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Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
Wednesday, Sunday, Saturday, Monday, Thursday, Friday, Tuesday
morning, evening, noon, midnight, afternoon
dinner, breakfast, supper, lunch
3.1.4 Find the equivalents
3.1.5 Give the translation of the following nouns formed from the verbs
to add (прибавлять, складывать) → addition
to build (строить, сооружать) → building
to consult [k∂nsΛlt] (советоваться, консультироваться) → consultation
to concentrate [konsntreıt] (сосредоточивать(ся), концентрировать(ся)) → concentration
to engage [ın´geıdз]( занимать, заниматься) → engagement
to train (тренировать(ся) → training
to subtract [s∂b´trækt] (вычитать) → subtraction
3.1.6 Read the following vocabulary. Try to remember words and word combinations
to arrive – прибывать, достигать
to be back to – возвращаться, вернуться
to be busy with smth. – быть занятым, заниматься чем-л.
to be fond of smth. – любить что-л.
to be fond of music \ sports – любить, увлекаться музыкой \ спортом
to be interested in smth. – интересоваться чем-л.
to be in time – прийти вовремя, поспеть
to be late – опоздать, опаздывать
to be on one’s own – быть самостоятельным
to bother – беспокоить, надоедать
to bother about smth. – беспокоиться о чем-л.
don’t bother! – Не стоит беспокоится
to call – звать; называть
to call for smb. – заходить за кем-л.
to call up \ on smb. – навестить кого-л.
to do cooking – готовить
to do ironing – гладить
to do washing – стирать
washing machine – стиральная машина
to do homework – выполнять домашнее задание
to eat – есть
to finish – заканчивать (ся)
to get dressed – одеваться
to get ready for smth. – приготовиться к чему-л.
to get up – вставать
to go – идти
to go out – выйти, выходить на воздух
to go through – испытывать; подвергаться, выдержать
to have tea \ coffee – выпить чай \ кофе
to have a cup of tea \ coffee – выпить чашку чая \ кофе
to last – длиться, продолжаться
to leave – покидать, уезжать
to leave home for somewhere – уезжать из дома куда-л.
to listen – слушать
to listen to music – слушать музыку
to live – жить
to live in a house \ flat – жить в доме \ квартире
living – жизнь, образ жизни
standard of living – уровень жизни
life – жизнь
lifestyle – стиль жизни
to look – смотреть
to look at – смотреть на
to look through – просматривать
to look through letters \ mail \ newspapers – просматривать письма \ почту \ газеты
to make use of smth. – использовать
to marry smb. – выйти замуж за кого-л., жениться на ком-л.
to get married to smb. – выйти замуж за кого-л., жениться на ком-л.
to move outside – выходить на (открытый) воздух
to know – знать
to know well – знать хорошо
to pick up smb. – подвезти, подбросить кого-л.
to play – играть
to play football \ golf \ tennis – играть в футбол \ гольф \ теннис
to play the piano \ violin – играть на пианино \ скрипке
to recite – рассказывать, амер. отвечать урок
to rest – отдыхать
to spend (spent, spent) time \ vocations – проводить время \ каникулы
to start – начинать (ся)
to stay – оставаться; гостить, останавливаться
to stay at home \ the university – оставаться дома \ в университете
to stay in the office – оставаться в офисе
to stay somewhere – оставаться где-л.
to stay with friends – останавливаться, гостить у друзей
to teach (taught, taught) – учить, обучать
to telephone \ to make a call – звонить
to wake up (woke, waked; woken, waked) – просыпаться
to wear (wore, worn) – носить (одежду), быть одетым
to work – работать
to work on – работать над
afternoon – время после полудня, послеобеденное время
in the afternoon – после полудня, днем
bathroom – ванная комната
to bathe \ to have a bath \ to have a wash – купаться, мыться
bed – кровать, постель
to go to bed – ложиться спать
to make one’s bed – заправлять кровать
breakfast – завтрак
at breakfast – за завтраком
for breakfast – на завтрак
to have breakfast - завтракать
camping – кемпинг
central heating – центральное отопление
clothes – одежда
to change clothes – переодеваться, переодеться
decision – решение
to make decisions – принимать решения
dinner – обед
at dinner – за обедом
for dinner – на обед
to have dinner - обедать
divorce – развод
to divorce – развестись, разводиться
divorced – разведенный
to be divorced from – развестись с кем-л.
