И.В. Царевская, Н.Л. Кривцова, В.А. Кочетова



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И.В. Царевская, Н.Л. Кривцова, В.А. Кочетова



И.В. Царевская, Н.Л. Кривцова, В.А. Кочетова

Иностранный язык (английский):

Практический курс английского языка

Учебное пособие для обучающихся

По техническим и экономическим направлениям

подготовки бакалавров

 

Ростов-на-Дону

 

МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ

УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

«РОСТОВСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ СТРОИТЕЛЬНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

 

 

И.В. Царевская, Н.Л. Кривцова, В.А. Кочетова

 

Иностранный язык (английский):

практический курс английского языка

Учебное пособие для обучающихся

по техническим и экономическим направлениям

подготовки бакалавров

 

 

Утверждено научным редакционно-издательским советом университета в качестве учебного пособия

 

Ростов-на-Дону

УДК 803.03=03(088.8)+(08)

Рецензент: кандидат педагогических наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков НИМИ им. А.К. Кортунова ФГБОУ ВПО

«Донской государственный аграрный университет» Е.И. Шепталина

 

И.В. Царевская, Н.Л. Кривцова, В.А. Кочетова

Иностранный язык (английский): практический курс английского языка. Учебное пособие для обучающихся по техническим и экономическим направлениям подготовки бакалавров. – Ростов н/Д: Рост. гос. строит. ун-т.-

 

Учебное пособие рассчитано на студентов первого и второго курсов факультетов всех специальностей и отвечает требованиям программы Министерства Высшего Образования Российской Федерации.

Пособие включает пять составных элементов (модулей):

1. Страноведение

2. Образование

3. Знаменитые люди

4. Защита окружающей среды

5. Специальность

Учебное пособие создано на кафедре иностранных языков РГСУ.

Все модули строятся по единой схеме и состоят из разделов. В начале каждого разделадаётся вводное упражнение для ознакомления с темой. Далее следует список лексики по теме, ее отработка и закрепление при помощи коммуникативных заданий. Затем идет основной текст, связанный с изучаемой темой, вопросы, контролирующие понимание текста, и серия упражнений, направленных на отработку навыков говорения.В качестве завершающего коммуникативного упражнения по теме предлагается ролевая игра.

Каждый раздел включает в себя профессионально-ориентированные тексты для перевода с английского языка на русский со словарем, реферирования и изучающего чтения. Также содержаться тексты патриотической направленности для реализации воспитательной цели в учебном процессе.

Все разделы включают грамматический материал, включающий теорию по теме и ряд упражнений, направленных на отработку и закрепление материала.

 

УДК 803.03=03(088.8)+(08)

 

 

© Ростовский государственный

строительный университет, 2015

© Царевская И.В., Кривцова Н.Л.,

Кочетова В.А., 2015

Оглавление

MODULE 1. COUNTRY STUDY..........................................................................6

 

Unit 1. Rostov-on-Don…………………………………………………………..…6

Грамматика

· Глагол «to be»

· Обороты there is/there are

Unit 2. The Russian Federation…………………………………………………..16

Грамматика

· Множественное число существительных

· Much, many

· Few, a few, little, a little

Unit 3. Moscow ……………………………………………………………………31

Грамматика

· Группа времен Indefinite/Simple

(Present, Past, Future)

Unit 4. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland………...42

Грамматика

· Группа времен Continuous/Progressive

(Present, Past, Future)

Unit 5. London……………………………………………………………………55

Грамматика

· Группа времен Perfect

(Present, Past, Future)

Unit 6. The United States of America……………………………………………65

Грамматика

· Группа времен Perfect Continuous/Progressive

(Present, Past, Future)

Unit 7. Washington……………………………………………………………….74

Грамматика

· Степени сравнения прилагательных

 

MODULE 2. HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM……………………………...85

Unit 1. The system of higher education in Russia………………………………85

Грамматика

· Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты

Unit 2. Rostov State University of Civil Engineering…………………….…….99

Грамматика

· Страдательный залог

Unit 3. The system of higher education in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland……………………………………………………………108

Грамматика

· Косвенная речь

Unit 4. The system of higher education in the United States of America…….118

Грамматика

· Условные предложения

 

MODULE 3. FAMOUS PEOPLE……………………………………………….129

· Christopher Wren

· Adam Smith

· Henry Ford

MODULE 4. THE ENVIRONMENT……………………………………………136

Грамматика

· Review test

 

MODULE 5. SPECIALITY………………………………………………………145

Грамматика

· Review test

 

SUPPLEMENTARY TEXTS…………………………………………………….152

MODULE 1. COUNTRY STUDY

UNIT 1.

ROSTOV-ON-DON

· SNAPSHOT

Rostov-on-Don city flag

Rostov-On-Don city coat of arms

Talk about these questions.

· Why do you think fortress is in the flag and coat of arms?

· What do you think about the origin of the crown in the coat of arms?

· Is Rostov-on-Don your native city?

· What do you think is the population of Rostov-on-Don?

· VOCABULARY

Read the text and underline or mark the main ideas of this text.

 

Rostov-on-Don

In 1749, Rostov-on-Don town was founded with the main purpose to be a customs house. The settlement received its name after Saint Dimitry Rostovsky.

The town grew quickly and soon it became the major trading centre of the region. The Don River connected the northern and southern regions of the Russian Empire. Rostov-on-Don city became a major river port.

