ТОП 10:

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland


6.1.1 Phonetic exercises Read the words and remember their pronunciation


1) 1) Britain 2) 2) Europe 3) 3) The British Isles 4) Scotland 5) Wales 6) Northern Ireland 7) the North Sea 8) the English Channel   9) the Atlantic Ocean 10) The Irish Sea 11) the United King­dom 12) Ben Nevis 13) the Severn 14) the Clyde 15) Birmingham 16) Manchester 17) Liverpool 18) Cardiff 19) Sheffield 20) Newcastle 21) Belfast 22) Glasgow 23) London 24) Oxford 25) Cambridge 26) Edinburgh 27) Parliament 28) the House of Lords 29) the House of Commons 30) Conservative 31) Liberal 32) Labour Word list: 1 island 2 to consist of 3 to be situated 4 to separate 5 total 6 area 7 to influence 8 mountain 9 dense 10 steel 11 queen 12 to belong 13 to elect 14 to protect 15 to support 16 coast 17 mild [brit(∂)n] ['ju∂r∂p] ['briti ∫ ailz] ['skotl∂nd] [weilz] [nэ:ðn 'ai∂l∂nd] [пэ: θ si:] [iηgli∫ t∫æln]   [∂t'læntik ou∫n] [airi∫ si:] [ju:'naitid 'kiηd∂m]   [ben 'nevis] ['sev∂n] [klaid] ['b∂:miη∂m] ['mæ nt∫ist∂] ['liv∂pu:l] ['ka:dif] ['∫efild] ['nju:kasl] [b∂l'fa:st] ['gla:sgou] ['lΛnd∂n] ['эksf∂d] ['keimbrid3] ['edinb∂r∂] ['pα:lΛm∂nt] [haus ∂v lэ:dz] [haus ∂v'kэmenz]   [k∂n 's∂:v∂tiv] ['lib∂r∂l] ['leib∂]   ['ail∂nd] [k∂n'sist ∂v] ['sitju:eitid] ['sep∂reit] [toutl] ['ε∂ri∂] ['influ∂ns] ['mauntin] ['dens] ['sti:l] [kwi:n] [bi'lэη] [i'lekt] [pr∂'tekt] [s∂'pэ:t] [koust] [maild] Британия Европа Британские острова Шотландия Уэльс Северная Ирландия Северное море Английский канал (пролив Ла-Манш) Атлантический океан Ирландское море Соединенное Королевство   Бен Нэвис Северн Клайд Бирмингем Манчестер Ливерпуль Кардиф Шеффилд Ньюкасл Белфаст Глазго Лондон Оксфорд Кембридж Эдинбург Парламент Палата Лордов Палата Общин   Консервативный Либеральный Трудовой   остров состоять из быть расположенным разделять общий площадь влиять гора плотный сталь королева принадлежать выбирать защищать поддерживать побережье мягкий Guess the meaning of the words:


Continent, ocean, climate, peak, industry, transport, textile, shipbuilding, well- known, agriculture, Parliament, lord, capital. Give English equivalents to Russian words and word combinations


1 состоять из 2 располагаться 3 побережье 4 разделять 5 общая площадь 6 мягкий 7 влиять 8 море 9 замерзать 10 плотно населённый 11 университет 12 морской порт 1 coast 2 to freeze 3 to separate 4 to be situated 5 total 6 densely populated 7 sea 8 mild 9 to consist of 10 to influence 11 seaport 12 university

6.1.2 Text

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles. They are washed by the North Sea, the Irish Sea, the Atlantic Ocean and the English Channel.

England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, with a total area of 94,212 square miles.

The climate of the British Isles is rather mild, it’s not very hot in summer and not very cold in winter. The British Isles are warmed by the Gulf Stream. The wind from the sea greatly influences the weather. The riv­ers do not freeze in winter and snow never lies on the ground for long. The British Isles have no high mountains.

There are many rivers in Britain, but they are not very long. The longest of the English rivers is the Severn which flows south-west into the Irish Sea. The Scotland's most important river is the Clyde.

The population of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is about 60 million people. It is one of the most densely popu­lated countries in Europe. Less than one million people work in agricul­ture, all the other work in industry, transport, education and other pro­fessions.

England is one of the most powerful capitalist countries in Europe. There are many big industrial cities here such as Birmingham, Manches­ter, Liverpool, Cardiff, Sheffield and many others. One of the leading industries of Great Britain is the textile industry. It is highly developed in Liverpool and Manchester. The shipbuilding industry is of great im­portance for Britain. It is centered in London, Glasgow, Newcastle and in Belfast. Sheffield is the city of steel. Seaports play a great part in the life of the country. London, Liverpool and Glasgow are the biggest Eng­lish ports. Oxford, Cambridge and Edinburgh are old university towns.

Great Britain is a capitalist state. The queen is the head of the state. But according to the legislation power in the country belongs to Parliament. The British Parliament consists of the House of Lords and the House of Commons, which is elected by the people. The members of the House of Lords are not elected.

There are many political parties in Britain - Conservative, Liberal, Labour and others. The Labour Party governs now in Britain. Answer the questions to the text


1 Where is Great Britain situated?

2 What countries make up the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland?

3 What seas and oceans are the British Isles washed by?

4 What kind of climate do the British Isles have?

5 Are the mountains there high or low?

6 What is the highest peak in Great Britain?

7 What is the longest river there?

8 What is the population of Great Britain?

9 What are the main branches of industry there? Name their centers.

10 Seaports play a great part in the life of the country, don't they?

11 What can you say about Oxford, Cambridge and Edinburgh?

12 Is England a republic or monarchy?

13 Who is the head of the state?

14 How many Houses does the British Parliament consist of?

15 Which House of Parliament is elected by people?

16 What political parties are there in Britain? Give antonyms to words (you may find them in the text)

East, to join, severe, low, ugly, warm, small, hot, to melt, new Supply prepositions or adverbs where it is necessary:

1 Great Britain consists ... three parts.

2 Great Britain is washed ... many seas.

3 ... the west Great Britain is washed .... the Atlantic Ocean and the
Irish Sea.

