reorganized.

The current approach to the study of living things is based on the levels of biological organization involved — whether molecules, cells, individuals, or populations — and on the specific subject matter under investigation—for example, structure and function, types and classification, and growth and development.

Molecular biology, which spans biophysics and biochemistry, has made the most fundamental contributions to modern biology. Much is now known about the structure and action of nucleic acids and protein, the key molecules of all living matter. The discovery of the mechanism of heredity was a major breakthrough in modern science. Another important advance was in understanding how molecules conduct metabolism, that is, how they process the energy needed to sustain life.

Cellular biology is closely linked with molecular biology. To understand the functions of the cell — the basic structural unit of living matter — cell biologists study its components on the molecular level. Organismal biology, in turn, is related to cellular biology, because the life functions of multicellular organisms are governed by the activities and interactions of their cellular components. The study of organisms includes their growth and development (developmental biology) and how they function (physiology). Particularly important are investigations of the brain and nervous system (neurophysiology) and animal behaviour (ethology).

Population biology became firmly established as a major subdivision of biological studies in the 1970s. Central to this field is evolutionary biology, in which the contributions of Charles Darwin have been fully appreciated after a long period of neglect. Population genetics, the study of gene changes in populations, and ecology, the study of populations in their natural habitats, have been established subject areas since the 1930s. These two fields were combined in the 1960s to form a rapidly developing new discipline often called, simply, population biology. Closely associated is a new development in animal-behaviour studies called sociobiology, which focuses on the genetic contribution to social interactions among animal populations.

Biology also includes the study of humans at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels. If the focus of investigation is the application of biological knowledge to human health, the study is often termed biomedicine. Human populations are by convention not considered within the province of biology; instead, they are the subject of anthropology and the various social sciences. The boundaries and subdivisions of biology, however, are as fluid today as they have always been, and further shifts may be expected.

Vocabulary notes

as a means of – як засіб

under investigation – що вивчається

in turn – у свою чергу; у відповідь

III. Use the phrases from the vocabulary notes in the sentences of your own

IV. Decide whether the following statements are true or false according to the text

1. Different branches of biology are connected with each other.

2. According to Huxley it is logical to divide biology into zoology and botany.

3. The subject of biological studies has changed for the past years.

4. Biophysics is a part of molecular biology whereas biochemistry can be referred to cellular biology.

5. The principles and mechanisms of heredity were known to scholars in late middle ages.

6. Energy that is necessary for the maintenance of life in a cell is obtained in a process called replication.

7. Developmental biology, physiology, and ethology are the branches of organismal biology.

8. Population biology and sociobiology are concerned with the studies of humans.

9. Biomedicine is a branch of science that deals with animal treatment.

V. Make up 6-7 questions about the text and ask them to your partner

VI. Find the English equivalents of the following words in the text

Взаємопов’язані; звичайний, традиційний; сучасний, теперішній; внесок; поступ; здійснювати; підтримувати; оцінювати, цінувати; зосереджуватися, концентрувати увагу; застосування.

VII. Use the words from exercise VI to fill in the blanks in the following sentences

1. Is it really necessary to ______ experiments on animals?

2. He did not fully ______ the significance of his invention.

3. All parts of the course are ______.

4. He was unable to ______ lasting relationships with women.

5. Their aim is to reduce ______ pollution levels in the Black Sea.

6. Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize for his ______ to Quantum Theory.

7. ______ in medical science may make it possible for people to live for 150 years.

8. Acupuncture may work, but I still believe in a more ______ approach to medicine.

9. He felt he needed to ______ more on his research.

10. The possible ______ of this invention are limitless.

GRAMMAR IN USE

I. Read the following questions and identify their type

1. What is biology?

2. Did life on Earth appear 3 million or 3 billion years ago?

3. Who was the inventor of the first microscope?

4. Is cell considered the basic unit of life?

5. The phenomenon of diversity of life has had a long history of study, hasn’t it?

6. Do all living organisms reproduce?

7. I am going to study hard this semester, aren’t I?

III. Make question-tags

1. Evidence to support the theory of evolution has come primarily from the fossil record, __________?

2. Cuckoos don’t build nests, ________?

3. Evolution itself is a biological phenomenon common to all living things _________?

4. Before the invention of a microscope, people didn’t know anything about cells ________?

5. In agriculture, both asexual and sexual reproduction are important _________?

6. You weren’t listening to the lecture _________?

7. I’m going to become a scientist _________?

8. Keep on working on your project _________?

9. There are a lot of students in the lecture hall __________?

10. This isn’t very interesting __________?

LISTENING COMPREHENSION

I. You are going to hear two fragments of a lecture about the history of our planet and life on it. Listen to the first fragment and answer the following questions. Before listening discuss the meaning of the words in the box below with your classmates or teacher

big bang background radiation permeate be tuned to expand collapse gravitational attraction solid matter aggregation dust particles cluster compress melt radioactive decay core crust mantle dense silicate materials sea bed mountain range plain erode hydrogen carbon dioxide nitrogen water vapour dissolve lightning