engagement – занятие
to be engaged in – заниматься, быть занятым
evening – вечер
in the evening – вечером
food – еда, пища
freezer \ refrigerator – холодильник
exercise – упражнение
to do morning exercises – делать утреннюю зарядку
gardening – садоводство
holiday (часто pl.) – отпуск, каникулы; выходной, праздник
housekeeper – домохозяйка
midnight – полночь
at midnight – в полночь
Monday – понедельник
on Monday – в понедельник
morning – утро
in the morning – утром
lunch – обед
at lunch – за обедом
for lunch – на обед
to have lunch – обедать
nap – дремота, короткий сон
to have a nap – вздремнуть
noon – полдень
at noon – в полдень
pub – пивная
reception – прием, вечеринка
relatives – родственники
route – маршрут
supper – ужин
at supper – за ужином
for supper – на ужин
to have supper – ужинать
television (TV) – телевидение; телевизор
on TV – по телевидению; по телевизору
to watch TV – смотреть телевизор
time – время
to have a good time – хорошо проводить время
free time \ pastime – свободное время
weekend – время отдыха с пятницы или субботы до понедельника
at weekends – на выходных
video-recorder – видео-магнитофон
records – записи
asleep – спящий
to be asleep – спать
to fall asleep – засыпать, заснуть
3.1.7 Find pairs of synonyms
3.1.8 Find pairs of words and word combinations with the opposite meaning
3.1.9 Read the definitions and try to guess words
1) to have an interest to
2) to smooth (clothes) with an iron
3) the particular way of life of a person or a group
4) to turn one’s eyes in some direction
5) a person who manages a house
6) an apparatus for recording and playing videotapes
7) to give trouble to; worry, disturb
8) have in the mind; have learned
9) to continue for a specified time
10) to repeat aloud from memory
11) to examine the content of smth.
12) twelve o’clock in the day
3.1.10 Put the words into the text
Stan Dixon is a shop assistant. He sells men’s clothes in a small shop. It is a tiring job.
Stan …(1)… at seven o’clock. After …(2)… he …(3)… to work by …(4)… He …(5)… work at a quarter past nine; the shop …(6)… at half past nine. Stan …(7)… lunch at twelve and then …(8)… from 12.45 until 5.45. On Saturdays Stan …(8)… at one o’clock. On Sundays he …(9)…cycling or …(10)… tennis. Stan does not …(11)…his job much.
3.1.11 Make up sentences
3.2 Text “My working day”
3.2.1 Read the text
My working day begins early. I always get up at 6 o’clock. Before I leave for the university I have a lot of things to do. First of all I do my morning exercises. When doing them I usually open the window and switch on the radio. I like to do my morning exercises to music. Then I go to the bathroom where I wash, clean my teeth and dress. At a quarter to seven I am ready to have breakfast. While having breakfast I often listen to the latest news on the radio or look through the newspapers.
It doesn’t take me long to have breakfast. At a quarter past seven I leave for the University. As I live far from the university I go there by bus. It usually takes me half an hour to get there. I seldom walk to the university in the mornings because I have no time.
I am never late. I always come to the university in time. Between classes we have short breaks. I usually have lunch in the university’s cafeteria.
As a rule we have three lectures or seminars a day. Classes are over at about 2 o’clock. If I have no meeting I go home. Sometimes I stay at the university if I have some social work to do. Very often I stay at the university as I need a book or an article which I can get only in the reading room. Before or after classes there are a lot of students there. They read different books and journals, work on their reports or study their lessons.
After classes I usually walk home. I like to walk after a busy day at the university. When I come home I have dinner and a short rest. Then I do my homework. It usually takes me about three hours. In the evening I have supper and watch TV. Sometimes if I have time I go to the cinema. I usually go to bed at about 12 o’clock.
3.2.2 Answer the questions
1) Does your working day begin early?
2) When do you get up?
3) Do you have a lot of things to do before you leave for the university? What do you do?
4) When are you ready to have breakfast?
5) What do you like to do while having breakfast?
6) Does it take you long to have breakfast?
7) When do you leave home for the university?
8) Do you live far from the university?
9) How long does it take you to get to the university?
10) Do you come to the university in time or are you late?
