Ex.11. Work in pairs. Complete the table, by putting the safety features from the box into the right column.



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Ex.11. Work in pairs. Complete the table, by putting the safety features from the box into the right column.



 

Ex.12. Translate the following text into Russian. Use the dictionary if necessary.

Traffic Control

Nearly all roadways are built with devices meant to control traffic. Most notable to the motorist are those meant to communicate directly with the driver. Broadly, these fall into three categories: signs, signals or pavement markings. They help the driver navigate; they assign the right- of-way at intersections; they indicate laws such as speed limits and park­ing regulations; they advise of potential hazards; they indicate passing and no passing zones; and otherwise derive. R information and to assure traffic is orderly and safe.

200 years ago these devices were signs, nearly all informal. In the late 19th century signals began to appear in big cities at a few highly con­gested intersections. They were manually operated, and consisted of se­maphores, flags or paddles, or in some cases colored electric lights, all modeled on railroad signals. In the 20th century signals were automated, at first with electromechanical devices and later with computers. Signals can be quite sophisticated: with vehicle embedded in the pavement, the signal can control and coordinate the turning movements of heavy traffic in the most complex of intersections. In the 1920s traffic engineers learned how to coordinate signals along a thoroughfare to increase its speeds and volumes. In the 1980s, with computers, similar coordination of whole networks became possible.

In the 1920s movement markings were introduced. Initially they were used to indicate the road’s centerline. Soon after they were coded with information to aid motorists in passing safely. Later, with multilane roads they were used to define lanes. Other uses, such as indicating per­mitted turning movements and pedestrian crossing soon followed.

In the 20th century traffic control devices were standardized. Before then every locality decided on what its devices would look like and where they would be applied. This could be confusing, especially to traf­fic from outside the locality. In the United States standardization was first taken at the state level, and late in the century at the federal level.

Each country has a Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) and there are efforts to blend them into a worldwide standard.

Besides signals, signs and markings, other forms of traffic control are designed and built into the roadway. For instance, curbs and rumble strips can be used to keep traffic in a given lane and median barriers can prevent left turns and even U-turns.

 

Ex.13. Read the text about fleet monitoring and answer the questions.

Fleet Monitoring

One controversial scheme for improving an aspect of road safety has been introduction of the so-called “fleet monitoring”. You may have seen lorries, vans, and other commercial vehicles driving on the streets with sign printed on them similar to the one above. This sign is an invitation for the general public to inform transport companies of any improper behavior by their drivers. If you see vehicle driving too fast, overtaking dangerously or not respecting signals or limits, then you can call the number on the sign to report the incident. This invitation to make the normal citizen responsible has proven to be very useful to transport companies who have to pay large insurance premiums and feel the need to make sure that their drivers are behaving correctly and efficiently at all times. Of course, the scheme has been criticized by many people, as they feel that they can be abused – some people have reported drivers simply because they had an argument with them, for example; and others feel that it also encourages a form of spying. Whatever you think the “fleet monitoring” scheme is certainly popular with employers in the field, so it appears destined to grow.

  1. What is “fleet monitoring” scheme?
  2. Why was it introduced?
  3. When should the public use the telephone number?
  4. Why was the scheme been criticized by some people?
  5. Is there anything similar in your country? What is your opinion of it, and why?

 



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