Ex. 2. Translate the following word combinations



Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!



Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


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Ex. 2. Translate the following word combinations



Перевозить - перевозить товары, перевозить пассажиров;

Включать – включает транспортные средства;

Производитель – производитель автомобилей, производитель автобусов;

Зависеть – зависит от погоды, зависит от расстояния;

Развитие – развитие делится, развитие зависит;

Пар – паровой двигатель, паровая машина;

Колесо – двухколесный, четырехколесный;

Прогресс – прогресс транспорта;

Мостить – мостить дороги;

Движение, транспорт – колесный транспорт;

Учреждать, создавать – создавать сеть дорог;

Общественный – общественный транспорт, общественное здание, общественная организация;

Личный, частный – личный транспорт, частная компания, частная школа;

Платная автодорога – строить платную дорогу;

Пошлина, плата за проезд – платить пошлину;

Разрешать, позволять – разрешать строительство, инновации позволили;

Надежный, прочный – прочная поверхность, прочный материал, надежный автомобиль;

Дешевый – дешевое покрытие;

Быстрый – быстрый рост, быстрый рост транспорта.

 

Ex. 3. Read and translate the text

History of Land Transport

The word “transport” means to carry people or goods from place to place. It is also used for the vehicles that carry people or goods – for example, motor transport includes buses, lorries, motor coaches and motor cars. The American word for the same thing is transportation, and the remark “transportation is civilization” was made by an American, the motor-car manufacturer Henry Ford.

The history of transport is divided into two stages.

The first stage is that in which all forms of transport depended directly on the power of men or animals or on natural forces such as winds and currents.

The second stage began with the development of the steam engine, which was followed by the electric motor and the internal combustion engine as the main sources of power for transport.

The invention of the wheel also gave an advance in land transport. The wheel at once led to the development of two-wheeled carts and four-wheeled wagons and carriages, but before these could be used for carrying goods over long distances, a system of roads was necessary.

These roads had to be wide enough to take a cart and paved. In Britain, and also over much Europe, the first long-distance paved roads were made by the Romans, chiefly so that troops could be marched without delay from place to place. The roads made it possible to use wheeled traffic. However, when the Roman Empire collapsed, the roads gradually got into a very bad state.

In the 17th century national road transport systems were formally established. The French, through central government efforts, built their Royal Roads system over which a public transport service of stage-coaches carrying passengers and mail was established. The British, mainly through private efforts, built a 32,000 km system of turnpikes where tolls have to be paid for road usage. A similar initiative was undertaken in the USA in the 19th century and be the early 20th century, a network of 3 million km of roads, most unpaved, was in operation.

Technological innovations in road engineering permitted the construction of reliable and low cost hard surface roads.

Road development accelerated in the first half of the 20th century. The Germans were the first to build the modern highway (autobahn) in 1932.

The post World War Two era represented a period of rapid expansion of road transport networks worldwide. By the 1970s, every modern nation has constructed a national highway system.

Ex. 4. Answer the questions after the text.

  1. What does the word “transport” mean?
  2. What are the stages of the history of transport?
  3. What did the invention of the wheel bring?
  4. Where were the first paved roads made?
  5. When were national road transport system established?
  6. When did road development accelerate?


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