| 1. congestion charge 2. journey time reliability 3. efficiency of freight distribution 4. during working hours 5. flat once-a-day fee 6. an electronic road pricing system 7. road-side transponders or on board units 8. video-surveillance cameras 9. automatic number plate recognition technology
|| 10. noise level 11. the charged area 12. persistent non-players 13. displaced car users 14. road traffic emissions 15. fossil fuel consumption 16. inner ring road
17. (average) bus occupancy 18. traffic flow
Ex. 5. Choose the right variant for each word combination. Mind the use of the word "charges".
| 1. all charges borne
2. all charges included
3. basis for charges
4. back charges
5. bill of charges
6. capital (depreciation) charges
7. commission charges
8. charges from salary
9. charges for delivery
10. contracting charges
11. deferred charges
12. customary charges
13. deferred charges
14. freight charges
15 handling charges
16. overhead charges
17. overhead charges
18. transport charges
19. storage charges
|| a. комиссионные
b. накладные расходы
c. транспортные расходы
d. расходы на погрузку и разгрузку
e. обратные расходы
f. плата за хранение
g. расходы будущих лет
h. включая все затраты
i. за покрытием всех расходов
j. плата за перевозку груза
k. основание для платежей
l. затраты на доставку
m. обычные расходы
n. счет расходов
o. амортизационные отчисления
p. удержания из зарплаты
q. расходы, оговоренные договором
Ex. 6. Look through the text and find the derivatives from the following verbs:to rely, to distribute, to surveil, to enforce, to play, to indicate, to signify, to improve, to occupy.
Ex. 7. Read the text for more information about technology described.
London’s Congestion Charge was introduced on 17 February 2003 with the aims of reducing congestion, improving bus services, improving journey time reliability and improving the efficiency of freight distribution and other services. Drivers entering the centre of the city during working hours must pay a flat, once-a-day fee. It is an electronic road pricing system which operates without road-side transponders or on-board units. Vehicles are tracked entering the charged area by video-surveillance cameras, using automatic number plate recognition technology.
This technology is employed for enforcement in urban and truck charging systems. Drivers entering the charged area between 7 a.m. and 6:30 p.m. Monday to Friday must pay 5 pounds (7 Euro), in advance or before the end of the day. Over half a million payments are made each week. Payments may be made by Internet, mobile phone SMS messages or at some petrol stations and shops. On payment, the vehicle’s registration number is entered onto a computerized list and cross-checked against the video camera records. Fines are sent out to drivers of cars entering the zone without payment. Persistent non-payers are identified and their vehicles clamped, or in a few extreme cases their vehicles have been crushed.
The impacts of the system have been carefully monitored. The main results reported after the first complete year of operation are as follows, and closely in line with the results of the modeling on which the system was designed:
• Congestion within the zone has reduced by 30%, and the volume of traffic within the zone has reduced by 15%;
• Public transport is successfully accommodating displaced car users;
• Road traffic emissions and fossil fuel consumption in the zone have been reduced.
Generally the congestion charge has been accepted by the public and by business. The success of the charge has resulted in the Mayor proposing to extend the charged area to cover all of central London. The charging system and level of charge would stay the same and be applied to a single zone roughly double the size of the present charging area.
Ex. 8. Answer the following questions.
1. Why was London’s Congestion Charge introduced?
2. What technology is employed for enforcement in urban and truck charging systems?
3. What were the main results after the first year of charging system operation?
4. How has the ecological situation been improved within the charging zone?
5. What has the success of charge resulted in?
Ex. 9. Substitute the words in Russian with their appropriate equivalents in English.
1. Road (выбросы транспорта) and fossil (потребления топлива) in the zone have been reduced.2. (Водители) entering the centre of the city during (в рабочее время) must pay a (фиксированную однодневную плату). 3. Generally the (затор) charge has been accepted by the public and by business. 4. The (влияние) of the electronic (система дорожных сборов) have been carefully monitored. 5 Vehicles are (отслеживаются) entering the (платная область) by (камеры видео наблюдения) using automatic (технология распознавания номерного знака).6. Reducing (заторов на дорогах) has enabled more busses to be run with much more (надежный) journey times. 7. No (значительных изменений) in (уровень шума) have been recorded. 8. (Затор) and the (интенсивность движения) within the zone has (уменьшены). 9. (Штрафы) are sent out to drivers of cars entering the zone (без оплаты). 10. Average (наполняемость автобусов) has increased but (переполненность) has been avoided.
Ex. 10. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Mind the use of the gerund.
1.For traffic management, there is a great deal of monitoring and an increase in the amount and reliability of information given to users. 2. Varying the charge by distance travelled within the UK ensures that all vehicles contribute equally irrespective of their country o or where they last refueled. 3. There is little scope for reducing the annual tax on vehicle ownership further. 4.The extent of feeling unsafe when using public transport is relatively high. 5. Multimodal transport is of highly effective and modem ways of facilitating one movement of imports and exports. 6. Getting round in certain urban areas is becoming an increasingly time-consuming, difficult, uncomfortable, hazardous and stressful activity.
Ex. 11. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Mind the use of participle II.
l. Air pollution caused by intensive car, lorry and air traffic is finally starting to worry those who are most exposed to it. 2. One of the main measures considered by logistics managers of agro industries with continuous process is related to truck waiting times in the reception area. 3 The total journey time by public transport consists of the time taken to get to or from bus-stop, the waiting time and the time on board the vehicle. 4. The distribution services offered included warehousing, administration, order processing and the control of the goods towing via the transport network. 5. Transport services provided in return for money can immediately be classed as third-party operations 6. Based on a literature study and laboratory tests, full scale tests should be carried out on existing roads.
Ex. 12. Give the main points of the text in 4-7 sentences. Use the following clichés:
The text deals with... .The author points out that... . Attention is drawn to the fact that... . It is pointed out that... . It should be noted what... . The author comes to the conclusion that... . I find the text rather/very... .
UNIT 4 RUSH HOURS