ТОП 10 на сайтеПриготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Техника нижней прямой подачи мяча.
Франко-прусская война (причины и последствия)
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Смысловое и механическое запоминание, их место и роль в усвоении знаний
Коммуникативные барьеры и пути их преодоления
Обработка изделий медицинского назначения многократного применения
Образцы текста публицистического стиля
Четыре типа изменения баланса
Задачи с ответами для Всероссийской олимпиады по праву
ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?
Влияние общества на человека
Приготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Практические работы по географии для 6 класса
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Изменения в неживой природе осенью
Уборка процедурного кабинета
Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
1. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на модальный глагол must:
1) Her English is very poor, she must study very hard.
2) They must spend more time on their English.
3) You must help her in every way possible.
4) We must learn at least ten new words every day.
5) He must leave at once.
6) The students must do their homework regularly.
7) You must do this important work quickly.
2. Заполните пропуски модальными глаголами саn или may. Переведите предложения на русский язык:
1) ... I ask you to explain the rule once more?
2) ... you lend me your dictionary?
3) You ... take this book; 1 don’t need it.
4) It was a very popular song at the time, you ... hear it everywhere.
5) ... I ask you to do me a favour?
6) Atoms of different kinds ... join together in different ways.
7) They ... continue their experiment.
3. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на глаголы to have (to) и to be (to):
1) It looks like raining. You have to take your raincoat.
2) Remember that we are to be at this place not later than eight.
3) He will have to stay there for a month.
4) We are to leave on Monday.
5) The children had to stay indoors because it was raining.
6) Nobody met me when I came, because I was to arrive by the ten o’clock train, but I couldn’t get a ticket for it.
7) We had to touch upon this question at the scientific conference.
8) You will have to work hard to finish the work in time.
4. Заполните пропуски модальными глаголами или их эквивалентами:
1) She ... play chess well. 2) ... I take your pen? 3) ... I ask you a question? 4) You ... not talk at the lesson. 5) He ... not speak, English last year. 6) My sister ... not play the piano two years ago, but now she ... 7) You ... get this novel in our library. 8) I ... go to the library today to prepare for my report at the conference. 9) ... you do me a favour?
5. Напишите следующие предложения в вопросительной и отрицательной формах:
Образец: Не can play chess well. Can he play chess well? He can’t play chess well.
1) We must tell her this news. 2) He may smoke here. 3) She can speak English perfectly. 4) The students must translate the text at home. 5) We can go to the theatre tonight. 6) We shall be able to help them. 7) They had to wait for a long time. 8) His friend couldn’t get this book. 9) You were allowed to take this book home. 10) May I go home now? 11) They were allowed to come at four.
6. Употребите глаголы, данные в скобках, в форме Present Perfect:
1) I (speak) to him about it several times.
2) We (learn) many new words in this course.
3) He (make) that same mistake several times.
4) I (hear) that story before.
5) I am afraid that I (lose) my car keys.
6) She (see) this film three times.
7) I (tell) John what you said.
8) She (return) my book at last.
9) She says that she (lose) her new pocket-book.
7. Употребите глаголы, данные в скобках, в форме Past Perfect:
1) I was sure that I (see) the man before.
2) I asked him why he (leave) the party so early.
3) It was clear that he (give) us the wrong address.
4) The teacher corrected the exercises which I (prepare).
5) He knew that he (make) a serious mistake.
6) She said she (look) everywhere for the book.
7) I felt that I (meet) the man somewhere before.
8) He wanted to know what (happen) to his briefcase.
8. Употребите глаголы, данные в скобках, в форме Future Perfect:
1) I am sure they (complete) the new road by June.
2) He says that before he leaves he (see) every show in town.
3) By the time you arrive, I (finish) reading your book.
4) I (be) in this country two years on next January.
5) A year from now he (take) his medical examinations and (begin) to practise.
6) If you don’t make a note of that appointment, you (forget) it by next week.
9. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на употребление времен группы Perfect:
1) Не has told her all about his travel. 2) I have never been to St. Petersburg. 3) Have you finished your homework? 4) They have been friends for years. 5) By the time he leaves home, we shall have come to the station. 6) We are sure that he will have kept his promise. 7) She told us that she had not finished her report yet. 8) He has been the best student in the class. 9) She said she had had her lunch. 10) By the end of the week we shall already have translated this book. 11) They have been absent from class all week.
