Авторы-составители: СИТДИКОВА Н.Г.



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Авторы-составители: СИТДИКОВА Н.Г.



ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ АВТОНОМНОЕ ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ

«КАЗАНСКИЙ АВТОТРАНСПОРТНЫЙ ТЕХНИКУМ ИМ. А.П. ОБЫДЕННОВА»

УЧЕБНОЕ ПОСОБИЕ

«TRANSPORTATION»

Для специальности 23.02.01.

«Организация перевозок и управление на транспорте»

Авторы-составители: СИТДИКОВА Н.Г.

ФАЙЗРАХМАНОВА Ю.С.

ЯДЛОВСКАЯ Э.Р.

Казань 2015

Пособие предназначено для студентов 3 - 4 курсов специальности 23.02.01. «Организация перевозок и управление на транспорте».

В пособие включены аутентичные тексты и упражнения, направленные на изучение лексических и грамматических явлений, характерных для технической литературы, а также упражнения, направленные на поиск нужной информации в тексте, развитие диалогичной/монологической речи по специальности.
Целью пособия является формирование навыков и умений перевода текстов профессиональной направленности, а также развитие навыков устной речи на профессиональные темы.

Пособие состоит из 10 разделов (Units). Материал пособия охватывают темы: история развития транспорта, различные виды транспорта, перевозки, дорожные пробки, работа автотранспортного предприятия, экологические проблемы, логистика, информационные технологии в транспорте.
Разделы представляет собой комплекс текстов с вопросами для последующего обсуждения, коммуникативно-направленных упражнений, а также иллюстраций и таблиц, которые помогут овладеть профессиональной лексикой. Послетекстовые упражнения способствуют развитию коммуникативной компетенции и предназначены для реализации полученных знаний в будущей профессиональной деятельности.

 

Пособие рекомендовано использовать для работы в аудитории, также даны задания для самостоятельной внеаудиторной работы студентов.


СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

  1. UNIT 1. HISTORY OF TRANSPORT…………………………………………..….4
  2. UNIT 2. ROAD HAULAGE……………………………………………………..11
  3. UNIT 3. PROBLEMS OF CONGESTION………………………………………...15
  4. UNIT 4. RUSH HOURS……………………………………………………..............19
  5. UNIT 5. ECONOMY OF ROAD TRANSPORTATION……………………….....25

6. UNIT 6. ENVIRONMENMENTAL PROBLEMS …………………………….….29

  1. UNIT 7. URBAN TRANSPORT ……………………………………………………34
  2. UNIT 8.TRANSPORTATION AND LOGISTICS…………………………….41

9. UNIT 9. PERFORMANCE OF MOTOR TRANSPORT DEPOTS ……………..46

10. UNIT 10. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN TRANSPORT……………….50

UNIT 1 HISTORY OF TRANSPORT

 

Ex. 1. Mind the new words.

To carry – перевозить traffic – движение, транспорт,

перевозки

Goods – товары to establish – учреждать, создавать

Vehicle – транспортное средство public – общественный

To include – включать stage-coach – почтовая карета

Manufacturer – производитель private – личный, частный

To divide – делить turnpike – главная магистраль, платная

автодорога

To depend on – зависеть toll – пошлина, сбор, плата за проезд

Development- развитие, разработка to undertake – предпринимать

Steam – пар to permit –разрешать, позволять

To follow – следовать за reliable – надежный, прочный

internal combustion engine – двигатель low cost – дешевый

внутреннего сгорания surface – поверхность

wheel - колесо highway – шоссе

advance – прогресс, продвижение rapid – быстрый

to pave – мостить expansion – расширение, рост

troops – войска

 

Ex. 3. Read and translate the text

History of Land Transport

The word “transport” means to carry people or goods from place to place. It is also used for the vehicles that carry people or goods – for example, motor transport includes buses, lorries, motor coaches and motor cars. The American word for the same thing is transportation, and the remark “transportation is civilization” was made by an American, the motor-car manufacturer Henry Ford.