Rostov-on-Don became the capital of the region in 1928. The previous capital of the region was Novocherkassk (Cossack capital). The city was heavily damaged during the World War II. German armies captured Rostov-on-Don twice (in 1941 and 1942). Present time city is one of the centres of the new Russian economic growth.

Rostov-on-Don occupies an area of 354 square kilometres and has a population of more than a million people. The city is situated 1226 kilometres from Moscow. It is a junction of many important transportation routes providing the city with an access to three seas – the Black Sea, the Azov Sea and the Caspian Sea – and immediate contact with all the countries of the European part of the CIS, the Middle East and the Mediterranean. An international airport with a capacity of 4.5 billion passengers functions in the city. By 2018, it is planned to construct the Yuzhny (southern) airport - the largest international airport in the South of Russia.

Rostov-on-Don is the political, economic and cultural centre of the south of Russia, with considerable industrial, banking, trade and scientific potential.

The volumes of industrial production – taking in account only large and medium-sized enterprises – constitutes about 31 billion roubles a year. Almost 50% of the total trade turnover in the region occurs in Rostov.

There are over 800 objects of cultural heritage in Rostov-on-Don. Among them are 470 architectural monuments, 55 archaeological monuments and 106 monumental objects of arts and military glory.

The historical centre of the city is especially rich in architectural buildings and monuments. The building constructed after architect A.N.Pomerantsev’s design - “City Duma” is unique. The building of M.Gorky Drama theatre refers to the masterpieces of world architecture. Its model is kept in the British Museum in London.

Large industrial companies have shown significant interest in Rostov as the capital of the region’s business. These companies include such leaders in the world markets as Samsung, Canon, Panasonic, Philips, Bosch and Siemens.

The investments in the construction in Rostov Region constitute about 7 billion roubles every year. The index of the newly built housing per capita is higher than the one in Moscow. By the pace of the newly built housing, Rostov occupies one of the leading positions in the Russian Federation.

The project for Free Customs Zone “Southern Gates of Russia” is being implemented. The project is to consolidate the infrastructures of Rostov-on-Don and Rostov Region in order to broaden the export-import of the goods, capitals and services exchange going through the territory of Southern Russia.

Rostov-on-Don is a large educational and scientific centre of Russia. It has the third largest university after Moscow and Saint-Petersburg. There are 4 theatres in Rostov-on-Don, the Don State public library (the largest in the south of Russia), S.V.Rakhmaninov conservatoire, and various interesting exhibition halls.

The Rostov-on-Don zoo opened about 80 years ago and is one of the largest in Europe. The Botanical garden of Rostov State University is considered to be one of the largest in Russia, and it occupies about 161 hectares.

The city is also one of the largest jazz centres in Russia. It has turned into a tradition to conduct art festivals in Rostov-on-Don: “Donskaya vesna (spring)”, “Mini-fest” and international jazz festivals.

 

· SPEAKING

·

5. Answer these questions:

1) When was Rostov-on-Don founded and under what circumstances? 2) What is the total area of the city? 3) What is the population of Rostov-on-Don? 4). What was the previous capital of the region? 5) What is the main point of “Southern Gates of Russia” project? 6) What do you know about the international airport? 7) How many objects of cultural heritage are there in Rostov-on-Don? 8) Tell about the historical centre of Rostov-on-Don. 9) What do you know about the Rostov-on-Don zoo? 10) What are the main art festivals in Rostov?

6. Find the situation in the text where the following expressions are used:

Rostov-on-Don town was founded //the previous capital of the region //It is a junction //Rostov-on-Don occupies //the largest international airport //objects of cultural heritage //The project for Free Customs Zone //jazz centres.

7. Work in pairs. Imagine that one of you leaves in England but he (she) travelled to Rostov-on-Don. Your friend wants to know your impressions and asks a lot of questions.(You may talk about history of the city, main sights and cultural life.)

8.At homeprepare a presentation about Rostov-on-Don as if you were a travel agent. Try to advertise the city showing and telling about the best sights to attract tourists.(You may use additional sources of information.)

 

9. Make up the plan of the text and retell it according to the plan (not less then 100 words).

 

· TRANSLATING

Отрицательная форма

Чтобы образовать отрицательную форму спряжения данного глагола нужно поставить отрицательную частицу «not» после одной из нужных форм глагола to be. Вот несколько примеров отрицательного предложения:

  • Я не голоден – I am not hungry.
  • Он не будет занят – He will not be busy.
  • Комната была небольшая – The room was not big.

Вопросительная форма

Для образования вопросительной формы нужно поставить соответствующую форму глагола to be в начале предложения:

  • Вы Петр? – Are you Pete?
  • Это была комната? – Wass this a room?
  • Вы голодны? – Are you hungry?
  • Он занят? – Is he busy?

