UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND



The full and official name of the country is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It is situated on the group of islands lying just off the mainland of the north-western Europe. The total area оf the country is over 244,000 square kilometres.

Great Britain consists of England, Scotland and Wales. The southern part of Ireland is the Republic of Eire. The population of the UK is 57 million people. The largest and the most populated part of the UK is England. Its population is over 47 million people and its capital is London. London is also a federal capital where the official residences of the government and royal family are located. Scotland is the most northern part of Great Britain. Its population is over 5 million people. The rest part of the population is spread over Wales and Northern Ireland.

Great Britain is separated from the continent by the English Channel, the narrowest part of which is called the Strait of Dover. The British Isles are surrounded by the shallow waters of the Irish Sea and the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea, the North Channel and the Atlantic Ocean.

The rivers of the region are short and of no great importance as waterways. The longest of them is the "Father of London", the Thames, which is a little over 200 miles. Britain's principal ports are London, Liverpool, Manchester, Hull and Glasgow. They have splendid harbours, for the coast line is very indented.

The warm currents in the Atlantic Ocean influence the climate of Great Britain. The south-western winds carry the warmth and moisture into Britain. The winters are not severely cold, while summers are rarely hot so the climate is rather mild, temperate and humid. The average range of temperature (from winter to summer) is from 15 to 23 degrees above zero. It seldom snows heavily in winter, the frost is rare. January and February are usually the coldest months, July and August the warmest. Still the wind may bring winter cold in spring or summer days. Sometimes it brings the whirlwinds or hurricanes.

British people say: "Other countries have a climate, in England we have weather." because the weather in Britain changes very quickly. One day may be fine and the next day may be wet. The Englishmen joke that they have three variants of weather: when it rains in the morning, when it rains in the afternoon or when in rains all day long.

The UK is a highly developed industrial country. It is the world largest producer of marine navigational equipment as the main industrial branch of the country is shipbuilding. The UK enterprises are also widely-known for textile, television and radio sets production.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a constitutional monarchy. It means that the head of the state is a monarch but his powers are restricted by the elected government and the parliament. So that the monarch reigns but does not rule. For the last 50 years Queen Elizabeth II has been the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

The parliament consists of two chambers: House of Lords and House of Commons. House of Lords includes those members who are given a privilege to be referred to as peers and consider being a nobility of the country. House of Commons is an elected legislative body consisting of members of the different political parties. The main function of the parliament is to issue the bills, laws and regulations. They are obligatory for every citizen of the UK.

The Prime-minister of the country is elected in a 4-year cycle by the total elections. The political party taken the most part of votes becomes the ruling party and its leader becomes a Prime-minister of the country. The ruling party nowadays is the Liberal party. The Prime-minister is Gordon Brown.

The flag of the United Kingdom, known as the Union Jack, is made up of three crosses. The big red cross is the cross of Saint George, the patron saint of England. The white cross is the cross of Saint Andrew, the patron saint of Scotland. The red diagonal cross is the cross of Saint Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland.

· The Britain Quiz

4.Britain is rich in different customs, traditions and has a lot of interesting historical facts. The next task is to do the Britain Quiz. You should write the number of the correct answer.

A.Which is the largest island of the British Isles?

1).Ireland, 2).Isle of Man, 3). Great Britain

 

B.Which is the longest river in Britain?

4)the Clyde,5)the Severn, 6)the Thames

 

C.What is the name of the flag of England?

7).St.Andrew’s Cross, 8).St.Patrick’s Cross, 9).St.George’s Cross

 

D. When was the Great Plague?

10).1665, 11).1666, 12).1863

 

E. How many parts is London divided into?

13).two parts, 14).four parts, 15)three parts

 

F. Who is the official head of the UK?

16)the President, 17)the Houses of Parliament, 18)the Queen

 

g. What place is the official home of the Queen?

19)the Tower, 20).Buckingham Palace, 21).St.Paul's Cathedral

 

H. What street do many British government offices stand in?

22).Whitehall, 23).Piccadilly Circus, 24).Fleet Street

 

I. What is the name of thе poet who was called “The father of the English Portry?

25). W.Shakespeare, 26).George G. Byron, 27).Geoffrey Chaucer

 

j. What holiday is celebrated in Britain on the 25th of December?

28).St.Valentine’s Day, 29).Mother’s Day, 30).Christmas

Answers:

3, 5, 9, 10, 14, 18, 20, 22, 27, 30

· CROSSWORD

You are to complete the crossword. It is about Britain’s traditions and customs.

