Economic development of Great Britain



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Economic development of Great Britain



Great Britain is a highly developed industrial country. Shipbuilding is one of the principal industries of Great Britain. For centuries Britain has been the leading shipbuilder in the world.

Coal is the main source for the development of British industry. The biggest centres of iron and steel industries are situated in the neighbourhood of coal basins. They are Middlesborough, Newcastle, Cardiff, Glasgow, Sheffield. The disrict around Birmingham is a land of factories and mines.

Coal-mining, metallurgy, textile, shipbuilding are the older branches of industry. The new industries are the chemical, electrotechnical, automobile, aviation and electronics! The new industries have developed hand in hand with science and technology and are equipped to meet present technical demands.

Big cities and towns such as London, Glasgow, Manchester, Liverpool, Newcastle,

Sheffield and Birmingham have enterprises of nearly all branches of industry, old and new. The main centres of cotton and woolen industry are Leeds, Bradford and Manchester.

London, Liverpool and Glasgow are the biggest English ports. The products of Britain economy, for example, automobiles, textile, machinery, electronic equipment and many others, are exported to many countries of the world.

Agriculture is one of the largest and most important activities in Great Britain. The greater part of the land here is used for sheep-, cattle-, and dairy farming. Vegetables are grown in all parts of the country. The chief grain crops are wheat and barley.

Britain is known to be a pioneer in the industrial revolution. Since then Britain’s traditional economic strength has been its manufacturing. Great Britain is one of the highly industrialised countries in the world. Statistics says that for every person employed in agriculture, twelve are employed in industry. Most of the gross national product comes from manufacturing.

Britain is a self-sufficient country in energy. It has significant amounts of coal as well as oil and natural gas under the North Sea bottom.

Britain has large shipbuilding, electro-engineering, oil and chemical industries. The main features of it’s economy at the present time are consolidating of capital at a very high level, high profits of monopolists, accelerating inflation, high prices, growing unemployment.

Britain’s economic sickness has a long history and many causes. It was built up when the country had a monopolistic dominance in manufacture and trade. At that time she was supported by a large colonial empire. After World War 2nd these privileged positions changed. The old-fashioned structure of British industry could not adapt quickly to the new conditions on the world market. There is no such a quick growth of new industries in Britain as in other European countries.

Great Britain is a member of the Common Market. But this membership has not vitalized the British economy. Europe sells more to Britain than it buys from her. Britain’s trade balance is unfavourable. Any foreigner will see Britain’s prosperity but every Englishman knows that his country is in serious trouble.

Answer the following questions:

1.What is one of the principal industries of Great Britain?

2. Is coal the main source for the development of British industry?

3. Where are the biggest centres of iron and steel industries situated?

4. What branches of industry can be called as the old and what branches can be called the new ?

5. Where are the main centres of cotton and woolen industry situated?

6. What products of British economy are exported to many countries of the world?

7. Is agriculture one of the most important activities in Great Britain?

8. How is the greater part of the land used?

Exercises in word study:

1. Translate into Ukrainian:

the leading shipbuilder in the world, the principal industry, a land of factories and mines, situated in the neighbourhood of coal basins,have developed hand in hand with science and technology, enterprises of nearly all branches of industry,sheepfarming, cattle farming, dairy farming, chief crops.

2. Find English equivalents in the text:

Протягом віків, головне джерело розвитку, найбільші центри залізної та сталевої промисловості, найстаріші гілки промисловості, відповідати сучасному технічному попиту, експортують до багатьох країн світу, більша частина землі, овочі вирощують в усіх частинах країни.

3. Fill in the blanks:

1.… is known to be a pioneer … . 2. Statistics say that … employed in industry, twelve are employed in … . 3. Britain is a self-sufficient country in … . 4. The main features of the economy at the present time are … of capital at a very high level, high profits of … . 5. … economic sickness has a long history and many causes. 6. The old-fashioned structure of British industry could not … quickly to the new conditions on the … . 7. But this membership has not … the British economy. 8. The trade balance of … is unfavourable. 9. Every Englishman knows that his country is in … .



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