Compose the sentences using the following to be expressions in different tenses:

To be happy /unhappy – быть счастливым/несчастливым

To be glad – быть радостным

To be hungry/to be full up– быть голодным/сытым

To be fond of — любить, увлекаться чем-то

To be busy – быть занятым

To be late (for) — опаздывать (на)

To be in time for – быть вовремя

To be present at – присутствовать на (к примеру на уроке)

To be absent (from) – отсутствовать

To be married – быть женатым / замужем

To be single – быть холостым / не замужем

To be lucky – быть везучим

To be ready (for) — быть готовым (к, например, к уроку)

To be afraid (of) – бояться

To be interested (in) — интересоваться чем-то

To be ill / well — болеть / хорошо себя чувствовать

To be angry (with) — сердиться, злиться (на кого-то)

11. Complete what Brenda says about herself in the picture. Use is or are.

My name (1) ______ Brenda Foster. I (2) ______ on the left in the picture. I (3) ______ ten years old and I (4) ______ in the fifth form. My birthday (5) _____ on the first of January. I (6) ______ from Santa Monica, California, USA. I (7) ______ American. My phone number (8) ______ 235-456-789. I live at 16 Park Street. My post code (9) ______ LA 30 SM. I’ve got a sister and a brother. Their names (10) ______ Gina and Paul. Gina (11) ______ 16 years old and Paul (12) ______ only three. I’ve also got a dog. His name (13) ______ Spot. He (14) ______ on the right in the picture. My Mum (15) ______ a doctor. She works at a hospital. My Dad (16) ______ a driver. He works in Los Angeles. We (17) ______ all friendly in our family.

Write in was / were

_________ Jenny at the party? _________ Lumpy quiet yesterday? _________ you in Kongo? _________ your parents in the local gym yesterday? _________ your friend at school yesterday? _________ you happy yesterday? _______ your mum tired yesterday? _______ you hungry yesterday evening? _______ it cold yesterday? _______ your teacher sad yesterday? _______ your pet hungry yesterday?

Write in was / were

The third day _______ Wednesday. The boys _______ in the swimming-pool. Steve _______ the fastest swimmer! On Thursday we _______ at the circus! The bears _______ funny! The fifth day _______ Friday. In the morning we _______ in the zoo.

UNIT 2

The Russian Federation

· SNAPSHOT

Flag Coat of arms

1. Answer the questions:

· What are the colours of the national flag?

· What is depicted in the Russian coat of arms?

· What cultural traditions of Russians do you know?

· VOCABULARY

The Russian Federation

The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. It occupies about one-seventh of the earth's surface. It covers the eastern part of Europe and the northern part of Asia. Its total area is about 17 million square kilometers.

Russia established worldwide power and influence from the times of the Russian Empire to being the largest and leading constituent of the Soviet Union, the world's first constitutionally socialist state and a recognized superpower, that played a decisive role in the allied victory in World War II. The Soviet era saw some of the greatest technology achievements of the nation, such as the world's first human spaceflight. The Russian Federation was founded following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, but is recognized as the continuing legal personality of the Soviet state. Russia has the world's 12th largest economy by nominal GDP or the seventh largest by purchasing power parity, with the fifth largest nominal military budget. It is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the world's largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, a member of the G8, G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization and the Eurasian Economic Community, the OSCE, and is the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States. On March 24, 2014, the original G7 nations voted to, in effect, suspend Russia from the organization in response to the country’s annexation of Crimea, however, it was made clear that the suspension was temporary.

The country is washed by 12 seas of 3 oceans: the Pacific, the Arctic and the Atlantic. In the south Russia borders on China, Mongolia, Korea, Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan. In the west it borders on Norway, Finland, the Baltic States, Byelorussia and Ukraine. It also has a sea-border with the USA.

There is hardly a country in the world where such a variety of scenery and vegetation can be found. We have steppes in the south, plains and forests in the midland, tundra and taiga in the north, highlands and deserts in the east.

There are two great plains in Russia: the Great Russian Plain and the West Siberian Lowland. There are several mountain chains on the territory of the country: the Urals, the Caucasus, the Altai and others. The largest mountain chain, the Urals, separates Europe from Asia.

There are over two million rivers in Russia. Europe's biggest river, the Volga, flows into the Caspian Sea. The main Siberian rivers — the Ob, the Yenisei and the Lena — flow from the south to the north. The Amur in the Far East flows into Pacific Ocean.

Russia is rich in beautiful lakes. The world's deepest lake (1600 meters) is Lake Baikal. It is much smaller than the Baltic Sea, but there is much more water in it than in the Baltic Sea. The water in the lake is so clear that if you look down you can count the stones on the bottom.

Russia has one-sixth of the world's forests. They are concentrated in the European north of the country, in Siberia and in the Far East.

On the vast territory of the country there are various types of climate, from arctic in the north to subtropical in the south. In the middle of the country the climate is temperate and continental.

Russia is very rich in oil, coal, iron ore, natural gas, copper, nickel and other mineral resources.

Russia is a parliamentary republic. The Head of the State is the President. The legislative powers are exercised by the Duma.

The capital of Russia is Moscow. It is its largest political, scientific, cultural and industrial centre. It is one of the oldest Russian cities.

At present, the political and economic situation in the country is rather complicated. But in spite of the problems Russia is facing at present, it is one of the leading countries in the world.

 

· SPEAKING

 

4. Answer these questions:

1) What is the total area of the Russian Federation? 2) What is the population of the country? 3) What countries does the Russian Federation border on? 4) Give a sketch on a landscape of the Russian Federation? 5) When was the dissolution of the Soviet Union? 6) What is the largest river of the Russian Federation? 6) What is the largest fresh water body of the Russian federation? 7) Why Russia is called superpower?