11) Where do you usually have your lunch?
12) How many classes a day do you have?
13) Are there any breaks between classes?
14) When are your classes over?
15) Do you stay at the university’s library? What do you do there?
16) What do you do at home after you come from the university?
17) How long does it take you to do your homework?
18) How do you spend your evenings?
19) What time do you usually go to bed?
3.3.1 Read and translate the text paying attention to the new words
18.104.22.168 New words
to organize time wisely - умно планировать время
to get up on time - вставать вовремя
not to get enough sleep - не высыпаться
to wind two alarm-clocks - заводить 2 будильника
to oversleep - просыпать
to be an early riser - рано вставать
to have a shower - принять душ
to set off to the university - отправлять в университет
to have a hasty bite - перекусить
to catch a bus - сесть в автобус
to feel guilty - чувствовать вину
to keep smb busy - занимать кого-либо
to have a snack - перекусить
to come home tired - возвращаться домой усталым
to find excuses - находить оправдания
to put homework off - откладывать домашнее задание
to get down to smth - сесть за выполнение чего-либо
to sit up late \ to keep late hours - сидеть допоздна
to relax - отдыхать
to keep oneself fit - вести здоровый образ жизни
to catch up on studies - нагонять в учебе
to spoil leisure time - портить свободное время
to call - навещать
I'm in the first year at the university, where I study English. My elder sister, Betty, studies history at the same university. Betty can organize her time wisely and I don't know what order I should do things in. I find it hard to get up on time, and usually I don't get enough sleep. I usually wind two alarm-clocks in order not to oversleep.
My sister, an early riser, is awake by 7 o'clock, refreshed and full of energy. She manages to have a quick shower, make her bed, put on make up, do her hair, eat full breakfast and set off to the university while I fight the urge to go back to bed. It takes me an hour and a half to get ready. I have a hasty bite and rush out of the house. Even if I catch a bus at once I still arrive at the university 15 minutes late and I always feel guilty because of it.
My studies keep me busy all day long. I have 14 hours of English a week. I also have lectures and seminars. At lunchtime I meet up with my sister and we have a snack at the university café. After classes I must go to the library where I spend about six hours a week preparing my seminars.
My sister and I come home tired, I always find excuses to put my homework off. My sister manages to do the housework and get down to homework. I like to go to bed early, but quite often I sit up late though I feel sleepy. My sister says that keeping late hours ruins my health. Of course, I agree.
My sister and I don't have free time during the week, we try to relax on the weekends. One of my greatest pleasures is to lie in bed and read my favourite books. My sister is a sporty person. She goes for a run in the park in order to keep herself fit.
I usually stay in but sometimes on Saturday night my sister takes me out to a concert or a play. Sometimes we go to a party or to a disco. But more often I stay at home & catch up on my studies. I wonder how I manage to spoil my leisure time.
Every Monday I think I should start a new life. I think that I must become well-organized & correct my daily routine. I make plans to go to keep-fit classes, to do shopping with my sister, to do the cleaning & to do a hundred good things. But soon I remember that I have to call on my friend in the evening & I put off my plans till next Monday.
22.214.171.124 Give antonyms to the following
to oversleep- … … …, to eat full breakfast- …. … …, refreshed and full of energy- … … …, to rush out the house- … … , to get down to homework- … … …, to go to bed early- … … …, to hate - … … ….
126.96.36.199 Answer the questions
1) What is the girl afraid of?
2) How does Betty begin her day?
3) How much time does it take the girl to get ready?
4) Does the girl arrive to the university in time?
5) Where do the girls go to have a snack?
6) Does the girl like to go to the library? Give your opinion.
7) Why does the girl find excuses?
8) The girls don't have free time during the week, do they?
9) Does the girl realize her plans of a new daily routine?
188.8.131.52 Give your advice to the girl about her daily routine
184.108.40.206 Find all the differences (различия) in the daily routines of the sisters
220.127.116.11 Describe your daily routine and answer the questions
1) Do you have any of the girl's problems? Do you want or try to overcome (преодолеть) these problems?
2) Is your daily routine always the same? What is your busiest day?
3) What time do you usually get up?
4) Where do you usually have breakfast, dinner, supper?
5) What do you usually do after classes?
6) What time do you usually get home after classes?