1. When did the “big bang” occur?

2. Has the universe stopped expanding?

3. How can we “feel” the effects of the original explosion?

4. How do we call our galaxy?

5. When did our solar system shape up?

6. How were most of the planets built?

7. What is the composition of earth’s core and mantle?

8. How thick is earth’s crust?

9. Is the atmosphere we have now the same one that used to surround the earth about 5 billion years ago?

Lesson 2

LIFE

PRE-READING TASKS

Vocabulary notes

turn out – виявитись, виявлятись

set smth apart from smth – відокремлювати

сarry out – здійснювати

by means of – за допомогою

adapt/adjust to – пристосовуватись до

I. You are going to hear four different definitions of life (A, B, C, D). Choose the best summary for each of the definitions. Before listening discuss the meaning of the words in the box below with your classmates or teacher

excrete revive host animal alter clement conditions emphasis oxidation state proteinacious catalysts to confer benefits sulfur enzymes random processes boundary counterexample complexity to remain dormant virus-like

A

1. The physiological definition is inconsistent because automobiles can “breathe”, “eat”, “excrete”, etc. similarly to living things.

2. The physiological definition has certain drawbacks because some non-living objects (e.g. machines) can “perform” functions similar to those of living beings whereas some living organisms such as certain bacteria do not carry out all processes of life (e.g. breathing).

3. The physiological definition is incorrect because some bacteria don’t breathe.

B

1. The metabolic definition emphasizes the ability of living organisms to exchange substances and energy with their external environments while preserving their basic characteristics.

2. According to the metabolic definition seeds and spores are not alive because they remain dormant for hundreds of years without any visible metabolism.

3. There are exceptions to the metabolic definition because some living organisms are inclined to change their inner structure and properties during their life cycles.

C

1. The biochemical definition is inconsistent because viruses cannot reproduce.

2. Modern scientists agree that the biochemical definition is better than other theories and there are virtually no arguments against it.

3. The biochemical definition of life places an emphasis on the fact that all living organisms contain hereditary information in the form of certain biochemical structures such as nucleic acids.

D

1. The genetic definition relies on such characteristics of living organisms as replication and evolution.

2. The genetic definition concludes that since a replicating organism has no obvious benefits from replication some living beings (e.g. hybrids) do not replicate.

3. According to the genetic definition it is improbable that a variety of modern living forms might have evolved from one common ancestor.

Lesson 3

THE ORIGIN OF LIFE

PRE-READING TASKS

Vocabulary notes

in the presence/absence of – за наявності, у присутності/відсутності чогось

serve as – слугувати, виступати як/у ролі

be capable of – бути здатним, спроможним

in response to – у відповідь на щось, як реакція на щось

I. You will hear a text “Life from Outer Space?” Complete the notes below which summarize it. You will need to write a word or a short phrase in each space. Discuss the words from the box before listening

to gain popularity entirely absurd archaea environmental tolerance tentative evidence to be blasted into space to capture a meteor crash into a planet precursor of life cognizant life

There is a hypothesis that life did not ___________ but emerged elsewhere _____________ and was then transported to our planet.

It is not senseless because the most primitive ______________ have extreme _______________ and some possibly could survive __________.

In _____ a team of NASA scientists announced that _____________ had been found in a 4.5-billion-year-old meteorite _____________.

Mars has much weaker ______________________.

The earth is more likely ________________ than __________.

We may all be ________________________.

It is possible that life __________________ on the earth and Mars.

To answer these questions scientists should:

1) carry out experiments on ______________________;

2) continue exploration for ___________________;

3) search for a source ___________________ from outer space.

WRITING

V. Read the extracts from the Pope John Paul II’s message to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences on evolution and the origin of life. Consider and discuss the questions following the text in the Discussion section

In celebrating the 60th anniversary of the Academy’s refoundation, I would like to recall the intentions of my predecessor Pius XI, who wished to surround himself with a select group of scholars, relying on them to inform the Holy See in complete freedom about developments in scientific research, and thereby to assist him in his reflections.