                           
                             
                         
                             
                       
                             
                           
                             
                             
                             
                         
                             
                             
                             
                           
                             
                             
                             
                           
                             
                             
                             
                           
                             
                             
                             

Сrossword

Across:

2) The Englishmen's favourite drink

4) Something that the English put into the tea

6) The political centre of London

8) The theatre where W.Shakespeare worked as an actor

10) Thе nickname of London in England

12) Thе colour of taxis in London

Down:

1) Thе birds living in the Tower o London

3) Thе most popular activity of English people

5) Thе river on which London is situated

6) Thе large bag of wool on which the Lord Chancellor sits in the House of Lords

7) 100 pence equal one …

9) Thе major spectator sport in Britain

11) Thе national emblem of England

 


Key:

Across-

2) tea

4) milk

6) Westminster

8) globe

10) smoke

12) black

Down:

1) ravens

3) walking

5) Thames

6) woolsack

7) pound

9) football

11) rose


· TRANSLATING

Translate the text “The Order of Victory” into Russian.

 

The Order of Victory

The Order of Victory was the highest military decoration awarded for World War II service in the Soviet Union, and one of the rarest orders in the world. The order was awarded only to Generals and Marshals for successfully conducting combat operations involving one or more army groups resulting in a radical change of the situation in favor of the Red Army. In its history, it has been awarded twenty times to twelve Soviet leaders and foreign leaders. The original name of the order was proposed as Order for Faithfulness to the Homeland, however, it was given its present name.

On the 25th of October 1943, artist A. I. Kuznetsov, who was already the designer of many Soviet orders, presented his first sketch to Stalin. The sketch of a round medallion with portraits of Lenin and Stalin was not approved by the Supreme Commander. Instead, Stalin wanted a design with the Spasskaya Tower in the centre. Kuznetsov returned four days later with several new sketches, of which Stalin chose one entitled "Victory". The order was officially adopted on the 8th of November 1943, and was first awarded to Georgy Zhukov, Alexandr Vasilevsky, and Joseph Stalin.

The order was also bestowed to top commanders of the Allied forces. British Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery was awarded The Order of Victory.

The Order is made out of platinum in the form of a pentangular star with rays between the arms, measuring 72 mm in diameter. The star is studded with 174 diamonds weighing a total of 16 carats (3.2 g), while the arms of the star are made out of synthetic rubies. In the center of the star is a silver medallion, with the Moscow Kremlin wall, the Spasskaya Tower. The sky in the background is inlaid with blue enamel.

Against the sky, the letters "СССР" (USSR) appear in gold centered on the top of the medallion, while the word "Победа" (Victory) is displayed on the red banner at the bottom.

· GRAMMAR FOCUS

Continuous/Progressive

  Present Past Future
Time expressions Now (сейчас), just/right now(именно сейчас), at the moment(в данный момент), at present(в настоящее время) When(когда), while (в то время как), as(когда, в то время как), all day/ night/ morning(весь день/всю ночь/все утро), yesterday at 5/from 2 till 5(вчера в 5/с 2 до5) Tomorrow at this time (завтра в это время), tonight (сегодня вечером), next week/month (на следующей неделе/ месяце), in two/three days(через два/три дня), the day after tomorrow (послезавтра), soon (скоро).
Affirmative am/is/are+V-ing They are playing really well. (Они играют очень хорошо) They’re playing really well. was/were+V-ing They were playing all morning. (Они играли все утро.) Will be +V-ing They will be playing tomorrow at this time. (Они будут играть завтра в это время) They’ll be playing tomorrow at this time.
Negative am/is/are+not+V-ing They are not playing really well. (Они играют не очень хорошо). They aren’t playing really well Was/were+not+V-ing They were not playing all morning. (Они не играли все утро) They weren’t playing all morning. Will+not+be+V-ing They will not be playing tomorrow at this time. (Они не будут играть завтра в это время) They won’t be playing tomorrow at this time.
Interrogative   Am/Is/Are+S+V-ing Are they playing really well? (Они играют очень хорошо?)– Yes, they are/No, they are not. How are they playing? (Как они играют?) They are playing really well. Was/were+S+V-ing Were they playing all morning? (Они играли все утро?) – Yes, they were/No, they weren’t. How long were they playing? (Как долго они играли?) They were playing all morning.   Will-S+be+V-ing Will they be playing tomorrow at this time?(они будут играть завтра в это время?)- Yes, they will/No, they won’t. What will they be doing tomorrow at this time? (Что они будут делать завтра в это время?)- They will be playing tomorrow at this time.
Stative verbs are not usually used in the continuous form See, hear, forgive, care, like, mind, want, know, understand, believe, remember, own, posses, belong, have got, think(expressing an opinion), enjoy( synonym of like), see (synonym of understand)

 



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