The history of transport is divided into two stages.

The first stage is that in which all forms of transport depended directly on the power of men or animals or on natural forces such as winds and currents.

The second stage began with the development of the steam engine, which was followed by the electric motor and the internal combustion engine as the main sources of power for transport.

The invention of the wheel also gave an advance in land transport. The wheel at once led to the development of two-wheeled carts and four-wheeled wagons and carriages, but before these could be used for carrying goods over long distances, a system of roads was necessary.

These roads had to be wide enough to take a cart and paved. In Britain, and also over much Europe, the first long-distance paved roads were made by the Romans, chiefly so that troops could be marched without delay from place to place. The roads made it possible to use wheeled traffic. However, when the Roman Empire collapsed, the roads gradually got into a very bad state.

In the 17th century national road transport systems were formally established. The French, through central government efforts, built their Royal Roads system over which a public transport service of stage-coaches carrying passengers and mail was established. The British, mainly through private efforts, built a 32,000 km system of turnpikes where tolls have to be paid for road usage. A similar initiative was undertaken in the USA in the 19th century and be the early 20th century, a network of 3 million km of roads, most unpaved, was in operation.

Technological innovations in road engineering permitted the construction of reliable and low cost hard surface roads.

Road development accelerated in the first half of the 20th century. The Germans were the first to build the modern highway (autobahn) in 1932.

The post World War Two era represented a period of rapid expansion of road transport networks worldwide. By the 1970s, every modern nation has constructed a national highway system.

Types of Land Transport

Ex.7. Mind the new words

Boiler- котел Availabe – доступный

To solve – решать To replace – заменять

To appear – появляться Smooth – гладкий

To disappear – исчезать Effort – усилие

To spread – распространяться To pull – тянуть

To lead – приводить Wire – провод

Load –груз Rubber – резина

To obtain – брать, получать

Land Transport

The history of the automobilebegins as early as 1769, with the creation of steam engined automobiles capable of human transport. But there was a great need for a more efficient engine than the steam engine, for one without a huge boiler, an engine that could quickly be started and stopped. This problem was solved by the invention of the internal combustion engine.

In1806, the first cars powered by an internal combustion engine running on

fuel gas appeared, which led to the introduction in 1885 of the modern

gasoline- or petrol-fueled internal combustion engine. Since then motor transport began to spread very rapidly. But the person who was the first to make it really popular was Henry Ford, an American manufacturer who introduced the first cheap motor car, the famous Ford Model “T”.

The rapid development of the ICE led to its use in the farm tractors, thereby creating a revolution in agriculture. The use of motor vehicles for carrying heavy loads developed more slowly until 1930s when diesel-engined lorries became general.

Buses were started in Paris in 1820. In 1828 they were introduced in London by George Shillibeer, a coach builder who used the French name “Omnibus” which was obtained from the Latin word meaning “for all”. His omnibuses were driven by three horses and had seats for 22 passengers. Then in the 20th century reliable petrol engines became available, and by 1912 the new motor buses were fast replacing horse-driven buses.

Trams were introduced in the middle of the 19th century. The idea was that, as the rails were smoother than the roads, less effort was needed to pull a tram than a bus. The first trams were horse drawn but the later trams were almost all driven by electricity. The electric motor driving the tram was usually with electric current from the overhead wires. Such wires are also used by trolley-buses, which run on rubber tyres and do not need rails.

Another form of transport used in London, Berlin, Paris, Moscow and other crowded cities is the underground railway.

London’s first underground railway of the “Tube” type was opened in 1863. The Moscow underground was opened in 1935. Kazan’s underground which is considered to be the youngest and one of the shortest was opened in 2005.

Cars powered by electric power briefly appeared at the turn of the 20th century, but largely disappeared from use until the turn of the 21st century. The early history of the automobile can be divided into a number of eras, based on the prevalent means of propulsion during that time.