The Great Patriotic War

The siege of Leningrad

The outbreak of the Second World War found the Soviet Union unprepared for the conflict ahead. Having signed a non-aggression pact with Germany in 1939, Hitler’s invasion of June 1941 caught the USSR by surprise. By the end of the year, the Germans had seized most of the Soviet Union’s western territory and surrounded Leningrad.

Leningrad’s horrific siege was one of the most lethal in world history. It lasted for 900 days, from September 1941 to January 1944. The city’s civilian population of almost three million refused to surrender, even though they were completely surrounded. By the first winter of the siege there was no heating, no water supply, almost no electricity and very little food. Somehow, the city survived, its heroic resistance summed up in the motto: “Troy fell, Rome fell, Leningrad did not fall”.

Defending the capital

Meanwhile the Germans advanced as far as Moscow, reaching the outskirts by early December 1941. Hundreds of young recruits were preparing to defend the capital. But none could imagine that before going to battle they would march on Red Square in front of Joseph Stalin and top Communist Party officials. Stalin held a military parade on Red Square on November 7 to mark the anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution. The troops left Red Square to head straight to the frontline. The parade had a tremendous impact on morale in Moscow and throughout the Soviet Union. The capital never surrendered.

The siege of Stalingrad

Stalingrad (now Volgograd) was a major industrial centre on the Volga. Control over it opened the way to the vital Caucasus oil fields. The city’s very name drove Hitler’s obsession with it. Stalin’s order to the troops was: “Not One Step Back”. The horror of Stalingrad lasted for 199 days, costing an estimated 1.5 million lives from both sides. One building that the Germans failed to take was the so-called “Pavlov’s House”. In September 1942, a Soviet platoon led by Yakov Pavlov turned an apartment block in the city centre into an impenetrable fortress.

The cost of victory

… in May… 1945… Berlin finally fell.

The famous photo of two Soviet soldiers unfurling a red flag over the Reichstag became an iconic image of World War II. It was a symbol of the USSR’s triumph… the victory that came at a colossal cost.

The number of Soviet deaths was at first grossly distorted – the figure Stalin gave in 1946 was seven million. The USSR’s losses are now estimated at about 26.6 million. In the USSR the end of the war was considered to be May 9, 1945. The date has become a national holiday – Victory Day – and is commemorated in a grand military parade on Red Square.

 

· GRAMMAR FOCUS

Plural form of nouns

Существительные в английском языке, как и в русском, могут стоять в форме единственного или множественного числа.

Единственное число (singular) обозначает один предмет:

cup, gun, bubble

Множественное число (plural) обозначает два и более предмета:

three cups, two guns, thousands of bubbles

Образование множественного числа английских существительных

Английское существительное можно поставить во множественное число, прибавив к нему окончание -s. Оно читается как [ z ] после гласных и звонких согласных:

shoe – shoes
hen – hens

или как [ s ] после глухих согласных:

bat – bats

Если существительное оканчивается на свистящий или шипящий звук, то есть на буквы s, ss, x, sh, ch, то для него форма множественного числа образуется при помощи окончания -es [ iz ]:

bass – basses
match – matches
leash – leashes
box – boxes

Если существительное оканчивается на букву -y, перед которой стоит согласная, то во множественном числе -y меняется на i и к слову прибавляется окончание -es:

lobby – lobbies
sky – skies

Исключения: имена собственные (the two Germanys, the Gatsbys) и составные существительные (stand-bys).

Если перед буквой -y стоит гласная, то множественное число образуется по общему правилу при помощи окончания -s, а буква y остается без изменений:

bay – bays
day – days
way – ways

К существительным заканчивающимся на -o прибавляется окончание

-es:

potato – potatoes
tomato – tomatoes
hero – heroes

Исключения: bamboos, kangaroos, radios, studios, zoos, Eskimos, kilos, photos, pianos, concertos, solos, tangos, tobaccos.

Если же существительное оканчивается на буквы -f или -fe, то во множественном числе они меняются на-v- и прибавляется окончание -es:

thief –thieves
wolf – wolves
half – halves
wife – wives

Исключения: proofs, chiefs, safes, cliffs, gulfs, reefs

Исключения при образовании множественного числа английских существительных

Некоторые существительные по историческим причинам имеют свои собственные способы построения множественного числа:

man – men
woman – women
tooth –teeth
foot – feet
goose – geese
mouse – mice
louse – lice
child – children
ox – oxen
brother – brethren (собратья, братия)

Для некоторых слов форма единственного числа совпадает с формой множественного:

sheep – sheep
swine – swine
deer – deer
grouse – grouse
series – series
species – species
corps – corps

Translate into English.

Много тетрадей, много молока, много воды, много дней, много газет, много мела, много снега, много лет, много картин, много музыки, много мальчиков, много девочек, много чая, много ли­монов, много мяса, много комнат, много учителей, много работы, много воздуха, много птиц, много машин.

Insert much or many.

