Say whether the following statements are true or false?



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Say whether the following statements are true or false?



1.Britain has been the leading steelmaker in the world.

2.Coal is the main source for the development of British industry.

3.Big cities of Great Britain are: New York, Washington, Los Angeles.

4. The main centres of aviation and electronics are Leeds,Bradford and Manchester.

5. The main industries are equipped to meet present technical demands.

6. The products of British economy are exported to many countries of the world.

7. Cattle farming is one of the largest activities in Great Britain.

8. Most of the gross national product comes from agriculture.

9. Britain is a self-sufficient country in energy.

10. There is no such a quick growth of new industries in Britain as in other European countries.

MANAGEMENT

Read and memorize the following words and word combinations:

objective мета
to be involved in бути зв’язаним з
top management вище керівництво
executive керівник
long-range plan довгостроковий план
to purchase купувати
middle management керівництво середньої ланки
division head керівник підрозділу
to be responsible for відповідати за
to operate smth керувати
to evaluate оцінювати
employee службовець
supervisory management безпосереднє керівництво
to assign smb, to smth направляти, розподіляти когось
skill майстерність, вміння
a work environment виробниче середовище
to accomplish виконувати
to encompass охоплювати, включати
authority повноваження
subordinate підлеглий
to issue orders видавати накази

Management

Management is the achievement of organizational objectives through people and other resources. The manager's job is to combine human and technical resources in the best way possible to achieve these objectives. Managers are not directly involved in production; they do not produce a finished product. Instead, they direct the efforts of others toward the company goals.

There are three levels of management in most organizations. Top management, the highest level of the management pyramid is comprised of the president, executive vice president and other key company executives. These people devote their time to developing long-range plans for the company. They make broad decisions such as whether to manufacture new products, to purchase other companies or to begin international operations. Middle management , the second level of the management pyramid, includes plant managers and division heads. Middle managers are responsible for developing detailed plans and procedures to implement the general plans of top management. They may, for example, determine the number to salespeople for a particular territory, operate a branch of a department store chain, select equipment for a new facility, or develop techniques for evaluating employee performance. Supervisory management, or first-line management, includes supervisors, foremen, department heads, section leaders who are directly responsible for details of assigning workers to specific jobs and evaluating daily - even hourly - performance. This first level of the pyramid has direct and continuing contact with production personnel and is responsible for putting into action the plans developed by middle management.

Every manager must possess three basic managerial skills: technical skills, human relation skills, and conceptual skills.

Technical skills refer to the manager's ability to understand and use techniques, knowledge, and tools of a specific discipline or department.

Human relations skills are "people" skills. They involve the manager's ability to work effectively with and through people. The ability to create a work environment in which organizational members will contribute their best efforts to achieve objectives is a crucial managerial skill at every level.

Conceptual skills refer to the ability of the manager to see the organization as a unified whole while also understanding how each part of the overall organization relates to other parts. These skills involve a manager's ability to "see the big picture" by acquiring, analyzing, and interpreting information.

Managers at every level in the organization perform four basic functions - planning, organizing directing and controlling - and they must be skillful in performing them if they are to accomplish their goals.

Planning is the process of setting goals for the organization and developing strategies to accomplish them. It encompasses decisions about the activities the organization should perform; the production, marketing, and financial strategies it should use in reaching its objectives; and the resources needed to accomplish its goals. Thus, planning involves the determination of courses of action to answer the questions of what should be done, by whom, where, when, and how.

Organizing involves coordinating the efforts of employees and assigning work activities in such a way that the goals of the organization can be accomplished.

Directing is the process of supervising and guiding employees so that plans are completed and goals are accomplished. It involves motivating people to do their best, explaining procedures, issuing orders, and seeing that mistakes are corrected.

Controlling is the function of evaluating the organization's performance to determine whether it is accomplishing its objectives. Controlling is linked closely to planning; in fact, the basic purpose of controlling is the determination of how successful the planning function has been.

Answer the following questions:

1. What is management?

2. What does the manager's job involve?

3. How many levels of management do you know?

4. What are the functions performed by top management?

5. What are middle managers responsible for?

6. Whom does supervisory management include? What are their functions?

7. What are the three skills required for managerial success?

8. What are the four functions of management?

9. What is meant by planning (organizing, directing, controlling)?

10. What is decision making?

Exercises in Word Study



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