4 The wind ... the sea greatly influences ... the weather.

5 Great Britain is separated ... the continent ... the North Sea and
English Channel.

6 The population ... Great Britain is ... 60 million people.

7 The ship-building industry is ... great importance ... Britain.

8 The members ... the House ... Commons are elected ... the people. Explain the difference between England, Great Britain, the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Brit­ish Isles (show them on the map) Look at the map and describe the geographical situation of the British Isles Say why seaports are of very great importance for Britain Speak about the government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland


The King or the Queen

The Parliament
The House of Lords The House of Commons

The Premier



The ministry

The Cabinet of Ministers



The Chancellor of the Exchequer   The Secretary for Foreign Affairs     The Minister of Health


  The Home Secretary   The Minister for Defense   The President of the Board of Trade

6.1.3 Additional exercises Read the text, ask 5 questions, be ready to retell the text

London, one of the world's biggest cities, situated on the River Thames is the capital of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North­ern Ireland, the seat of the Government, a great industrial and cultural centre and one of the Britain's most important ports.

Greater London has a population of nearly 8 million and an area of 620 square miles. London is divided into 3 parts: the City, the West End and the East End.

The City of London is the business center. It contains the Bank of England, big banks and business offices.

In the West End the richer people live. Here we find most of the big shops, restaurants, museums, art galleries, theatres and concert halls. The East End includes the poorer districts, the industrial centre and London docks.

London is a great center of transport. Industry is also an important part of capital's life. It is the centre of many modern British industries, its workers produce clothes, boots, shoes and many other goods.



the river Thames река Темза

government правительство

area площадь

to contain содержать

to include включать

to produce производить Read and translate into Russian the following sentences:


1 The British capital is a very old city; each century brought new
historical monuments.

2 London's Underground Railway, though not so beautiful as Moscow's
Metro, is older and larger than it and is very convenient for getting from
one district to another.

3 In the Clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament there is the famous Big
Ben, the clock from which all people in Britain take the time.

4 Near the Houses of Parliament is Westminster Abbey, a
very beautiful church built over nine hundred years ago.

5 Trafalgar Square is the geographical centre of London where the
Nelson column rises, a monument to Admiral Nelson for his victories in
the war against Napoleon.

6 The Buckingham Palace, the residence of the queen of England, is a
beautiful building in large gardens.

7 Hyde Park, like Trafalgar Square, is often the place of political rallies for peace and the rights of the working people.

8 There are 14 bridges across the Thames, the famous Westminster and London bridges being among them.




each century convenient church Trafalgar Square the Nelson Column Napoleon Buckingham Palace queen Hyde Park каждый век удобный церковь Трафальгарская площадь Колонна Нельсона Наполеон Букингемский дворец королева Гайд-парк Answer the questions

1 What kind of city is London?

2 What river is it situated on?

3 What is the population and total area of London?

4 What well-known districts of London do you know?

5 Is London a centre of modern British industries? What are they?

6 The British capital is a very old city, isn't it?

7 What is the difference between London's Underground Railway and
Moscow's Metro?

8 What is the Clock Tower famous for?

9 How many years ago was Westminster Abbey built?

10 What square is the geographical centre of London? What else is it
famous for?

11 Where does the English queen live?

12 What place are the rallies often held at?

13 How many bridges are there across the Thames? Name some of
them. Speak about London and its sights according to the plan


1 The importance of London

2 Population. Area

3 Districts

4 Industry

5 London's Underground Railway

6 The Houses of Parliament

7 Westminster Abbey

8 Trafalgar Square

9 Buckingham Palace and Hyde Park

10 London Bridges


6.1.4 Read the text and retell it in Russian


The History of the English Language New words


Ancient inhabitants - people who lived in Great Britain long ago

the Celts кельты

the Saxons саксы

Germanic tribes германские племена

the Angles англы

to settle поселяться


The ancient inhabitants of Great Britain were the Celts. The language then was not like the English of today.

Only a few of their words remained in the language now, spoken by the English people. Great Britain was occupied by the Romans. The Roman period of British history lasted 465 years.

Then the Saxons came and settled down in the land. These Germans were the founders of the English nation. By and by came other Germanic tribes who settled on different parts of the coast. Among those tribes were people called the Angles. When the Angles and Saxons grew into one, they were called Anglo-Saxons or Angles English. The name they gave to the country was England. New words


the Normans норманны

William the Conqueror Вильгельм Завоеватель

at the head of во главе

master повелитель

to differ отличаться

order приказ

pronunciation произношение


The Normans came to Great Britain in 1065 and the great battle be­tween the English and Normans began. The battle in which the Normans won was near the town Hastings.

William who was at the head of the Normans was called the Conqueror after this battle and became the King of England. Though the Normans became the master of England the Saxons didn't want to speak their language and the Normans had to learn English to make the English people understand their orders. In this way Anglo-Saxon, changed a little by the Normans be­came the real English language of the future, and that's why the pronuncia­tion of the English words differs so much from their spelling.


6.1.5 Speak about the history of the English language

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