He asked those whom he called the Church’s Senatus Scientificus to serve the truth. I again extend this same invitation to you today, certain that we will be able to profit from the fruitfulness of a truthful dialogue between the Church and science…

I am pleased with the first theme you have chosen, that of the origins of life and evolution, an essential subject that deeply interests the Church, since Revelation, for its part, contains teaching concerning the nature and origins of man. How do the conclusions reached by the various scientific disciplines coincide with those contained in the message of the Revelation? And if, at first sight, there are apparent contradictions, in what direction do we look for their solution? We know, in fact, that truth cannot contradict truth… It is necessary to determine the proper sense of Scripture, while avoiding any unwarranted interpretations that make it say what it doesn’t intend to say. In order to delineate the field of their own study, the exegete and the theologian must keep informed about the results achieved by the natural science…

…The Encyclical Humani generis (1950), considered the doctrine of “evolutionism” a serious hypothesis, worthy of investigation and in-depth study equal to that of the opposing hypothesis… Today, new knowledge has led to the recognition that the theory of evolution is more than a hypothesis…

…The Church’s Magisterium is directly concerned with the question of evolution, for it involves the conception of man: Revelation teaches us that he was created in the image and likeness of God…this doctrine…is pivotal to Christian thought… St. Thomas observes that man’s likeness to God resides especially in his speculative intellect, for his relationship with the object of his knowledge resembles God’s relationship with what he has created. But even more, man is called to enter into a relationship of knowledge and love with God himself, a relationship which will find its complete fulfillment beyond time, in eternity. All the depth and grandeur of his vocation are revealed to us in the mystery of the risen Christ. It is by virtue of his spiritual soul that the whole person possesses such a dignity even in his body. Pius XII stressed this essential point: if the human body takes its origin from pre-existent living matter, the spiritual soul is immediately crated by God…

It is significant that in St. John’s Gospel life refers to the divine light which Christ communicated to us. We are called to enter into eternal life, that is to say, into the eternity of the divine beatitude.

To warn us against the serious temptations threatening us, our Lord quotes the great saying of Deuteronomy: “Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds from the mouth of God.”

Even more, “life” is one of the most beautiful titles which the Bible attributes to God. He is the living God.

I cordially invoke an abundance of divine blessings upon you and upon all who are close to you.

Discussion

1. How does the Pope interpret the notion of “life” in the message?

2. Prove the authors opinion concerning the importance of cooperation between theology and natural sciences.

3. Why is the problem of the origin of man of extreme importance for the Church?

4. Do any obvious contradictions between the theological and scientific points of view on this problem exist? Is it possible to overcome them?

5. How does St. Thomas regard the nature of man?

6. Explain the meaning of the phrase “truth cannot contradict truth”.

7. Do you agree with the Church’s official position concerning the origin of life and man expressed in the Pope’s message?

Unit 2

Lesson 1

MACROMOLECULES

PRE-READING TASKS

Vocabulary notes

play a role (in) – відігравати роль

both…and… – як…так і…

rich in – багатий на

range from…to… - (коливатися) в межах від…до…

VII. Find the following words and expressions in the text “Macromolecules”. Explain the differences in their meanings and usage. Use these words and expressions to fill in the gaps in the sentences below

a) Constitute; make up.

b) Contain; include; be composed of; consist of.

1. Each cell typically _______ a central, usually spherical, nucleus and an outermore heterogeneous region, termed the cytoplasm.

2. Up to 70% of your total body weight is _______ of water.

3. Cigarettes which _______ less than 0.8 mg nicotine can be classified as "light".

4. Symptoms of the disease _______ tiredness and loss of memory.

5. Water is ________ hydrogen and oxygen.

6. Doctors are struggling to _______ the epidemic.

7. The environment of an organism also _______ the other organisms in its surroundings.

8. It is sometimes difficult to believe that the different groups living within our borders ________ a single society.

9. Hereditary information is carried by large molecules known as genes which are ________ nucleic acids.

10. The rise in crime ________ a threat to society.

11. Human cells are in many fundamental respects similar to those that ________ all the other animals and plants on the Earth.

GRAMMAR IN USE: WORD FORMATION 1

I. Look at the words below. They are all the derivatives of one word – solve. Explain the meaning of each word. What morphological means have been used to produce these words? What other means of word formation do you know?

Solvent; insoluble; dissolve; soluble.

I. Listen to a fragment of a lecture about DNA structure. Say whether the following statements are true or false according to the text on the tape. Before listening discuss the meaning of the words in the box below with your classmates or teacher

nucleotides nitrogen base complementary base pairing thriving deoxyribose double helix junk

k) Nucleotides are the constituent parts of DNA molecules.

l) Each nucleotide is made up of two main components.

m) There are four types of bases in the DNA structure: cytosine, guanine, thymosine, and adenine.

n) The DNA molecule resembles a double helix or a “ladder” in which the “sides” are made up of bases and the “rumps” consist of phosphate and sugar molecules.

o) The bases in the DNA combine randomly with each other.

p) The mode of base pairing is very important for DNA replication and storage of genetic information.

q) An average human gene includes 100 bases.

r) 98% of a DNA molecule is considered “junk” and useless.

