III. Match two parts of the sentences



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III. Match two parts of the sentences



1. We can't just measure birth and death rates and make a simple projection. We have to… 2. Eugenics is… 3. Differences in drought tolerance, root distribution, vegetative phenology, and stomatal behavior between taxa… 4. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family and it is unusual with respect to its biology and pathogenesis as… 5. Most traits and diseases in humans are not so simple, and are referred to as “multifactorial.” This term indicates that a disease has some genetic components that influence the… a) …compared with the other members of the family. b) … susceptibility to a disease, but there are also environmental and other unknown causes that must also be present for expression of the disease. c) …concerned with improving the human race through heredity. d) …correspond closely with water uptake limits. e) …take account of the variability in birth and death rates.

IV. Answer the following questions about the text “Anthropogenesis”

1. What class, order and family does Homo sapiens belong to?

2. What similarities in brain morphology and physiology between large apes and humans can be observed?

3. What other features reveal phylogenetic relationship between Homo sapiens and large apes?

4. Name the main stages of hominid evolution.

5. What environmental changes coincide with the emergence of Homo sapiens?

6. Where did scientists find the sites of the earliest human settlements?

7. What developments in the skull anatomy can be observed in Homo sapiens that differentiate them from their precursors?

8. What morphological adaptations in humans are related with upright posture?

9. In what way did humans benefit from bipedalism?

10. What skills did humans develop due to their hands’ capability of power and precision grip?

V. Complete the sentences below

1. The order Primates includes…

2. Some structural similarities between large apes and modern humans suggest…

3. The Pleistocene epoch is characterized by…

4. The main trends in the evolution of the human skull…

5. The curves of the human vertebral column have developed…

6. Human knees lock back because…

7. Due to the thighbones’ inclining towards the midline…

8. Human arms swing during walking in order to…

9. Human hands are capable of the precision grip due to…

10. As a result of the parallel development of the human brain and hands…

VI. Look for the English equivalents of the following words in the text “Anthropogenesis”

Наближатись, відповідати; вражаючий, помітний; значення; початок, настання; обертання; ефективний, результативний; нахил; такий, що приводить у рух; точність; попутно.

VII. Use the words and expressions from the previous exercise to fill in the gaps in the sentences below

1. The patients studied were seen and treated up to 3 hours from the _________ of symptoms.

2. The angle of the telescope’s _________ is 43 degrees.

3. The Miocene epoch was a _________ phase in primate evolution in which there appears to have been an increase in the numbers of larger primates that were widely spread throughout the Old World.

4. The males and females of this taxon may have been markedly different in body size, which has _________ for any attempts to reconstruct the social organization of these creatures.

5. The rise of criminal rate occurred _________ with the rise of urbanism.

6. It takes 243 Earth days for Venus to complete one _________ around the sun.

7. The bones of this specimen are still apelike in some features, but it is almost certain that the individual from which they came could manipulate objects with _________.

8. My new computer is much faster and more _________ than the old one was.

9. Sunlight is absorbed by dark surface materials and heats the surface to temperatures that sometimes _________ normal room temperature on Earth.

10. The feet are the base, in both standing and walking, through which weight and _________ efforts are transmitted to the ground.

FOCUS ON GRAMMAR

I. Look at the following sentences paying attention to the use of the degrees of comparison of adjectives and adverbs

1. The brains of larger tailless anthropoid apes, although much smaller than a modern human brain, are relatively well developed as compared with lower primates and have the same patterns of convolutions as the human brain has.

2. Homo sapiens emerged during the Pleistocene epoch, which was marked by the gradual onset of a cooler climate in many parts of the world about 2.5 million years ago and by a general lowering of temperature that finally led to the great Ice Ages.

3. At the same time, the whole skull tends to become lighter and more delicate in its structures.

4. It seems likely that the precision grip evolved later than the power grip and that its perfection may even have been a specialization in Homo sapiens.

5. At the beginning of the geologic phase now called the Tertiary period — about 66.4 million years ago — there were in existence the most primitive of the primates.

II. Use the adjectives from the brackets in the correct degree

1. One of the ________ (early) defining human traits, bipedalism — the ability to walk on two legs — evolved over 4 million years ago.

2. Australopiths had _______ (short) and ________ (little) flexible toes than do apes.

3. Oldowan toolmakers sought out the ________ (good) stones for making tools and carried them to food-processing sites.

4. With the evolution of late Homo, humans began to hunt even the _______ (large) animals on Earth, including mastodons and mammoths, members of the elephant family.

5. The australopith ilium, or pelvic bone, which rises above the hip joint, was much _______ (short) and ________ (broad) than it is in apes.

6. About 98 percent of the genes in people and chimpanzees are identical, making chimps the ________ (close) living biological relatives of humans.

7. The biochemical systems of modern Asian and European human populations appear to be ________ (similar) to each other than those of either group are to African populations.

8. The ________ (early) monkeys and apes evolved from ancestral haplorhine (meaning "simple-nosed") primates, of which the ________ (primitive) living representative is the tarsier.

9. The foramen magnum (the area of the skull through which the spinal cord passes) lies ________ (near) the centre of the skull in Australopithecus africanus than it does in the apes.

10. Human brains are much ________ (large) and ________ (complex) than those of apes, and people have a unique intellectual capacity and elaborate forms of culture and communication.

III. Translate the sentences below into English

1. Орангутанги, великі людиноподібні мавпи з південно-східної Азії, відрізняються від людини значно більше, ніж шимпанзе, що свідчить про більш віддалену еволюційну спорідненість.

2. Як люди, так і людиноподібні мавпи мають більший мозок та значно кращу здатність до сприйняття, ніж більшість інших ссавців.

3. Викопні рештки найдавніших людей, які жили від 5 до 2 мільйонів років тому, було знайдено лише у Африці.

4. Для деяких видів австралопітеків був характерним значний ступінь статевого диморфізму – самці були набагато більшими від самок.

5. Пальці людиноподібних мавп є довшими, сильнішими і більш зігнутими, ніж у людини, що робить їх краще пристосованими до висіння та розгойдування на гілках дерев.

6. Найбільш важливим серед досі знайдених викопних решток виду Homo ergaster є майже цілий скелет молодого самця із західної Туркани, Кенія, вік якого складає приблизно 1,55 мільйонів років.

7. Кістки представників виду Homo erectus, череп включно, були товстішими, ніж у більш ранніх видів.

8. Найвідоміша колекція викопних решток Homo erectus була розкопана у 1920-30-х роках німецьким анатомом та антропологом Францом Вайденрайхом у печері неподалік від Пекіна у Китаї.

9. Ретельне вивчення викопних решток давніх людей на території Африки, Азії та Європи, а також їхніх кам’яних знарядь допоможе вченим краще зрозуміти причини, які зумовили та зробили можливою першу міграцію людини з Африки.

10. Об’єм черепа неандертальців був дещо більшим за середній об’єм черепа сучасної людини.

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