1. I don’t eat ... mangoes. 2. Не does not eat ... fish. 3. She ate so ... dessert that she is in bed today with a stomachache. 4. That man drank so ... wine, and he smoked so ... cigarettes that he has a terrible headache today. 5. Маrу must not eat too ... food because she has a weight problem. 6. My mot he says I eat too ... French fries and drink too ... beer She wants me to be healthy. 7. There is not too .. space in my flat. 8. There are not ... pictures in this room. 9. There are so ... teachers at our school, but not... of them are men. 10. Not... of these books are new. 11. Thanks awfully for the books you sent m yesterday. — Don’t mention it, it wasn’t ... bother. 12. ... of her advice was not useful at all. 13. He ha got so ...pairs of socks. 14. Please don’t put ... pep per on the meat. 15. There were too ... plates on the table. 16.1 never eat... bread with soup. 17. Why did you eat so ... ice cream? 18. She wrote us not very ... letters from the country. 19. ... of these student don’t like to look up words in the dictionary. 20. E you drink ... coffee? — Yes, a lot. Do you watch TV ...? — No, not... . 21. Not... of the answers were correct. 22. How ... money did you spend last Friday 23. The students enjoyed the concert very... .

Fill in little or few.

1. He has got ... friends. 2. I drink ... coffee. I don’t like it. 3. We must hurry. We’ve got very ... time. 4. This university offers very ... scholar ­ships. 5. The Smiths have ... money. They aren’t rich. 6. The theatre was almost empty. There were very ... people there. 7. There was ... lemo­nade in the bottle. There were ... peaches in the basket. 8. I have ... time, so I can’t go with you.9. He has ... English books. 10. There is ... juice in my glass. Have you got any juice? 11. There are ... bears in the zoo. 12. Tom Canty was the son of poor parents and had very ... clothes. 13. There is too ... soup in my soup plate. Give me some more, please. 14.The children returned from the wood very sad because they had found very ... mushrooms. 15. There was too ... light in the room, and I could not read. 16. There are very ... people who don’t know that the Earth is round. 17.1 made very ... progress on this assignment. 18. There is very ... hope of getting financial support for the research project. 19. Fortunately, very ... passengers were injured in a traffic accident.

Fill in a little or a few.

1. There is ... milk in the bottle. 2. There are ... pears in the fruit bowl. 3. There is ... fruit salad in the salad bowl. 4. There are ... tomatoes on the kitchen table. Make a salad! Add ... drops of olive oil and ... salt to the salad. 5. Put ... cups of flour into a mixing bowl. 6. Slice ... apples. 7. Add ... sugar. 8. Cut up ... oranges. 9. Chop up ... nuts. 10. Pour in ... honey. 11. Mix in ... raisins. 12. Add ... baking soda. 13. Add ... eggs, ... vanilla and ... almonds and beat thoroughly. 14. Bake until brown and the fruit­cake will be ready in ... minutes. Enjoy, dear! 15. This young man knows ... Russian. 16. Can’t you stay ... longer and help me with my exam? 17. He’s already been to the USA ... times. 18. Do you mind if I ask you ... questions? — Yes, please. I’ve got... time now and I can talk to you. 19. John has got only ... close friends and they meet quite often. 20. They had ... money left, so they could go shopping. 21. I always come on time or early, but she is always ... late.

UNIT 3

MOSCOW

· SNAPSHOT

Flag Coat of arms

Indefinite/Simple

  Present Past Future
Time expressions Always (всегда), usually(обычно), often (часто), sometimes (иногда), seldom/rarely(редко), never (никогда), ever (когда-нибудь), every day (каждый день), once a week (раз в неделю), on Mondays (по понедельникам) Yesterday(вчера), the day before yesterday(позавчера), last week/ year, month (на прошлой неделе/году/месяце, two hours ago(два часа назад), in 1492, in May 2004, in the 21st century, the other day(на днях) Tomorrow(завтра) , this year(в этом году), next year (в следующим году), in five days(через пять лет), in 2050, in the future (в будущем), soon(скоро), later(позже), one of these days(на днях)
Affirmative (V, V-s) We always comelate. (Мы всегда приходим поздно) He always comes late. (V-ed/2ф.н.гл.) We camelate yesterday. Мы приехали поздно вчера. (will+V) We will come late tomorrow.
Negative (Do/Does+not+V) We don’t always come late. He doesn’t always come late. Did+not+V (didn’t V) We didn’t come late yesterday. Will+not+V(won’t V) We won’t come late tomorrow
Interrogative   Do/Does+V? Do you always come late? – Yes, I do/No, I don’t. Does he always come late? Yes, he does/No, he doesn’t. When does he come? - He always comes late. Did +V? Did you come late yesterday? Will+V? Will you come late tomorrow? Yes, I will/No, I won’t When willyou come tomorrow? - We will come late tomorrow.

Choose the correct verbs.

1. Stacey …………….. shopping for fruit and vegetables every Saturday morning.

A) go B) goes C) went D) will go E) will went

2. He ……………. five languages.

A) don’t speak B) didn’t speak C) doesn’t speak D) won’t speak

3. Michael ……… a great film last night.

A) watches B) will watch C) watch D) watched

4. I hope the temperature …….. soon.

A) drops B) will drop C) dropped D) will dropped

5. I’m thirsty. I…….. a glass of water.

A) will have B) have C) had D) has

6. I always ……… reading fairy tales when I was young.

A) enjoyed B) enjoy C) will enjoy D) enjoys

7. My father ………. in the Second World War.

A) doesn’t fight B) didn’t fight C)won’t fight D) didn’t fought

8. ………. the weather nice last weekend?