Lesson 2

Vocabulary notes

in spite of something (= despite something) – незважаючи на

depend (up)on – залежати від

in order to (do something) – для того, щоб

interfere with – перешкоджати, втручатися

V. Fill in the following table with synonyms (from list A) and opposites (from list B) of the given words. Explain the difference between the synonyms and illustrate it using your own examples

word synonym opposites
achieve, v    
entire, adj    
regenerate, v   ---------
extend, v    
obtain, v    
exhibit, v    
regard, v    
minute, adj    
convert, v   ---------
precise, adj    
successive, adj   ---------

A:accomplish; accurate; acquire; change; complete; consider; display; exact; following; get; microscopic; protrude; reach; renew; reproduce; show; stick out; subsequent; tiny; transform; view; whole.

B:conceal; contract; disregard; enormous; fail; forgo; hide; huge; incomplete; inexact; lose (x2); neglect; partial; shorten; vague.

III. Some of the English words consist of two or more components that function as one word. Match the words from the left and right columns to form such nouns or adjectives making necessary changes. Use these words in your own sentences

1 phosphorus 2 carbon 3 pain 4 head 5 photo 6 sun 7 baby 8 water 9 air 10 fire 11 data 12 soft 13 plasma 14 bone 15 swim a) ache b) base c) brigade d) lipid -> 1. d) phospholipid e) condition f) glasses g) hydrate h) kill i) marrow j) membrane k) proof l) sit 7. l) -> babysitter m) suit n) synthesis o) ware

LISTENING COMPREHENSION

I. Listen to the following piece of information about origin of the eukaryotes. Choose the correct options to complete the statements below. In some cases more than one answer is possible. Before listening discuss the meaning of the words in the box below with your classmates or teacher

sediments to be ingested to get digested to sit trapped to be treated like to nurture thoughts successive generations to account for to be incomplete compelling objections to resolve a matter to reside in

1. Among the cell organelles that contain their own ribosome and DNA are:

a) chloroplasts; b) lyzosomes; c) vacuoles.

2. The attempts to grow mitochondria in culture out of cells

a) have been successful;

b) have never produced the expected result;

c) have never been made.

3. Eukaryotic cells appeared on earth

a) 2 billion years after prokaryotes;

b) 3 million years after prokaryotes;

c) 2 billion years ago.

4. According to Lynn Margulis, Boston University, about a billion years ago earth was inhabited

a) by photosynthetic prokaryotes;

b) by several types of prokaryotes;

c) by prokaryotes and first eukaryotes.

5. According to Lynn Margulis, Boston University,

a) some prokaryotes “infected” others;

b) some prokaryotes were parasites that lived within others;

c) Some prokaryotes got engulfed by others and survived within them

6. The endosymbiotic theory is incomplete because

a) it does not account for a number of features that distinguish eukaryotes from prokaryotes;

b) chloroplasts and mitochondria lack nuclei;

c) mitochondria and chloroplasts are not the only organelles within the eukaryotic cell.

7. The endosymbiotic theory

a) will soon be rejected as inconsistent;

b) has already been accepted as true;

c) can be further improved and developed.

Lesson 3

CELL STRUCTURE

PRE-READING TASKS

Vocabulary notes

be responsible for – відповідати за щось

be involved in something – брати участь у чомусь

as well as – так само як і; а також...

result in – мати результатом, спричиняти

Lesson 4

CELL DIVISION

PRE-READING TASKS

Vocabulary notes

due to – завдяки, через

referred to as – що називається як

instead of - замість

make it possible (for someone/something) to do something – уможливлювати щось

III. Answer the following questions about the text “Cell Division”

1. What reproductive mechanism in cells provides for the diversity of the offspring?

2. How many stages does mitosis include?

3. What is interphase characterized by?

4. How many steps of karyokinesis are distinguished?

5. At what stage of mitosis does the nuclear membrane disintegrate?

6. What happens in a cell during telophase?

7. What is cytokinesis?

8. What cells use meiotic pattern of reproduction and why?

9. How do you understand the phrase “the chromatides from different chromosomes cross over”?

10. What are haploid and diploid cells?

IV. Look for the words with the following meanings in the text “Cell Division”

1. To divide a country, building, or room into two or more parts;

2. To make denser or more compact;

3. Either extremity of an axis of a sphere and especially of the earth's axis;

4. To pull hard;

5. To sink away; vanish;

6. Lacking a definite plan, purpose, or pattern;

7. A flat or level surface;

8. To bring to an end especially in a particular way or with a particular action;

9. To send out in or as if in rays; to spread around from a centre.

VI. Find the following words in the text “Cell Division” and explain their meanings. Then select the synonyms of these words from the list below. Explain the difference between the synonyms using a dictionary

condense, __________, __________, __________;

disperse, __________, __________, __________;

fine, __________, __________, __________;

hollow, __________, __________, __________;

split, __________, __________, __________.

Break, abridge, empty, slender, compress, spread, vacant, crack, diffuse, little, void, separate, minute, contract, scatter.

