VI. Use the words and expressions from the previous exercise to fill in the gaps in the sentences below

Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!

Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!

Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


VI. Use the words and expressions from the previous exercise to fill in the gaps in the sentences below

1. Photosynthesis is a highly ________ process.

2. Rain forests are home to numerous species, ________ and epiphytes.

3. He thinks they have reached an evolutionary ________.

4. Campbell's broken leg will probably ________ surgery.

5. It's an issue that can be ________ from several perspectives.

6. The award is given for notable or ________ achievement in science.

7. Its unusual nesting habits ________ this bird from others.

8. Size is not the only difference between male and female ________.

9. This enzyme is ________ from human blood.

10. In ________ symmetrical animals, sensory nerves are concentrated in the head.


I. Look at the following sentences and identify the form and function of the infinitives used in them

1. Lacking rigid cell walls, animals, unlike plants, are unable to utilize high osmotic pressures to regulate the intake of materials from the environment.

2. Animals are believed to have arisen evolutionary from ancestral Protista by a process of division of labour among cells.

3. The other 28 animal phyla are generally thought to have been derived from a flatworm or a flatworm-like ancestor.

4. The leaves are the chief organs of food production (photosynthesis), whereas roots serve to anchor the plant in space and to absorb water and mineral nutrients from the soil.

5. The root cap is also the structure that detects the pull of gravity and thus causes the root to grow downward.

6. When a bud begins to expand or a seed germinates, the cells of the apical meristem undergo mitosis, and soon three primary meristems develop from it.

II. Change the highlighted parts of the following sentences using the infinitive or infinitive constructions

1. It appears that certain sensory organs, such as eyes, have evolved quite independently in different animal groups.

2. Some fishes have electroreceptors with which they measure electric fields.

3. In very many animals chemical cues are responsible for elaborate communications about paths which they should follow, dangers which they should avoid, and other important events.

4. Most scientists consider that earth and the moon formed at the same time and in the same part of the solar system approximately 4.5 billion years ago.

5. The surface of Venus is so hot that it cannot maintain liquid water.

6. Any theory for the evolution of life from non-living systems requires an energy source that drives the chemical reactions.

7. It is believed that the lack of atmospheric shielding of earth’s surface from ultraviolet light prevented living organisms from having evolved in exposed locations.

8. It was very kind that you helped me with my laboratory work.

9. The Monera of today are astoundingly diverse, and it is likely that they represent the current products of many independent evolutionary lines that have been separate for millions of years.

10. Scientists were surprised when they learnt that the actual number of human genes is far lower than expected — only about 31,000 genes compared to the predicted 100,000 genes.

III. Translate the sentences below into English using the infinitive or infinitive constructions

1. Таксономічні системи використовуються не лише для визначення відношень між організмами. Вони також можуть допомогти в ідентифікації невідомих організмів.

2. Спроби класифікувати бактерії на основі еволюційної спорідненості (evolutionary affinity) ще не завершились створенням загальновизнаної класифікації.

3. Багато вчених вважають, що проект дослідження геному людини потенційно здатен зробити переворот як у лікуванні, так і в профілактиці багатьох хвороб.

4. Дослідники у галузі біоінформатики створили бази даних загального користування з виходом в Інтернет, щоб інформація про геном людини стала доступною для вчених по всьому світу.

5. Як відомо, клітинна стінка відіграє важливу структурну та фізіологічну роль у житті рослини.

6. Група вчених, що працює над цим проектом, сподівається завершити його до наступного року.

7. Вам може виявитися нелегко зрозуміти лекції цього професора без попередньої підготовки у галузі клітинної біології.

8. Группа науковців стверджує, що їм вдалося розробити ефективні ліки від раку легенів.

9. Вчені, задіяні у проекті, зазначили, що загальний напрямок дослідження імовірно може змінитися з надходженням нових даних.

10. Відома вівця Доллі була першою твариною, успішно клонованою із дорослого ссавця.




I. You will hear a text describing an unusual living creature discovered in late 1990s. Before listening discuss the words in the box with your fellow students and your teacher

adhesive disk asexual budding crustacean fledgling free-swimming individual jug-shaped larva latch merit molt shed trigger

II. Listen to the tape and fill in the table below

species name habitat morphology reproduction modes life cycles

III. Answer the following questions about Symbion pandora

1. Who discovered the new life form?

2. How do the scientists explain the choice of the name for the species?

3. When does the asexual stage or S. pandora’s reproduction take place?

4. What happens when the parent organism molts?

5. What is special about S. pandora’s regeneration of lost organs?

6. When does the sexual stage of reproduction start?

7. What is the dwarf male?

8. Where does fertilization take place?

9. What happens to the new individual produced as a result to the sexual stage of reproduction?

10. Why do you think the animal needs such a complicated life cycle?


Make a literary translation of the following passage into Ukrainian

Arthropods make up a phylum of invertebrates that includes insects, such as ants, beetles, and butterflies; crustaceans, such as lobsters, shrimps, and crabs; and arachnids, including scorpions, spiders, and ticks. In terms of sheer numbers and the variety of niches they fill, arthropods are the most successful animals on Earth. More than one million arthropod species have been identified — more than 20 times the number of known fish, amphibian, reptile, bird, and mammal species combined. This figure is considered a low estimate of the phylum's actual size because many arthropod species have yet to be discovered and documented. Some scientists suggest the number of arthropod species in tropical forests alone may approach six million to nine million.

Arthropods have adapted to life on land, at sea, and in the air. They occupy an array of habitats, from scorching deserts and scalding hot springs to snow-capped mountains and frigid fjords. As plant pollinators, nutrient recyclers, and prey for other animals, they are essential members of the web of life. If all arthropods suddenly were to perish, thousands of animals and plants that depend on their services soon would vanish as well.

Many arthropods, including shrimp, lobsters, and crabs, are harvested as food for people throughout the world. Other arthropods provide the ingredients for fabric dyes, wood preservatives, and medicines. Members of one arthropod class in particular — insects — can be formidable pests, devouring crops, destroying wood structures, and spreading malaria and other life-threatening disease.

Lesson 4



I. Answer the following questions

· What makes representatives of the phylum chordata different from other animals?

· Do you know the origin and the meaning of the word “chordata”?

· How many classes of vertebrates do you know?

II. Listen to the following words and practice their pronunciation

Abdominal organ, amphibian, caecilian, capillary, cartilaginous fish, cerebellum, cerebral cortex, cerebral hemisphere, chambered heart, chimera, diaphragm, eel, horn, jawless fish, keratin scales, lamprey, larva, mammal, nerve cord, notochord, reptile, salamander, salmon, sensory apparatus, squamate, sternum, sturgeon, swim bladder, tadpole, tuatara, turtle, ventricle.


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