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Speak about the Orenburg region according to the plan
The history of Orenburg is very interesting. It got its name before it's factual foundation which took place three times. For the first time Orenburg was founded in August 1735 by the state expedition headed by the statesman Ivan Kirillovich Kirilov. It happened on the site of the present Orsk. For the second time Orenburg was founded in August 1741 by the state expedition headed by prince V.A.Urusov. It happened on the site of present village Krasnaya Gora (not far from Saractach). It was done according to the advice of the prominent Russian scientist Vasily Nikitich Tatischev. Finally Orenburg was founded on its present site by the prominent Russian statesman Ivan Ivanovich Neplyev.
Orenburg was planned not only as fortress but also as an important centre of commerce between Russia and Asia. The original fortress had 10 bastions and 4 gates. In the 18th century the development of the town was rather slow because of the severe climate and the lack of population.
During the peasant's uprising of 1774 Orenburg was besieged by the Pugachev's army. The Orenburg province was the site of exile for many prominent people - several Decembrists, poets Alexei Plescheyev, Taras Schevchenko; a composer Alexander Alyabyev and many others.
Step by step the population of Orenburg and its province grew. In general the population of the Orenburg province was multinational. At the beginning of the 19th century more and more buildings were constructed in Orenburg. They were private houses for nobleman, merchants, doctors, engineers, teachers, clerks and common people.
More and more military and public institutions appeared in the town. In 1833 Orenburg was visited by A.S.Pushkin who collected materials for his literary works - "The Captain's Daughter" and "History of Pugachov". Vladimir Ivanovich Dal lived and worked in Orenburg for several years. Orenburg is the birthplace of the revolutionary poet M.Z. Mihkailov.
S.T. Aksakov had a country - seat in the Orenburg province. He devoted many beautiful stories to the nature of the province. In the 1850ies the development of the greenery in the Zauralnaya Roscha began under the supervision of the engineer and general Bikbulatov.
At the end of the 19th century Lukian Vasilyevich Popov, an artist belonging to the Peredvizhniks' movement lived and worked in Orenburg. One can see his works not only in the local museum of Fine Arts but also in the Tretyakov Gallery.
Orenburg was traditionally famous for the Orenburg shawls. They are real works of art.
There are some examples of fine architecture in Orenburg. The famous Karavan Sarai was built according to the project of architect Brullov. There are many interesting buildings in the present Sovetskaya Street (the former Gubernskaya, then Nicolaevskaya street).
During the revolutionary years Orenburg was the place of severe battles between the Red and White Army. During the Great Patriotic War many factories were evacuated to Orenburg from the West of our country. Our People did their best for the victory. 188 people from Orenburg were awarded with the title of the Hero of the Soviet Union for their courage in combat action (service in battle) - among them were poet Musa Jalil and general Alexander Rodimtsev.
Now Orenburg is not only administrative and industrial centre of the huge region but also its major cultural centre.
There are several institutions of higher learning in Orenburg, among them there are the Orenburg State University, the State Pedagogical University and some institutes where students study by correspondence and in the evening.
There are some training colleges - medical, pedagogical, technical, musical ones, several vocational schools and a lot of secondary schools.
The first world cosmonaut Y.A. Gagarin studied at the Orenburg flying school. There are five stationary theatres in Orenburg: the Drama Theatre, the Comedy Theatre, two Puppet Theatres, the National Tatar Theatre and State Folk Choir.
There's a Large Exhibition Hall in Volodarskaya street and the Musical Hall in Zhukov Street. There are some museums, the major of them are Museum of Regional Studies and the Fine Arts Museum. There are many palaces of culture, cinemas, clubs, stadiums, parks.
I like my native town and I want it to become more beautiful and clean.
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1 Orenburg was founded in 1743.
2 It was planned as a fortress and as a centre of commerce between Russia and Asia.
3 In the 18th century the development of Orenburg was slow.
4 The population of the Orenburg province was multinational.
5 In 1774 Orenburg was besieged by the Pugachov's army.
6 The Orenburg province was the place of exile for many prominent people.
7 In 1883 Orenburg was visited by A.S. Pushkin.
8 V.I. Dal lived and worked in Orenburg in the 1830ies.
9 There are many interesting buildings in the old part of our town.
10 During the revolutionary years Orenburg was the place of severe battles between the Red Army and White Army.
11 When the Great Patriotic War broke out, our people did their best for the victory of our country.
12 Now Orenburg is not only a big administrative and industrial centre of the Orenburg Region but also its cultural centre.
13 There are several institutions of higher learning: the Orenburg State University, the State Pedagogical University, the Medical Academy and the State Agrarian Academy.
14 There are many Institutes where students study in the evening or by correspondence, many training colleges, secondary schools and vocational schools.
15 The first world cosmonaut, Y.A. Gagarin studied at the Orenburg Flying School.
16 There are many places of interest in Orenburg: the Museum of Regional Studies, the Fine Arts Museum, the Exhibition Hall, the Musical Hall, some palaces of culture, clubs, cinemas, stadiums, monuments, parks.
17 There are five theatres (Drama, Musical Comedy, two Puppet Theatres, the National Tatar Theatre) and the State Folk Choir.
18 I like my native town.
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