Discussion

1. What are stem cells?

2. What clinical uses of stem cells do you know about?

3. What are the advantages of stem cell therapy over the traditional methods of treating human diseases?

4. What potential dangers, risks and side effects can the use of stem cell therapy involve?

Student A

1 M I T O 2 C H O N D R I O N              
                                       
  3                           4        
5 C A R B O H Y D R A T E           6   7
                                       
    8 E U K A 9 R Y O T I C   10            
                        11 A N T I B O D Y
                12                      
  13                                    
                                       
  14 C H R O M O S O M E                  
                                       
          15M E I O S I 16 S                
                      17 T U R G O R      
18M I T O S I S                          
                                       
                                       
              19A N A P H A S E          

 


Unit 3

Lesson 1

THE PROTISTA

PRE-READING TASKS

Vocabulary notes

within something – в межах/ всередині чогось

either…or… - або... або...

neither…nor… - (а)ні... (а)ні...

from one’s point of view – з (чиєїсь) точки зору

OBSERVE

1. Whittaker observed the absorptive role of the fungi in the natural environment.

2. One student performs the experiment, while his partner observes.

3. Hakeem is currently observing the Muslim holy month of Ramadan, and fasts between sunrise and sunset.

4. You can avoid danger by observing these simple rules.

5. Zella and George observed their 55th wedding anniversary last August.

GAIN

1. The knowledge gained from electronic microscopy and molecular biology caused the demolition of the traditional classification schemes of algae, fungi and protozoa.

2. The sport has gained in popularity in recent years.

3. She has gained a reputation as a good communicator.

4. He gained a doctorate in Genetic Engineering.

5. A new-born baby will gain weight at around one ounce per day.

6. Evangelical Christianity has been gaining ground since the Second World War.

7. The dollar has gained 8% against the yen.

8. Fortunately, the investment banks have managed to gain control of the dividends of only big and new companies.

9. A gene in a splurge-weed cell stands to gain by promoting the reproduction of its cell.

GRAMMAR IN USE

I. Complete the table

singular plural   singular plural
1) alga 2) ……………. 3) ……………. 4) cilium 5) ……………. 6) crista 7) ……………. 8) ……………. 9) emphasis 10) fish 11) ……………. 12) fungus 13) ……………. 14) helix 15) ……………. 16) larva 17) leaf 18) ……………. 1) ……………. 2) analyses 3) bacteria 4) ……………. 5) crania 6) ……………. 7) criteria 8) data 9) ……………. 10) ……………. 11) flagella 12) ……………. 13) genera 14) ……………. 15) hypotheses 16) ……………. 17) ……………. 18) lives   19) medium 20) ……………. 21) ……………. 22) nucleus 23) ……………. 24) paramecium 25) ……………. 26) phylum 27) ……………. 28) plasmodium 29) ……………. 30) species 31) sternum 32) ……………. 33) ……………. 34) taxon 35) ……………. 36) ……………. 19) ……………. 20) metamorphoses 21) mitochondria 22) ……………. 23) offspring 24) ……………. 25) phenomena 26) ……………. 27) pili 28) ……………. 29) series 30) ……………. 31) ……………. 32) stimuli 33) syntheses 34) ……………. 35) theses 36) wolves

II. Choose the appropriate word from among those given in Ex. I and use it in the correct number to complete the following sentences. The first letter of each word is given to help you make the right choice

1. _P_________ are unicellular organisms usually less than 0.25 mm in length and covered with minute hairlike projections called _c_________.

2. _B_________ are described as prokaryotes, organisms whose cells lack _n_________.

3. Many bacteria feature small protrusions from their outside cell surface known as _p_________. These hairlike outgrowths assist the bacteria in attaching to various surfaces.

4. Other hairlike extensions called _f_________ are much longer than piliand can be found at either or both ends of a _b_________ or all over its surface.

5. Since the earliest days of plant and animal domestication, around 10,000 years ago, humans have understood that characteristic traits of parents could be transmitted to their _o_________.

6. Pedigree _a_________ can be useful when combined with certain genetic tests.

7. The base level in the taxonomic hierarchy is the _s_________.

8. The many species of organisms in the plant kingdom are divided into several _p_________, or divisions, totaling about 260,000 species.

9. On the next tier of the hierarchy, similar species are grouped into a broader _t_________ called a _g_________.

10. The goals of medicine are to help people live longer, happier, more active _l_________ with less suffering and disability.

11. A _l_________ is an extension of a plant's stem. Although most _l_________ are flat, broad, or bladelike, they also may be many other shapes, including round, oval, or feathery.

12. During replication, the DNA double _h_________ unwinds and bonds joining the base pairs break, separating the DNA molecule into two separate strands.

13. Unlike plants and animals, _f_________ obtain food by absorbing nutrients from an external source.

14. The interior of each _m_________ consists of an inner membrane that is folded into a mazelike arrangement of separate compartments called _c_________.