10. Напишите следующие предложения в вопросительной и отрицательной формах:
1) There are some extra chairs in the next room.
2) He made some mistakes in spelling.
3) They have some pretty dresses in that store.
4) The teacher taught us some important rules of grammar.
5) We learned some new words in class yesterday.
6) There are some flowers in the yellow vase.
7) The doctor gave her some pills to take.
8) I bought some stamps at the post-office.
9) He told us about some of his experiences.
11. Заполните пропуски местоимениями some или any. Переведите предложения на русский язык:
1) You will need ... warm clothes there.
2) I don’t have ... money with me.
3) Please, give me ... more coffee. – I’m sorry, but there isn’t … more coffee. I’m sorry, but I didn’t have ... time to prepare my lessons last night.
4) It was in Greece that ancient civilization was highly developed.
5) I didn’t have ... stamps, so I went to the post-office to buy ...
6) Please, put ... water in that vase, the flowers are dying.
7) There are ... famous museums in that city but we didn’t have time to visit ...
8) The doctor gave me ... medicine for my cough.
9) There aren’t ... students in the room at the moment.
12. Напишите следующие предложения в вопросительной и отрицательной формах:
Образец: Не told us something about his trip. Did he tell us anything about his trip? He didn’t tell us anything about his trip.
1) There is someone at the door. 2) You left something on the hall table. 3) He will bring someone with him. 4) There is somebody in the next room. 5) He has something important to say to you. 6) There is something wrong with this telephone. 7) She gave us something to eat. 8) He spoke to somebody about it.
13. Заполните пропуски местоимениями some, any, no, every и их производными. Переведите предложения на русский язык:
1) Не found ... new words in this lesson. 2) I have ... living in that city. 3) She comes here ... day. You can find her in ... time between nine and six. 4) If you have ... against me, speak out. 5) Have ... more ice-сream. – Thanks, ... more for me. 6) ... day he comes here and asks me the same questions. 7) ... was ready. 8) I told you ... I had to tell. There is hardly ... to add.
14. Заполните пропуски местоимениями much, many, little, few. Переведите предложения на русский язык:
1) Very ... people know about it. 2) He is a man of ... words. 3) ... was said but ... done. 4) Say ... and do ... . 5) ... heard about the book but ... read it. 6) There isn’t ... harm in it. 7) He has very ... knowledge of the matter. 8) ... is spoken about it, but ... believe it. 9) We have ... friends in Leningrad. 10) There were very ... mistakes in his spelling.
15. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на местоимения one (ones), that (those):
1) This text is more difficult than that one. 2) One of the students is absent today. 3) One must always try to speak English at our lessons. 4) There is only one way to do it. 5) Those present at the meeting were the teachers from our school. 6) I like to read English books as well as Russian ones. 7) The students of the first group study better than those of the second one. 8) These pictures are better than those. 9) This film is more interesting than that I saw last week. 10) I don’t like this book. Give me another one.
16. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на употребление инфинитива:
1) You must get up early to be in time for the lesson. 2) We sometimes stay at our institute to discuss the news. 3) One must study hard to know English well. 4) To improve pronunciation one must read aloud. 5) To learn how to use this method you must solve many problems. 6) He worked hard to complete his experiment in time. 7) It will take you much time to perform this work. 8) To translate this text without a dictionary you must know all the new words.
18. Употребите глаголы, данные в скобках, в форме герундия. Переведите предложения на русский язык:
1) I enjoy (study) with Miss Smith. 2) They have finished (paint) our apartment at last. 3) Mr. Smith stopped (go) to his English class. 4) We are considering (buy) an automobile. 5) Do you mind (wait) a few minutes in the hall? 6) My little brother enjoys (listen) to the radio. 7) You shouldn’t risk (go) out if you have a cold. 8) We shall appreciate (receive) an answer immediately. 9) She insisted on (help) me with the report.