7) Do you often oversleep/arrive late to the university?
8) How much time does it take you to get to the university?
9) Do you have free time? How do you prefer to spend your free time?
18.104.22.168 Describe your daily routine & finish up the sentences
1) One of my greatest pleasures is … … …
2) I find it hard to … … …
3) It takes me … … … to get ready for the university.
4) After classes I … … …
5) In order to keep myself fit I … … …
6) I sit up late if … … …
7) I think that I must become … … …
8) I don't like to … … …, but I do.
9) It's frustrating (огорчительно) … … …
22.214.171.124 Analyse your day & divide your daily activities into two columns-boring and enjoyable
126.96.36.199 Correct mistakes in the questions
1) What does she manages to do in the morning?
2) Where does she go for a run?
3) I don't know what order I should do things in, or not?
4) Who feel guilty?
5) Does I catch a bus at once?
6) I put my plans till tomorrow, do I?
7) Where I arrive late?
188.8.131.52 Compose 5 sentences with the new worlds in English
184.108.40.206 Imagine that you are a journalist & can ask questions to any celebrity. Whom & what will you ask about?
3.3.2 Read the description of a typical day in the life of Queen Elizabeth II and find
- three things that the Queen does every day;
- three things that the Queen did on that particular day;
- three things that you expect the Queen to do;
- three things which you don’t expect the Queen to do.
A day in the Queen’s life
7 A.M. Wakes up, has a cup of tea. Reads “The Sporting Life” cover to cover.
7.30 A.M. Has a bath and get dressed. The Queen selects her clothes but a personal maid lays them out in her dressing room.
8 A.M. Listens to BBC news and has breakfast with Prince Philip in the private Royal Dining Room. This usually consists of eggs or kippers, tea and toast. Both look through all the newspapers as they eat. The Queen first opens “The Times”, then the “Daily Telegraph”, followed by the “Daily Mirror”
8.45 A.M. Makes her daily phone call to Princess Margaret.
8.55 A.M. Sees the Buckingham Palace housekeeper about the Palace matters.
9.10 A.M. Reads her personal mail. The letters for the Queen’s eyes only are marked with a special code.
9.30 A.M. The first important business consultation with her Private Secretary, Sir Philip Moore. The Queen has to make many decisions involving the State and administrative matters.
10.15 A.M. Works on her government documents.
11.00 A.M. An official ceremony in the Grand Ballroom of Buckingham Palace. The Queen remains standing and smiling for 90 minutes.
12.45 P.M. A quick lunch, often eaten alone in her private apartment – usually salad, fruit and mineral water.
1.30 P.M. Changes clothes for next engagement.
2.00 P.M. Leaves the Palace to open a new hospital in Hertfordshire. Her route is always cleared by the police.
3.00 P.M. Unveils the plague, makes a speech. Shakes dozens of hands at the hospital. A cup of tea, eats nothing.
4.45 P.M. Back to the Palace and works in her office. Simply putting her signature to official papers can take 30 minutes.
5.30 P.M. Receives foreign VIPs.
6.00 P.M. The final meeting of the day with her Private Secretary.
6.30 P.M. A quick change of clothes before leaving for a reception at St. James’s Palace.
7.00 P.M. Arrives at St. James’s Palace, shakes hands and talks to no fewer than 70 people.
8.15 P.M. Back to the Place and changes into less formal clothes.
88.30 P.M. An informal dinner with Philip and a group of famous businessmen.
10.00 P.M. Watches television news.
10.15 P.M. Looks through the next day’s engagements and finishes any official papers she has not yet time to read.
10.30 P.M. Telephones some members of the Royal Family – just to see if all is well.
10.45 P.M. Goes to bed. If Philip is out on an engagement alone, she always waits up for him before going to bed.
3.3.3 Will it be of interest to you to compare the Queen’s lifestyle with the lifestyle of ordinary people? Here is an article about the average Briton. There is a lot of statistics in it which could give you an idea of ‘an average lifestyle’. Look through the article and compare the standard of living in Britain with that in your country
What is the average Briton like?
The average Briton is a woman (51 %).
The average Briton lives in a house, not a flat (80 %). She (or he) has a bathroom (95 %), a refrigerator or a freezer (99 %), a car (69 %) and a telephone (90 %), a TV-set (98 %), a central heating system (83 %), a video-recorder (73 %), a washing machine (92 %), a computer (20 %).
