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Rush Hours
The higher the speed of a vehicle, the more difficult collision avoidance becomes and the greater the damage if a collision does occur. Therefore, many countries of the world limit the maximum speed allowed on their roads. Vehicles are not supposed to be driven at speeds which are higher than the posted maximum.
To enforce speed limits, two approaches are generally employed. In the USA, it is common for the police to patrol the streets and use special equipment to measure the speed of vehicles, and “pull over” any vehicle found to be in violation of the speed limit. In Brazil and some European countries, there are computerized speed measuring devices spread throughout the city, which will automatically defect speeding drivers and take a photograph of the license plate, which is later used for applying and mailing the ticket.
Another interesting mechanism that was developed in Germany is the Grime Welle, or green lights along that corridor. This encourages drivers to travel at the posted limit in order to minimize stopping.
During business days in most major cities, traffic congestion reaches great intensity at predictable times of the day due to the large number of vehicles using the road at the same time. This phenomenon is called rush hour, although the period of high traffic intensity may exceed one hour.
Some cities adopt policies to reduce rush-hour traffic and pollution and encourage the use of public transportation. For example, in SSo Paulo, Brazil each vehicle has a specific day of the week in which it is forbidden from traveling the roads during rush hour.
In the United States and Canada, several expressways have a special lane that can only be used by cars carrying two or more people, and several cities offer a public telephone service where citizens can arrange rides with others depending on where they live and work. The purpose of these policies is to reduce the number of vehicles on the roads and thus reduce rush-hour traffic intensity. Uncontrolled traffic occurs in the absence of lane markings and traffic control signals.

Ex. 7. Provide answers to the questions below.
1.What is the first approach employed in the USA?
2. What mechanism was developed in Germany to inforce speed limits?
3. How do the authorities in Sao Paulo, Brazil reduce rush-hour traffic and pollution?

 

Ex. 8. Read and translate the text.

Types of Roads.

In large cities, moving from one part of the city to another by means of ordinary streets and avenues can be time-consuming since traffic is often slowed by at-grade junctions, tight turns, narrow marked lanes and lack of a minimum speed limit.
The words expressway and freeway have varying meanings in different jurisdictions and in popular use in different places; however, there are two different types of roads used to provide high-speed access across urban areas:
The freeway or motorway is a divided multi-lane highway with fully- controlled access and grade-separated intersections. Some freeways are called expressways, superhighways, or turnpikes, depending on local usage. Access to freeways is fully controlled; entering and leaving the freeway is permitted only at grade-separated interchanges.
The expressway is usually a broad multi-lane avenue, frequently divided, with some grade-level intersections.
Motor vehicle drivers wishing to travel over great distances within the city will usually take the freeways or expressways in order to minimize travel time. When a crossing road is at the same grade as the freeway, a bridge will be built for the crossing road. If the freeway is elevated, the crossing road will pass underneath it.

Ex.9. Match the types of interchanges and definitions.



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