A) were B) is C) are D) was

 

 

UNIT 4

Сrossword

Across:

2) The Englishmen's favourite drink

4) Something that the English put into the tea

6) The political centre of London

8) The theatre where W.Shakespeare worked as an actor

10) Thе nickname of London in England

12) Thе colour of taxis in London

Down:

1) Thе birds living in the Tower o London

3) Thе most popular activity of English people

5) Thе river on which London is situated

6) Thе large bag of wool on which the Lord Chancellor sits in the House of Lords

7) 100 pence equal one …

9) Thе major spectator sport in Britain

11) Thе national emblem of England

 


Key:

Across-

2) tea

4) milk

6) Westminster

8) globe

10) smoke

12) black

Down:

1) ravens

3) walking

5) Thames

6) woolsack

7) pound

9) football

11) rose


· TRANSLATING

The Order of Victory

The Order of Victory was the highest military decoration awarded for World War II service in the Soviet Union, and one of the rarest orders in the world. The order was awarded only to Generals and Marshals for successfully conducting combat operations involving one or more army groups resulting in a radical change of the situation in favor of the Red Army. In its history, it has been awarded twenty times to twelve Soviet leaders and foreign leaders. The original name of the order was proposed as Order for Faithfulness to the Homeland, however, it was given its present name.

On the 25th of October 1943, artist A. I. Kuznetsov, who was already the designer of many Soviet orders, presented his first sketch to Stalin. The sketch of a round medallion with portraits of Lenin and Stalin was not approved by the Supreme Commander. Instead, Stalin wanted a design with the Spasskaya Tower in the centre. Kuznetsov returned four days later with several new sketches, of which Stalin chose one entitled "Victory". The order was officially adopted on the 8th of November 1943, and was first awarded to Georgy Zhukov, Alexandr Vasilevsky, and Joseph Stalin.

The order was also bestowed to top commanders of the Allied forces. British Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery was awarded The Order of Victory.

The Order is made out of platinum in the form of a pentangular star with rays between the arms, measuring 72 mm in diameter. The star is studded with 174 diamonds weighing a total of 16 carats (3.2 g), while the arms of the star are made out of synthetic rubies. In the center of the star is a silver medallion, with the Moscow Kremlin wall, the Spasskaya Tower. The sky in the background is inlaid with blue enamel.

Against the sky, the letters "СССР" (USSR) appear in gold centered on the top of the medallion, while the word "Победа" (Victory) is displayed on the red banner at the bottom.

· GRAMMAR FOCUS

Continuous/Progressive

  Present Past Future
Time expressions Now (сейчас), just/right now(именно сейчас), at the moment(в данный момент), at present(в настоящее время) When(когда), while (в то время как), as(когда, в то время как), all day/ night/ morning(весь день/всю ночь/все утро), yesterday at 5/from 2 till 5(вчера в 5/с 2 до5) Tomorrow at this time (завтра в это время), tonight (сегодня вечером), next week/month (на следующей неделе/ месяце), in two/three days(через два/три дня), the day after tomorrow (послезавтра), soon (скоро).
Affirmative am/is/are+V-ing They are playing really well. (Они играют очень хорошо) They’re playing really well. was/were+V-ing They were playing all morning. (Они играли все утро.) Will be +V-ing They will be playing tomorrow at this time. (Они будут играть завтра в это время) They’ll be playing tomorrow at this time.
Negative am/is/are+not+V-ing They are not playing really well. (Они играют не очень хорошо). They aren’t playing really well Was/were+not+V-ing They were not playing all morning. (Они не играли все утро) They weren’t playing all morning. Will+not+be+V-ing They will not be playing tomorrow at this time. (Они не будут играть завтра в это время) They won’t be playing tomorrow at this time.
Interrogative   Am/Is/Are+S+V-ing Are they playing really well? (Они играют очень хорошо?)– Yes, they are/No, they are not. How are they playing? (Как они играют?) They are playing really well. Was/were+S+V-ing Were they playing all morning? (Они играли все утро?) – Yes, they were/No, they weren’t. How long were they playing? (Как долго они играли?) They were playing all morning.   Will-S+be+V-ing Will they be playing tomorrow at this time?(они будут играть завтра в это время?)- Yes, they will/No, they won’t. What will they be doing tomorrow at this time? (Что они будут делать завтра в это время?)- They will be playing tomorrow at this time.
Stative verbs are not usually used in the continuous form See, hear, forgive, care, like, mind, want, know, understand, believe, remember, own, posses, belong, have got, think(expressing an opinion), enjoy( synonym of like), see (synonym of understand)

 

Choose the correct verbs.

1. Can I help you, miss?

Yes, I ……….. for a birthday present for my daughter.

A) look B) am looking C) will be looking D) was looking

2. You …….. very pretty today.

Thanks.

A) are looking B) will be looking C) is looking D) were looking

3. She ……….. dinner when the doorbell rang.

A) is cooking B) were cooking C) will be cooking D) was cooking

4. David was reading the newspaper while Carla ……….. TV.

A) is watching B) was watching C) will be watching D) watch

5. I …… baseball at ten o’clock next Sunday.

A) was playing B) will be playing C) will play D) play

6. The snow …………. heavily as Mary was walking in the park.

A) was falling B) is falling C) fell D) fall

7. They ………. to Canada at seven o’clock this evening.

A) fly B) ‘re flying C) both B and D are right D) will be flying

8. ……… next weekend?

A) Will you be working B) Will you work C) Do you work D) Did you work

 

UNIT 5

LONDON

· SNAPSHOT

London.

