Ex. 4. Choose the right variant for each word combination.

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Ex. 4. Choose the right variant for each word combination.

1. multiplication of road accidents 2. market dominance 3. individual vehicle ownership 4. carrying capacity 5. multi-lane urban expressway 6. gravel road 7. door to door service 8. toll road 9. right of passage 10. sustainable environment 11. vested interests 12. trucking industry a. городская окружающая среда b. городская многорядная автострада c. грузоподъемность d. гравийная дорога e. платная дорога f. служба от места отправления до места прибытия g. доминирование на рынке h. законные интересы i. право на проезд j. грузоперевозки k. устойчивая окружающая среда l. автомобиль в личной собственности


Ex. 5. Read the text and find answers to the questions after the text.

Road transportation is the mode that has expanded the most over the last 50 years, both for passengers and freight transportation. This is the result of growth of the loading capacity of vehicle and an adaptation of vehicle to freight (e.g. perishables, fuel, construction materials, etc) or passengers (e.g. school bus) demand for speed, autonomy and flexibility. New types of problems, such as a significant growth of fuel consumption, increasing environmental problems, traffic congestion and a multiplication of road accidents have emerged.

Most roads are provided as a public good by governments, while the majority of vehicles are owned privately. The capital costs, therefore, are shared, and do not fall as heavily on one source as is the case for other modes.

Consequently, a growing number of roads have been privatized and companies specializing in road management have emerged, particularly in Europe and North America. This is only possible on specific trunks that have an important and stable traffic. Unlike governments, private enterprises have vested interests to see that the road segments they manage are maintained and improved since the quality of the road will be directly linked with revenue generation. The majority of toll roads are highways linking large cities or bridges and tunnels where there is a convergence of traffic. Most roads are not economically profitable but must be socially present as they are essential to service populations.

Governments can expropriate the necessary land for road construction since a private enterprise may have difficulties to expropriate without government support. In most jurisdictions, trucks and buses have specific weight and length restrictions which are imposed for safety reasons. In addition, there are serious limits on the traction capacities of cars, busses and trucks because of the considerable increases in energy consumption. For these reasons the carrying capacities of individual road vehicles are limited.

Road transport, however, possesses significant advantages over other modes.

The capital cost of vehicles is relatively small. This produces several key characteristics of road transport.

Low vehicle costs make it comparatively easy for new users to gain entry, which helps ensure that the trucking industry, for example, is highly competitive.

Another advantage of road transport is the high relative speed of vehicles, the major constraint being government-imposed speed limits.

One of its most important attributes is the flexibility of route choice, once a network of roads is provided.

Road transport has the unique opportunity of providing door to door service for both passengers and freight.

These multiple advantages have made cars and trucks the modes of choice for a great number of trip purposes, and have led to the market dominance of cars and trucks for short distance trips.

Technological evolution of road transport vehicles was a continuous trend since the construction of the first automobiles.

The new materials (ceramics, plastics, aluminum, composite materials, etc...), fuels (electricity, hydrogen, natural gas, etc...) and computerization (vehicle control, location, navigation and toll collection) are being included in cars and improve the efficiency of road transport systems.

Urban population has increased considerably over the last 50 years and about 50% of the global population was urbanized by 2000 (about 3 billion people).

Cycling is to be considered an alternative to the automobile in urban areas, widely adopted in developing countries, although more for economic reasons. A symbiosis between types of roads and types of traffic with specialization (reserved lanes and hours) is to be expected.

1. What are the main problems of road transportation?

2. What are the main types of road ownership?

3. Why will the quality of the road be directly linked with revenue generation?

4. Why does road transport possess significant advantages over other modes of transport?

5. What is considered as an alternative means of transport to the automobile in urban areas?

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