15. One of the phyla of _a_________, the green _a_________, is believed to have given rise to the plant kingdom, because its chlorophylls, cell walls, and other details of cellular structure are similar to those of plants.

16. Students are reminded that their _t_________ must be handed in by the end of term.

17. Our _h_________ is that the dolphins ate contaminated fish, and this affected the dolphins' immune system.

18. Life on Earth is structurally based on carbon and utilizes water as an interaction _m_________.

19. This definition places great _e_________ on the importance of replication.

20. The DNA molecule consists of a long _s_________ of coded messages capable of directing the _s_________ of specific proteins at any time in the cell or life cycle.

21. The first of the wonder drugs, penicillin, was isolated from a _f_________ Penicillium.

22. Biological _c_________ are based on the premise that the structure and function of an aquatic biological community within a specific habitat provide critical information about the quality of surface waters.

23. The _c_________ or skull is made up of over 20 different bones.

24. A _l_________ is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing _m_________ (for example, insects or amphibians).

LISTENING COMPREHENSION

I. Human pathogens appear in many groups of protists, especially among protozoa. Protozoans of the genus Plasmodium invade red blood cells in humans causing one of the most dangerous infectious diseases – malaria. You are going to hear a text describing some aspects of the disease and ways of its prevention. Before listening discuss the meaning of the words in the box below with your classmates or teacher

chills trembling fever delirium to sweat profusely spleen relentless repeated infection severe anemia bark bloodstream to render unusable saliva anticlotting agent sporozoite merozoite Jesuit missionary remedy cinchona tree quinine eradication campaign to stem the illness drug resistance survelliance bednet repellent circulatory system collapse

Lesson 2

THE BACTERIA

PRE-READING TASKS

Vocabulary notes

as a source of – як джерело

survive something – витримати, перенести, пережити щось

the latter – останній (з двох названих)

VI. Fill in the following table with synonyms (from list A) and opposites (from list B) of the given words. Explain the difference between the synonyms and illustrate it using your own examples

word synonyms (3 for each word) opposites
natural, adj   (3)
diverse, adj   (2)
dominant, adj   (2)
acquire, v   (2)
important, adj   (3)
lack, n   (2)
firm, adj   (2)
improve, v   (2)

A:absence; chief; common; contrasting; correct; deficiency; develop; different; essential; gain; hard; innate; obtain; perfect; prevailing; principal; progress; remarkable; shortage; significant; stable; steady; various; wild.

B:abandon; abnormal; abundance; artificial; changeable; decline; deteriorate; identical; inconsiderable; minor; same; slight; soft; subordinate; sufficiency; surrender; unimportant; unnatural.

I. You are going to hear a fragment of a lecture about the best-known prokaryote Escherichia coli (E. coli). Before listening study the following measurements and discuss the meaning of the words in the box below with your classmates or teacher

µm – micrometer = 1/1000 mm = 10-6 m (one millionth of a meter)

nm – nanometer = 1/1000 µm = 10-9 m (one billionth of a meter)

µm3 – cubic micrometer

10-12g (one-millionth of one-millionth of a gram) = 0,0000000000001g

humble intestinal tract length approximately weight tiny bundle magnified human dimensions nonetheless favorable under the conditions whereas rapid division immense nutritional requirements health hazard extensive precautions differing genet ic strains potassium (K)

Lesson 3

VIRUSES

PRE-READING TASKS

Vocabulary notes

in fact - фактично

at least – принаймні, щонайменше

act as – виступати, діяти як

unlike something – на відміну від

infect with – заражати (чимось)

in addition (to) – до того ж, на додачу (до)

Discussion

1. What is smallpox?

2. When did mankind free itself from the scourge?

3. Is it safe to store a virus like that in laboratories?

4. What is your answer to the question: “Should we destroy the last smallpox virus?”?

Unit 4

Lesson 1

VASCULAR PLANTS

PRE-READING TASKS

Vocabulary notes

accompanied by – у супроводі/що супроводжується

develop into – розвинутися у

drop/fall off - відпадати

give rise to – давати поштовх до/призводити до зростання

Lesson 2

Vocabulary notes

at this stage – на цій ступені/стадії

take place - відбуватися

more or less – більш менш

at the same time – у той же ж час

Lesson 3

ANIMALS

PRE-READING TASKS

Vocabulary notes

way of life – спосіб життя

rely (up)on – покладатися на/залежати від

control over something – контроль над чимось

Lesson 4

PHYLUM CHORDATA

PRE-READING TASKS

Vocabulary notes

rival something (4) – конкурувати з/рівнятися з

in comparison with (4) – у порівняні з

in proportion to (4) – що є пропорційним до/відносно до

V. Find the following words in the text “Phylum Chordata” and explain their meanings. Then select the synonyms of these words from the list below. Explain the difference between the synonyms using a dictionary

identify, _______, _______, _______; feature, _______, _______, _______; moist, _______, _______, _______; provide, _______, _______, _______; reduce, _______, _______, _______.

