VI. The words below can be easily confused because of their similar pronunciation and spelling. Using a dictionary learn the meanings of these words and explain the difference between them 

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VI. The words below can be easily confused because of their similar pronunciation and spelling. Using a dictionary learn the meanings of these words and explain the difference between them

Success; succeed; successive; succession; successful; successfully; successor; succeeding.

VII. Use the words from the previous exercise in the following sentences

1. Chimeraplasty has been ________ tested in animals, and investigators have recently begun to test it in humans.

2. I didn't think my chances of ________ were very good.

3. The development of a seed requires that the megasporangium (the structure inside which the female egg will be formed) and the ________ development of an embryonic plant be surrounded by a covering referred to as an integument.

4. If the prince dies, the ________ passes to his son.

5. Eddie Murphy is one of Hollywood's most ________stars.

6. George VI died in 1952, leaving his elder daughter Elizabeth to ________ him.

7. ________ rows of cilia always beat slightly out of phase, causing a wavelike motion to pass over the cell surface.

8. Such an analysis is an important prerequisite to much of the discussion that follows in ________chapters.

9. She won the championship four times in ________.

10. The experiment was a big ________.

11. Scientists claim they have ________ in finding a cure for cancer.

12. His ________ died after only 15 months in office.

13. In April 2000, French researchers reported the ________ use of gene therapy to treat two female infants with human severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID)

14. The radiation caused by the military tests will add to the risks of genetic effects in ________ generations.

15. Several ________ governments have tried to deal with this issue.

16. Ecosystems are dynamic, in that the populations constituting them do not remain the same. This is reflected in the gradual changes of the vegetational community over time, known as ________.

17. Most clinical trials of gene therapy have not resulted in enough improvement in the patient’s underlying condition to consider it an unqualified ________ and to justify treating large numbers of people.

18. The research team ________ in finding a self-replicating RNA molecule that was only 218 nucleotides long.

19. In some methods the peptide is synthesized in solution by the ________ addition of amino acids to the amino acid chain.

20. He ________ completed a master's degree.


I. Read the following sentences and explain the use of modal verbs in them

1. These two central cell nuclei may become a binucleate cell, or the may fuse together, forming a single diploid nucleus.

2. Plants range in size and complexity from small, nonvascular mosses, which depend on direct contact with surface water, to giant sequoia trees, the largest living organisms, which can draw water and minerals through their vascular systems to elevations of more than 100 m.

3. The nucleus must not only synthesize the mRNA for many thousands of proteins, but it must also regulate the amounts synthesized and supplied to the cytoplasm.

4. On the one hand, water vapour is a greenhouse gas, and its increased presence should add to the insulating effect. On the other hand, more vapour in the atmosphere will produce more clouds, which reflect sunlight back into space, which should slow the warming process.

5. Gene therapy might help older people to regain strength in withered muscles and density in thinned bones, and to increase pumping power in their aging hearts.

6. One female silkworm moth need release only 10-8 grams of sex attractant per second in order to attract every male silkworm moth in a volume hundreds of meters to kilometers on a side.

7. Some researchers predict that in the distant future gene therapy could be used to eliminate genetic defects from families or even to produce “designer babies” with more muscle strength, higher intelligence, sweeter dispositions, or whatever traits parents desire.

II. Fill in can, may, must, need, should, might, and could in the sentences below

1. Researchers approached the use of retroviruses with caution because of concerns that they _____ attack inappropriate cells.

2. Neither ATP nor ADP, being large, charged molecules, ___ cross the membrane unaided, but ADP ____ enter and ATP ____ leave the mitochondrial matrix in order for ATP synthesis to continue.

3. Conservatives have argued that too much public money is being spent on the environment and that the federal government ____ play a much-reduced role in environmental regulation.

4. Heterotrophs — organisms that ____not manufacture their own food — usually lead less sedentary lives than plants, but they ultimately depend on autotrophs as sources of food.

5. Auxin, one of the most important plant hormones, is produced by growing stem tips and transported to other areas where it ____ either promote growth or inhibit it.

6. Once gene therapy methods have been developed in a laboratory and tested on animals, scientists ____ to prove that they work in humans.

7. Many people feel that because gene therapies use altered genes and potentially dangerous viruses, these treatments ____ be more extensively tested than drugs before being approved.

8. The extraordinary potential of gene therapy has also raised alarms among critics who warn that the technology ____ go too far.

9. Germ-line therapy is highly controversial because genetic alternations made to germ cells would change the genetic endowment of the unborn and ____ be passed on to future generations.

10. Today many domesticated plants ____ scarcely be traced back to their wild ancestors or to the original plant communities in which they originated.

III. Translate the following sentences using modal verbs

1. Мутації можна штучно стимулювати за допомогою рентгенівських та ультрафіолетових променів.

2. Зоологи вважають, що розведення диких тварин у неволі не можна вважати західом, який замінить охорону видів у дикій природі.

3. Ще з часів перших спроб освоєння та одомашнення тварин і рослин люди зрозуміли, що характерні риси батьків можуть передаватися їхньому потомству.

4. Сучасному суспільству потрібно розвивати енергозберігаючі технології та відновлювати енергетичні ресурси.

5. Залежно від тканини-цілі, певний гормон може виявляти різну дію.

6. Для того щоб передати спадкові ознаки від батьків до нащадків, генетична інформація, закодована у ДНК, повинна бути скопійована з великою точністю під час поділу клітини.

7. Коли вчені виділяють цікавий фрагмент ДНК, їм необхідно визначити чи відповідає послідовність нуклеотидів у цьому фрагменті їх послідовності у відомих генах, та з’ясувати, який білок він міг би кодувати.

8. Культиватори рослин можуть поширювати старі культури у нові регіони та знаходити для них нові застосування.

9. У багатьох видів рослин існують чоловічі та жіночі особини, і пилок чоловічих квіток повинен бути перенесений на жіночу квітку для запилення і розвитку насіння.

10. Епідерміс може містити трихоми, крихітні, переважно волоскоподібні утвори.




I. Listen to the text about fruit and answer the questions (a-c). Before listening discuss the meanings of the words and phrases in the box

dispersal of the seeds ash elm maple tree of heaven to spin helicopter blade dandelion hitching ride to exemplify burdock   prickled barbed sticky fleshy to be regurgitated

a) What is a fruit?

b) What plants can have fruit?

c) Why are fruits so important for plant reproduction?

II. Listen again and fill in the spaces in the chart below

plant way of seed dispersing major adaptations
· coconut · ash, elm, maple · burdock · berries    

III. Listen to the poem by Henry Abbey and fill in the gaps with the appropriate words to complete the text of the poem below. Before listening, make sure you understand the words in the box

mast sail plank to withstand gale keel keelson beam knee   rafter shingle studding lath   siding spire crag staff to out-tower


What do we plant ___________________?

______________, which will cross the sea.

We plant the mast _______________;

_______ the planks ___________ the gales –

The keel, the keelson, the beam, _________;




We plant ________________________.

We plant the rafters, the shingles, ________,

We plant the studding, the lath, ________,

The beams, the siding, ______________;




What do we plant when we plant the tree?

______________________ we daily see;

We plant the spire _________________,

We plant the staff _________________,

We plant __________________ sun free;


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