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AGRICULTURE IN GREAT BRITAIN.



For the period of latest decades Great Britain's agriculture saw a significant increase in scientific and technical level and profitability of agro-industrial complex. Countries support kites at the cost of local resources (the growth since postwar time rose from 1/3 to 4/5): a full self-sufficiency is reached by such products as milk, a high self-sufficiency have eggs, poultry, wheat, oats, barley, and potato: imported are fruits, butter, sugar, and cheeses. Due to conditions occurred in the EU imported goods cost more as compared to opportunities of foodstuffs import from the former colonies: this creates continuous controversies between Great Britain and other members of the UK. The British agriculture is nowadays one of the most efficient and mechanized in the world. The share of employment in the field amounts 2% of the total employment in the country. The total area of farmlands is 58.3 mln ha (76% of the total area of the country). Animal husbandry prevails in the structure of agricultural production. Developed are dairy and beef cattle breeding, pig husbandry, beef sheep and poultry husbandry for meat.

Great Britain is one of the largest suppliers of sheep wool. Traditionally, animal husbandry is concentrated in river basins. Nearly 60% of tillage in crop husbandry is occupied by permanent grasses, more than 28% - by cereal crops (including wheat 1 5%, barley - 11 %), 12% -by industrial crops (rapeseed. sugar beet, flax) and feeding crops (including potato), and also by-vegetable gardens and small-fruit crops, ['lie main crop-producing areas are fast England and the Southeast.

There are many fruit gardens in Great Britain. Agriculture uses generous government support and receives donations from the KU budget.

Production volumes exceed the volumes of consumption by such products as wheat, barley, oats, and pork; production volumes are lower than the volume of consumption by such products as potato, beef, mutton, wool, sugar and eggs. Therefore, Great Britain has to import many of the necessary products. The country imports 4/5 of butter, 2/3 of sugar, a half of wheal and bacon, ¼of beef and veal consumed in the country.

The country occupies sixth place among KU members in terms of agricultural production volume. The area of farmlands in use as of June 2007 amounted to 17.4 mln ha, which makes nearly 77% of the countries area.

General dynamics of the British agriculture development in 2007 in terms of the main agricultural items cost at market prices had the following indices: wheal production increased by 21.9% (to 1.3 bin pounds sterling); barley production by 39.7% (to 538.5 mln P.St); production of vegetable oil by 35.8% (to 421.5 mln P.St). production of sugar beet fell 3.5%, (to 171.9 mln P.St) (see Table 1); production of fresh vegetables rose 5.3% having reached 1.1 mln P.St; production of plants and flowers climbed 4.0% (to 781.5 mln P.St): potato production increased b> 6.9% (to 664 mln P.St); production of fresh fruits- by 16.1% (to 445 mln P.St); pork production by - 7.3% (to 775 mln P.St); production of beef - by 4.9% (to 1.7 bin P.St): mutton production decreased by 7.8% (to 628 mln P.St); production of poultry remained at the level of the previous year (1.2 bin P.St): milk production went up 13.3% (to 2.8 bin P.St); production of eggs by 13.5% (to 410 mln P.St).

Notes:

self – sufficiency – самодостаточность;

controversies – споры, дискуссии, полемики;

to prevail – преобладать;

donation – дар, пожертвование.

Questions.

1. When did Great Britain’s agriculture see a significant increase?

2. What is British agriculture nowadays?

3. Does Agriculture use government support and receive donations?

4. What products does the country import?

5. What place does the country occupy?

 

Вариант №3.

Higher Education in Russia.

Higher education plays an important part in the life of any country as it provides the country with highly-qualified specialists for future development and progress. It trains people to become teachers, engineers, doctors and other professional workers.

At present a new system of education is introduced in this country — a distance education system. This computer system of learning helps working professionals to continue their education while remaining at their jobs. This system enables people to get knowledge and a good foundation in the sciences basic to his or her field of study. Distance learning has developed over years from satellite video courses to modern videoconferencing through per­sonal computers.

The academic year usually lasts 9 months and is divided into two terms (semesters). The first- and second-year students obtain thorough instructions in the fundamental sciences of mathematics, physics, chemistry and drawing as well as computer engineering and a number of others. The curricula are enriched and broadened by instructions in such subjects as foreign languages, history and economics.

At the third year students get more advanced knowledge and begin to concentrate on their special interests, so to say, their «major» subject and take many courses in this subject. Specialized study and courses will help students to become specialists and prepare them for their future work.

After four years students will get a bachelor's degree. Then the students may go on with their studies and in a year or two of further study and research get a master's degree. After graduating from the university they may go on with their study and research and may get a still higher degree. About 75 percent of students receive state grants and 15 percent are sponsored by enterprises. Universities have their own students’ hostels and some of them have large and excellent sport centers.

Education is a process through which culture is preserved, knowledge and skills are developed, values are formed, and infor­mation is exchanged.

Education is the way to success.

Notes:

1. over years — за многие годы

2. curricula are enriched and broadened — программы (курсы обучения) обогащаются и расширяются

Questions:

1. When does the academic year begin in Russia?

2. What subjects do stu­dents study in the first year?

3. What degree do students get after four years of study?

4. What degree can a student get after two years of further study and research?

5. What new education system is introduced in Russia?

 

Вариант №4.





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