Attribute, cut, damp, decrease, determine, diminish, distinguish, furnish, give, humid, property, recognise, supply, trait, wet.

V. Read the following texts on animal rights. One of the texts is an article from the official website of an American animal protection organization called PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals), the other is an extract from a summary on cruelty to animals from the free encyclopaedia Wikipedia. Answer the questions in the Discussion section

WHY ANIMAL RIGHTS?

Almost all of us grew up eating meat, wearing leather, and going to circuses and zoos. Many of us bought our beloved “pets” at pet shops, had guinea pigs, and kept beautiful birds in cages. We wore wool and silk, ate McDonald’s burgers, and fished. We never considered the impact of these actions on the animals involved. For whatever reason, you are now asking the question: Why should animals have rights?

Australian philosopher, Princeton professor, and author of numerous ground-breaking books — including 1975’s Animal Liberation, Peter Singer states that the basic principle of equality does not require equal or identical treatment; it requires equal consideration. This is an important distinction when talking about animal rights. People often ask if animals should have rights, and quite simply, the answer is “Yes!” Animals surely deserve to live their lives free from suffering and exploitation. Jeremy Bentham, the founder of the reforming utilitarian school of moral philosophy, stated that when deciding on a being’s rights, “The question is not ‘Can they reason?’ nor ‘Can they talk?’ but ‘Can they suffer?’” In that passage, Bentham points to the capacity for suffering as the vital characteristic that gives a being the right to equal consideration. The capacity for suffering is not just another characteristic like the capacity for language or higher mathematics. All animals have the ability to suffer in the same way and to the same degree that humans do. They feel pain, pleasure, fear, frustration, loneliness, and motherly love. Whenever we consider doing something that would interfere with their needs, we are morally obligated to take them into account.

Supporters of animal rights believe that animals have an inherent worth — a value completely separate from their usefulness to humans. We believe that every creature with a will to live has a right to live free from pain and suffering. Animal rights is not just a philosophy — it is a social movement that challenges society’s traditional view that all nonhuman animals exist solely for human use. As PETA founder Ingrid Newkirk has said, “When it comes to pain, love, joy, loneliness, and fear, a rat is a pig is a dog is a boy. Each one values his or her life and fights the knife.”

Only prejudice allows us to deny others the rights that we expect to have for ourselves. Whether it’s based on race, gender, sexual orientation, or species, prejudice is morally unacceptable. If you wouldn’t eat a dog, why eat a pig? Dogs and pigs have the same capacity to feel pain, but it is prejudice based on species that allows us to think of one animal as a companion and the other as dinner.

CRUELTY TO ANIMALS

Cruelty to animals refers to treatment or standards of care that cause unwarranted or unnecessary suffering or harm to animals. There are many different reasons why individuals abuse animals. Animal cruelty covers a wide range of actions (or lack of action), so one blanket answer simply isn’t possible. Each type of abuse has displayed certain patterns of behaviour that we can use to help understand more about why people commit the crimes we encounter today. Animal cruelty is often broken down into two main categories: active and passive, also referred to as commission and omission, respectively. Passive cruelty is typified by cases of neglect, where the crime is a lack of action rather than the action itself. Examples of neglect are starvation, dehydration, parasite infestations, allowing a collar to grow into an animal’s skin, inadequate shelter in extreme weather conditions, and failure to seek veterinary care when an animal needs medical attention.

Active cruelty implies malicious intent, where a person has deliberately and intentionally caused harm to an animal, and is sometimes referred to as NAI (Non-Accidental Injury). Acts of intentional cruelty are often some of the most disturbing and should be considered signs of serious psychological problems. This type of behaviour is often associated with sociopathic behaviour and should be taken very seriously.

Discussion

1. How do you understand Peter Singer’s statement: “The basic principle of equality does not require equal or identical treatment; it requires equal consideration” (see the text “Why Animal Rights?”). Do you agree with it?

2. Do you believe that lack of care towards animals can be regarded as animal abuse?

3. Do you think that individuals who are cruel to animals are socially dangerous?

4. Which of the following human activities can be classified as animal abuse:

· using animals in experimentation (in medicine, pharmacology, testing cosmetics, etc.);

· vivisection;

· using animals for entertainment (circuses, film making);

· using animals for food;

· killing animals for their skins, fur, etc.;

· using animals in sports (horse racing, corrida, etc.);

· hunting, whaling;

· pets’ sterilization;

· keeping wild animals in captivity (zoos);

· killing pests (sewer rats, house mice, garden slugs, etc.)

5. Why should people be concerned about animal rights and neglect the rights of other living beings, such as plants, fungi, etc.?