19. Закончите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:
1) She is not interested in ... 2) He is fond of ... . 3) We both enjoy ... . 4) He is tired of ... 5) We all need more practice in ... 6) Do you mind ... ? 7) They are both very fond of ... 8) He hasn’t had any experience in ... 9) She left suddenly without
20. Употребите глаголы, данные в скобках, в форме инфинитива или герундия, Переведите предложения на русский язык:
1) It’s no use (argue) when the matter is settled.
2) I don’t like (interrupt) people when they are speaking.
3) It was very useful (hear) the different opinions.
4) Shall we ever have a chance of (see) you here again?
5) He left suddenly without (say) a word.
6) Do you think this book is worth (read)?
7) She is not interested in (learn) to speak English.
8) We went straight home instead of (visit) his parents.
21. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времени Present Indefinite после союзов when, while, if, before, after:
1) If we get the tickets we shall go to the concert.
2) I shall let you know when she comes.
3) When a child leaves the junior school, he will go to a secondary school of one type or another.
4) When this lesson is over, we shall have a break.
5) Before you translate the text, you will learn the new words.
6) When the weather is fine, we shall go for a walk.
7) He will translate this article, if you give him a dictionary.
8) I shall tell you about it after I learn some new facts.
22. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на окончания -s, ‘s, -s’:
1) In England there is an infants’ school and a junior school. 2) It was not our idea, it was theirs. 3) My friend’s sons read English well. 4) She studies English and French at the courses of foreign languages. 5) The students of our group like to read English books. 6) Our scientists’ discoveries in the exploration of outer space are known all over the world. 7) This engineer’s report contains very interesting data.
23. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на место наречий в предложении:
1) We usually go for a walk in the park on Sunday. 2) He has always prepared his lessons. 3) He is planning to visit us at our home tonight. 4) Nobody ever has a bad word to say about Nick. 5) He promised to give me an answer in the morning. 6) My friend often goes to Leningrad on business trips. 7) She is always late for the lessons. 8) He is often too busy to eat lunch. 9) I never go for a walk on Sunday.
24. Переведите предложения на русский язык, употребляя наречия, данные в скобках:
1) He prepares his lessons. (carefully) 2) She plays the piano. (well) 3) I have spoken to him about that. (often) 4) Does he fail to prepare his homework? (sometimes) 5) He is going to leave for Leningrad. (tomorrow) 6) She stayed with me. (seldom) 7) I saw Mr. Smith in the cafeteria. (yesterday) 8) Have you visited that city? (ever) 9) Have you finished writing your exercises? (already)
25. Замените в следующих предложениях действительный залог страдательным. Переведите предложения на русский язык:
Образец: They developed a new method of teaching.
A new method of teaching was developed by them. – Новый метод обучения был разработан ими.
1) The audience enjoyed the concert very much.
2) The little boy ate the cake.
3) The teacher corrects our exercises at home.
4) They started a dancing class last week.
5) Everybody will see this film soon.
6) The teacher returned our written work to us.
7) Mr. Smith will leave the tickets at the box-office.
8) The students translate texts during the lessons.
9) Mary took that book from the desk.
26. Замените в следующих предложениях страдательный залог действительным. Переведите предложения на русский язык:
Образец: This letter was written by John.
John wrote this letter. Джон написал это письмо.
1) The entire city was destroyed by the fire.
2) The lecture was attended by many people.
3) The book will be published in spring.
4) The class is taught by Mr. Smith.
5) It was designed by a French engineer.
6) This book is always read by the students of the first course.
7) The letter was left on the table.
8) The house was struck by lightning.
9) The cries of the child were heard by everyone.
27. Напишите следующие предложения в вопросительной и отрицательной формах:
Образец: Не was sent to New York. Was he sent to New York? He was not sent to New York.
1) The first prize was won by John.
2) Our exercises are corrected each night by the teacher.
3) The mail is delivered at ten o’clock.
4) The bridge will be finished this year.
5) The contract will be signed tomorrow.
6) His report was listened to with great interest.
7) The film is much spoken about.
8) All the letters are looked through by the secretary.
9) All these books were published by this publishing house.
28. Переведите следующие пары предложений и определите, какой частью речи являются выделенные слова:
1) A deaf child studies literature with his parents. Serious reasons changed his results in these studies.
2) Water can freeze and become solid. Iron is a solid.
3) These works of art belong to the famous painter. She works at school.