The average Briton is between 16 and 64 years old. The average British man will die at 73 years old, while the average woman will live until she’s 78.
The average Briton is married (60 %) and more Britons than ever before are getting married. Men get married at the age of 28 while British women marry at 26. About 20 % of marriages end in divorce, though about half will marry again.
The average age for divorce, if you are thinking of marrying a Briton, is 36 for women and 38 for men.
The average Briton works 35-40 hours a week and has a 4-week holiday a year. At present 40 % of holidays are spent staying with relatives or friends and a quarter are spent camping. British residents take about 23 million holidays abroad every year. The most popular foreign countries are Spain, France, the USA and Greece.
What does the average Briton do in his/her free time? Well, he/she watches television. Every Briton over the age of 5 watches television an average of 27 hours a week. Other popular pastimes are listening to the radio or to CDs, gardening and of course the pub.
220.127.116.11 Test your memory
Do you remember the statistics data given in the article? Match the data given in the columns A and B and then look through the article again and check your answers. Count the number of correct answers you’ve got and read the interpretation of your results given after the test. Good luck!
Good or very good memory?
Less than 7 correct answers Don’t panic, it could be worse.
7-8 correct answers Cheer up! You have ever chance to improve your memory.
9 correct answers Your memory is very good! But still continue
10-11 correct answers Great! Congratulations! You’ve done it!
12-13 correct answers Fantastic! Terrific!
14 correct answers Excellent! Next to impossible!
3.3.4 You are going to read a newspaper article about a day in the life of a footballer. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-I for each part (1-7) of the article. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning (0)
A Domestic matters
B Time off
C All players are different
D Putting in the practice
E Working together
F Keeping my standard up
G What makes a good player
H Not my choice
I Getting started
A day in the life of Jim Barber, Scottish Footballer
Jim Barber is a centre forward for Glasgow Rangers football club. He talks to Paul Sullivan about a typical day in his life.
I don’t usually get up till 8.30. On a match day I’ll get up even later. I’ll sit in bed, watch breakfast TV for a while, and then I’ll go down, get the mail, have a coffee and read the papers. I’ll have a wash and then I’ll get ready to go to the club. Rangers is probably the only club where the players have to come in every morning wearing a shirt and tie; it’s a traditional thing and I quite like it really.
Every day except Sunday, I’ll be at the club by 10. It’s a short drive but I’ll still usually be a few minutes late. I’ve a bad reputation for being late. And I’ve been fined many times. Each day of training is in preparation for the next match. We’ll do some weight training and some running to build up some stamina. Players work on particular aspects of the game but tactics are usually left till match day.
After training I’ll usually have a sauna and then we’ll have lunch: salads and pasta, stuff like that. In the afternoon I just try to relax. I started playing golf with the rest of the lads and I love horse racing too. My other great hobby is music which helps me to escape the pressure of work.
The best thing in football is scoring goals – and I am a top goal-scorer. It feels absolutely fantastic but I never feel above the rest of the team; if I did I wouldn’t last two minutes in the dressing room. Any success I have is a team success. My idol in the past was always Kenny Dalglish. My idols now are the other Rangers players.
The matches themselves are always different from each other. You go through a lot of emotions during a game but really it’s a question of concentration. You’ve got just 90 minutes to give everything you’ve got and take every chance you can. There’s luck and there’s being in the right place at the right time but you can’t make use of those without concentration and responsibility.
Sport writers often talk about age but it’s not something that bothers me. I’m 30 and feel fantastic. I missed a few games last year due to injury and my place was taken by a young player at Rangers. We are friends but he is a great threat to my position. My job is to score goals and if I don’t I’ll be replaced.
I try not to let football to rule my home life but my wife would probably disagree; last year we only got three weeks holiday. It’s difficult for Allison, my wife, but I think she’s learnt to accept it. She likes football and comes to the matches. I do like to go out and see friends but I always have dinner with my wife.
We’ll usually go to bed about midnight. Sometimes I do worry when I think of the day it all ends and I stop scoring. That scares me and I can’t see myself for any other team, either, but the reality is that the players don’t make the decisions. If someone makes your club a good enough offer for you, they’ll accept it. But I try not to let things like that bother me.
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