VI. Solve the following puzzle and read the saying of Jean Henri Fabre, a French naturalist. The clues below will help you – each number corresponds to a letter in the English words defined in the table below

3-19-15-8-1-7-23 21-2-6-2-5-7-11-8-2-15 8-3-2 5-11-8-8-6-2-13-19-2-6-18-15 10-3-2-7-2-1-17 10-2 14-2-2-8 1-20-7 18-2-11-8-3, 5-20-8 19-8 15-21-1-7-17-15 8-1 15-24-2-11-4 1-13 8-3-2 24-6-1-10-2-18 13-9-2-6-18-15 10-3-2-7-2-5-23 10-2 8-3-7-19-9-2.

19-8 4-17-1-10-15 8-3-2 17-11-14-2-15 1-13 8-3-2 4-19-17-22-15’ 5-11-15-8-11-7-18-15 5-20-8 21-11-17-17-1-8 8-2-6-6 20-15 8-3-2 1-7-19-22-19-17 1-13 10-3-2-11-8.

8-3-19-15 19-15 8-3-2 10-11-23 1-13 3-20-14-11-17 13-1-6-6-23.

A complex tissue in the vascular system of higher plants that consists of vessels, tracheids, or both usually together with wood fibres and parenchyma cells, functions chiefly in conduction of water and dissolved minerals but also in support and food storage, and typically constitutes the woody element (as of a plant stem). 16-23-6-2-14
A complex tissue in the vascular system of higher plants that consists mainly of sieve tubes and elongated parenchyma cells usually with fibres and that functions in translocation and in support and storage. 24-3-6-1-2-14
A stem or branch with its leaves and appendages especially when not yet mature. 15-3-1-1-8
The part of a stamen that produces and contains pollen and is usually borne on a stalk. 11-17-8-3-2-7
A small lateral or terminal protuberance on the stem of a plant that may develop into a flower, leaf, or shoot. 5-20-18
A longitudinal flexible rod of cells that in the lowest chordates (as a lancelet or a lamprey) and in the embryos of the higher vertebrates forms the supporting axis of the body. 17-1-8-1-21-3-1-7-18
Any of numerous cold-blooded strictly aquatic craniate vertebrates that have typically an elongated somewhat spindle-shaped body terminating in a broad caudal fin, limbs in the form of fins when present at all, and a 2-chambered heart. 13-19-15-3
A chamber of the heart which receives blood from a corresponding atrium and from which blood is forced into the arteries. 9-2-17-8-7-19-21-6-2
Any of a class or division of vascular plants that have the ovules and seeds enclosed in an ovary and form the embryo and endosperm by double fertilization — called also flowering plant. 11-17-22-19-1-15-24-2-7-14
A relatively small elongated usually naked and soft-bodied animal; platyhelminth. 13-6-11-8-10-1-7-14
The bony or more or less cartilaginous framework supporting the soft tissues and protecting the internal organs of a vertebrate. 15-3-2-6-2-8-1-17

Unit 5

Lesson 1

ANTHROPOGENESIS

PRE-READING TASKS

Vocabulary notes

as compared with – порівняно із

take account of – враховувати

correspond closely with – бути наближеним, схожим; відповідати

susceptibility to a disease – сприйнятливість до хвороби

be concerned with – бути пов’язаним із

Lesson 2

EVOLUTION

PRE-READING TASKS

Vocabulary notes

account for – відповідати за

with no regard for / without regard for – не зважаючи на

keep something in check – тримати під контролем

VIII. Some of the science-related words can be misused by students of English due to similarities in their meanings. Study the examples below and discuss the difference between the highlighted words. Use a dictionary to find more about their meanings

1. Natural selection can be studied by analyzing its effects on changing gene frequencies; but it can also be explored by examining its effects on the observable characteristics—or phenotypes—of individuals in a population.

2. Paleontologists have recovered and studied the fossil remains of many thousands of organisms that lived in the past.

3. The problem of the origin of Homo sapiens from his Middle Pleistocene forebears is complex; hence, it is valuable to examine in detail those specimens that come from the earliest well-dated sites.

4. Since the 1960s a related scientific discipline, molecular biology, has advanced enormously knowledge of biological evolution and has made it possible to investigate detailed problems that seemed completely out of reach a few years earlier.

5. Investigations of hominid origins are variously concerned with diverse comparative studies of extant higher primates and humans, as well as the search for ancestors in the fossil record.

6. Five major areas of research can be identified in human evolutionary studies: the origins of Hominidae, adaptation and diversification of the genus Australopithecus, the origins of the genus Homo, the emergence of Homo erectus and subsequent hominid occupation of Eurasia, and the origins and dispersals of premodern and modern Homo sapiens.

7. Scientific Officer required to assist with a project researching intracellular events in scrapie-infected cells.

A B



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