4) Heatbrings about many changes in materials. Any material changes when it is heated.
5) They wanted to find the most gifted children. He was giftedby nature with great talent to write poetry.
29. Переведите следующие словосочетания на русский язык:
music school, full-part students, five-year plan, high speed car, University Art Department, district music school, labor time, television programme, fresh-water pond, research laboratory equipment.
КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА №2.
1. Прочитайте текст и письменно ответьте по-английски на вопросы, следующие за текстом.
2. Найдите в тексте и переведите на русский язык предложения, в которых употреблены модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты.
3. Найдите в тексте и переведите на русский язык предложения, в которых употреблены неопределенные местоимения some, any, no, every и их производные.
4. Выпишите из текста все глаголы и образуйте от них причастия настоящего и прошедшего времени; переведите их на русский язык.
5. Найдите в тексте и переведите на русский язык предложения, в которых употреблено причастие настоящего времени.
6. Найдите в тексте и переведите на русский язык предложения, в которых употреблено причастие прошедшего настоящего времени.
7. Поставьте глагол-сказуемое одного предложения из текста во все временные формы группы Perfect, произведя все необходимые смысловые изменения.
Образец:He has just translated the text.
He had translated the text before the bell rang.
He will have translated the text by tomorrow.
8. Найдите в тексте и переведите на русский язык предложения, сказуемые которых употреблены в страдательном залоге.
9. Выполните письменно контрольно-тренировочные упражнения 9, 15, 18,.
10. Переведите письменно текст контрольной работы №2 на русский язык. При переводе пользуйтесь англо-русским словарем.
Agriculture in Russia.
Russia comprises roughly three-quarters of the territory of the former Soviet Union but has relatively little area suited for agriculture because of its arid climate and inconsistent rainfall. Northern areas concentrate mainly on livestock, and the southern parts and western Siberia produce grain. Restructuring of former state farms has been an extremely slow process. The new land code passed by the Duma in 2002 should speed restructuring and attract new domestic investment to Russian agriculture. Private farms and garden plots of individuals account for over one-half of all agricultural production. The Agriculture in Russia is struggling to rebuild as it transforms itself from a command economy to a more market-oriented system.
Following the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, large collective and state farms – the backbone of Soviet agriculture – had to contend with the sudden loss of state-guaranteed marketing and supply channels and with a changing legal environment that created pressure for reorganization and restructuring. In less than ten years, livestock inventories declined by one-half, pulling down demand for feed grains, and the area planted to grains dropped by 25%. The use of mineral fertilizer and other purchased inputs plummeted, driving yields down. Most farms could no longer afford to purchase new machinery and other capital investments. After nearly ten years of decline, Russian agriculture has begun to show signs of modest improvement. The transition to a more market-oriented system has introduced an element of fiscal responsibility, which has resulted in increased efficiency as farmers try to maintain productivity while adjusting to resource constraints. The farming structure has changed and the relatively small family farms that have emerged and grown stronger in the new market environment are now producing in aggregate value more than the total output of large corporate farms that succeeded the traditional collectives.
The share of Russia's agriculture in GDP has remained below 6% since 2000, much lower than the average for the other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (17% on average for the 12 CIS countries). The share of agricultural employment is relatively high at 16% of the total number of employed, but this is also substantially lower than in other CIS countries (around 40% on average). Russia is thus much less agrarian by both measures than other former Soviet republics. The disproportion between the share of agriculture in GDP and its share in employment suggests that the productivity of labor in Russia's agriculture is below the average in the economy.
a severe transition decline - серьезное снижение перехода
a command economy - административно-командная экономика
a market-oriented system - ориентированная на рынок система
a breakup - распад
plummeted - резко упавший
the backbone – основа
collective and state farms – колхозы и совхозы
aggregate value - совокупная ценность
the Commonwealth of Independent States - Содружество Независимых Государств
the gross domestic product (GDP) - валовой внутренний продукт
the gross domestic income (GDI) - валовой внутренний доход
Why is the territory of Russia not suitable for agriculture?
When did the Duma pass the new code?
What was the backbone of Soviet agriculture?
Why did the area planted to grains drop by 25%?
What has the transition to a more market-oriented system introduced?
Вариант №2 .
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