London is the capital of the United Kingdom and the constituent country of England, and is the largest city in the European Union. It is the world’s seventh biggest city and it is seven times larger than any other city in the country. London was not built as a city in the same way as Paris or New-York. The etymology of London remains a mystery. London's history goes back to its founding by the Romans. It began life in the 1st century A.D. as a Roman fortification. The first major settlement was founded by the Romans in 43 A.D. and was called Londinium. This Londinium lasted for just seventeen years.

London survived different periods and epochs such as the English Renaissance, the Industrial Revolution, and the Gothic Revival in architecture. Each of them left a sign on London’s face and produced this or that change. In 1665 there was a Great Plaque in London, so many people left the city and escaped to the villages in the surrounding countryside. The Great Fire of 1666 ended the plaque but it also destroyed much of the city. After the disaster London was completely rebuilt and a great amount of people returned to the city but there were never again so many Londoners living in the city center.

Traditionally London is divided into four parts: the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End.

The city's core, the ancient City of London, still retains its limited mediaeval boundaries. The City of London is the world's greatest financial centre alongside New York City and Tokyo and one of the most important cultural centers. London's influence in politics, education, entertainment, media, fashion and the arts contributes to its preeminent position. The City of London is the headquarters of more than half of the UK's top 100 listed companies including the Bank of England and the Stock Exchange. There are a lot of tourists’ attractions within the City. Among them St. Paul’s Cathedral, the greatest of English churches and the Tower of London.

St Paul's Cathedral is the Anglican cathedral and the seat of the Bishop of London. The present building dates from the 17th century. Sir Christopher Wren was an architect of the masterpiece. The cathedral sits on the highest point of the City of London, which originated as a Roman trading post situated on the River Thames. The cathedral is one of London's most visited sights.

Another place of interest is the Tower of London. It was built in 1066 by William the Conqueror and since than has been playing an important role in historical and governmental events of the United Kingdom.

Westminster is the governmental part of London. It has many historical places and the brightest of them is the Westminster Abbey. The official name of the Westminster Abbey is the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster. It is a large, mainly Gothic church in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English, later British and later still (and currently) monarchs of the Commonwealth Realms. It briefly held the status of a cathedral from 1546–1556, and is a Royal Peculiar. It is also famous for its Poet’s Corner, place where a lot of outstanding poets, writers, politicians are buried.

Buckingham Palace is the official residence of the Royal family. It is famous for the ceremony of the Royal Guard change. It attracts thousands of tourists.

London currently has a wide range of peoples, cultures, and religions, and more than 300 languages are spoken within the city. The official population of the city is more than 8 mln. within the boundaries of Greater London making it the most populous municipality in the European Union.

The East End used to be a purely working district where working-class families lived. We still can find a great number of factories, workshops and docks there. The East End is in many ways the "real" London. Those who live in the East End are often called Cockneys, i. e. true Londoners. They have got their own peculiar dialect and accent. The Thames is a natural boundary between the West End and the East End of London.

The West End it is not far from the City and is a part of Westminster. Life never stops in the streets and squares here. The West End is a symbol of wealth and luxury. The best hotels, the most expensive restaurants, clubs, theatres, cinemas, casinos, shops and supermarkets are located here. It is also full of museums and art galleries.

· SPEAKING

4. Answer these questions:

1) When was London founded? 2) What parts is London divided into? 3) What places of interest can you find within the City of London? 4) What is the Westminster Abbey famous for? 5) Why is London considered to be the most populous municipality in the European Union? 6) Who was an architect of St. Paul's Cathedral? 7) Who are Cockneys? 8) What do you know about Londinium? 9) What is the district of factories, workshops and docks? 10) What is a symbol of wealth and luxury?

What are the summers?

a) The summers are hot.

b) The summers are not warm.

c) The summers are short and wet.

d) The summers are windy.

 

Why is the climate so mild?

a) Because of the warm currents.

b) Because of Labrador.

c) Because of the Gulf Stream.

d) Because of the Atlantic Ocean.

 

Perfect

  Present Past Future
Time expressions Present Perfect может употребляться с обстоятельственными словами, обозначающими период времени, который еще не закончился: Today-сегодня this week (month, year) на этой неделе, в этом месяце, в этом году. Часто употребляется с наречиями неопределенного времени и частотности: never никогда ever когда-либо often часто seldom редко already уже just только что lately в последнее время, недавно by now уже, к настоящему времени up to now до настоящего момента yet еще (в вопросах и отрицаниях)   Past Perfect обозначает действие, завершившееся до определенного момента в прошлом. By (к), by that time(к тому времени) ever когда-либо often часто seldom редко already уже just только что lately в последнее время, недавно by now уже, к настоящему времени up to now до настоящего момента yet еще (в вопросах и отрицаниях)     Обычно время, до которого завершится будущее действие, обозначено в предложении при помощи выражений by (к), by then (к тому времени, тогда), by the time (к тому времени), before (до) и пр. Союзы until / till используются только в отрицательных предложениях.  
Affirmative Have/has+V3 You have spoiled everything. Ты все испортил. (все испорчено сейчас)   Had+V3 By six o’clock on Sunday I had already learned all the words. (К шести часам в воскресенье я уже выучил все слова.) She had just made coffee when I arrived Will/shall+have+V3 We will have finishedthe report by the evening. (Мы закончим подготовку доклада к вечеру)
Negative Have/has+not+V3 I haven’t seen Peter today. (Я не видел Петра сегодня) Had+not+V3 I hadn’t read the book by Saturday. (Я еще не прочитал эту книгу к субботе.)   Will+have+not+V3 I won’t have read the book until next month. (Я не дочитаю книгу до следующего месяца.)
Interrogative   Have/has+S+V3 Have you already done your homework? Ты уже сделал домашнюю работу? Had+S+V3 Had you knownabout it before I left? (Ты уже знал об этом до того как я ушел?) Will-S+have+V3 Will we have built our new house by the beginning of the next year? (Мы достроим наш новый дом к началу следующего года?)

7. Insert have/has + one of the following verbs in the 3d form.

Break, buy, finish, do, go, go, lose, paint, read, take

“Are they still having dinner?” “No, they have finished.”

I _____________ some new shoes. Do you want to see them?

“Is Tom here?” “No, he _____________ to work.”

“__________ you __________ the shopping” “No, I’m going to do it later.”

“Where’s your key?” “I don’t know. I _____________ it.”

Look! Somebody _____________ that window.

Your house looks different. __________ you __________ it?

I can’t find my umbrella. Somebody _____________ it.

I’m looking for Sarah. Where __________ she __________?

“Do you want the newspaper?” “No, thanks. I _____________ it.”

8. Make up questions using Have you ever …?

1. (to be / to Paris?) Have you ever been to Paris?

2. (play / golf?) Have you ever played golf?

3. (to be / to Australia?) _______________?

4. (lose / your passport?) _______________?

5. (sleep / in the park?) _______________?

6. (eat / Chinese food?) _______________?

7. (to be / to New York?) _______________?

8. (win / a lot of money?) _______________?

9. (break / your leg?) _______________?

10. (run / a marathon?) _______________?

11. (speak / to famous people?) _______________?

12. (live / in another town) _______________?

 

UNIT 6

What do they mean?

The Second Front

In November, 1943, Joseph Stalin, Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt met together in Teheran, Iran, to discuss military strategy and post-war Europe. Ever since the Soviet Union had entered the war, Stalin had been demanding that the Allies open-up a second front in Europe. Churchill and Roosevelt argued that any attempt to land troops in Western Europe would result in heavy casualties.

Stalin believed that there were political, as well as military reasons for the Allies' failure to open up a second front in Europe. Stalin was still highly suspicious of Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt and was worried about them signing a peace agreement with Adolf Hitler. Stalin was fully aware that if Britain and the USA withdrew from the war, the Red Army would have great difficulty in dealing with Germany on its own.

At Teheran, Joseph Stalin reminded Churchill and Roosevelt of a previous promise of landing troops in Western Europe in 1942. Later they postponed it to the spring of 1943. Stalin complained that it was now November and there was still no sign of an allied invasion of France. After lengthy discussions it was agreed that the Allies would mount a major offensive in the spring of 1944.

From the memoirs published by those who took part in the negotiations in Teheran, it would appear that Stalin dominated the conference. Alan Brook, chief of the British General Staff, said that Stalin had a military brain of the very highest calibre. Never once in any of his statements he made any strategic error. In this respect he stood out compared with Roosevelt and Churchill.

The landings in June, 1944, created a second-front and took the pressure off the Red Army and from that date they made steady progress into territory held by Germany.

· GRAMMAR FOCUS

UNIT 7

WASHINGTON D. C.

· SNAPSHOT

  Seal

1. Answer the following questions:

Why 2 letters (D.C.) are added to the name of the capital? Look at the seal.

Is it a large or a small capital?

Who is Washington?

 

· VOCABULARY

Washington

Washington, the capital of the USA, is situated on the Potomac River in the district of Columbia. The District is named in honor of Columbus, the discoverer of America. The capital owes a great deal to the nation's first president George Washington. It was he, who selected the site for the District and laid the cornerstone of the Capitol building, where Congress meets. The location of the city on the Potomac river was the result of a political compromise between the wishes of the northern and the southern states. Washington was founded in 1791. The city was built to a preliminary plan. A rectangular network of streets combines with wide avenues which radiate from two main centers. One of them is the Capitol and the other is the White House. Washington is not the largest city in the country, for it cannot be compared in size with the cities like New York, Chicago, Detroit and Los-Angeles. But in the political sense it is the center of the republic. It is the home of government. The US Presidents lives and works here, the Congress and the Supreme Court are all in Washington D.C.

The First Article of the United States Constitution provides for a federal district, distinct from the states, to serve as the permanent national capital. The centers of all three branches of the federal government of the United States are located in Washington just as many of the nation's monuments and museums. Washington, D.C. hosts 174 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Organization of American States (OAS), the Inter-American Development Bank, and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). The headquarters of other institutions such as trade unions, lobbying groups, and professional associations are also located in Washington.

The United States Congress has supreme authority over Washington, D.C.; residents of the city therefore have less self-governance than residents of the states. D.C. residents could not vote in presidential elections until the ratification of the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1961.

Washington, D.C., is a planned city. The design for the City of Washington was largely the work of Pierre (Peter) Charles L’Enfant, a French-born architect, engineer, and city planner who first arrived in the colonies as a military engineer with Major General Lafayette during the American Revolutionary War. In 1791, President Washington commissioned L'Enfant to plan the layout of the new capital city. L'Enfant's plan was modeled in the Baroque style, which incorporated broad avenues radiating out from rectangles and circles, providing for open space and landscaping.



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