City Transport

Ex.13. Mind the words

To propose – предлагать High density – высокая плотность

Layout – расположение Improvement – улучшение

To cause – вызывать, быть причиной Transport mode – вид транспорта

To gather – собираться To broaden – расширять

Mutual – взаимный Residential - жилой

Urban – городской road congestion – затор на дороге

Rural – сельский to install – устанавливать

To remain – оставаться acceptable – приемлемый

To enlarge – увеличивать existing – существующий

Distribution – распределение interchange – развязка

Movement – движение

City and City Transport

The problem of urban transportation has become very important. A large number of new transport systems is known to have been proposed in the past decade or so.

But before describing the new systems and their applications it is necessary to look back briefly to see how cities got their present layout, and what are the factors that have caused the present problems of urban transport.

The first factor is the growth of population. The cities developed as a rule because of the need for people to gather for mutual protection, for commerce and for education. In England since 1801 the rural population remained almost constant, while urban population has grown by than twenty times. The population growth has greatly enlarged the movement of passengers in big cities.

The second factor is the changing distribution of population within cities. There has been a steady movement of population from the high density center to the lower density suburbs. The increase and improvements of transport are believed to be the main reasons for this movement.

Walking was the major transport mode both in and out of cities until the end of the 18th century. The cost of a horse in terms of a laborer’s wages was about three times that of a mass produced motor car today.

This lack of cheap transport led to the development of very high density building within the city center. The situation was changed with the introduction of horse buses and urban railways in the middle of the 19th century, followed by the horse trams and electric trams towards the end of that century.

The introduction of the motor car and motor bus in the 1920s allowed the residential areas along the railways lines to broaden and the increase of car ownership since about 1950 has led to both residential and industrial development in open areas around cities. This growth leads to longer journeys to work, school, or shopping, and more travel per day, even without population growth.

The third factor is the growth of private cars. To own a car had become not only pleasant, but in many cases simply necessary. However, car ownership leads to road congestion. The congestion is partly a result of the rush-hours during travel to and from work and school.

Of course, transport is only a service industry, and must be coordinated with developments in communications and with planning. The first thing to do is to develop transport systems which are cheaper to install, cheaper to operate and aesthetically more acceptable than some of the existing ones.

To solve the problem of traffic jams in cities the underground railways are built, local authorities develop the road system building network of interchanges trying to control road traffic.

UNIT 2 ROAD HAULAGE

UNIT 4 RUSH HOURS

Types of Roads.

In large cities, moving from one part of the city to another by means of ordinary streets and avenues can be time-consuming since traffic is often slowed by at-grade junctions, tight turns, narrow marked lanes and lack of a minimum speed limit.
The words expressway and freeway have varying meanings in different jurisdictions and in popular use in different places; however, there are two different types of roads used to provide high-speed access across urban areas:
The freeway or motorway is a divided multi-lane highway with fully- controlled access and grade-separated intersections. Some freeways are called expressways, superhighways, or turnpikes, depending on local usage. Access to freeways is fully controlled; entering and leaving the freeway is permitted only at grade-separated interchanges.
The expressway is usually a broad multi-lane avenue, frequently divided, with some grade-level intersections.
Motor vehicle drivers wishing to travel over great distances within the city will usually take the freeways or expressways in order to minimize travel time. When a crossing road is at the same grade as the freeway, a bridge will be built for the crossing road. If the freeway is elevated, the crossing road will pass underneath it.

1 2 3

4 5 6

UNIT 7 URBAN TRANSPORT

Fleet Monitoring

One controversial scheme for improving an aspect of road safety has been introduction of the so-called “fleet monitoring”. You may have seen lorries, vans, and other commercial vehicles driving on the streets with sign printed on them similar to the one above. This sign is an invitation for the general public to inform transport companies of any improper behavior by their drivers. If you see vehicle driving too fast, overtaking dangerously or not respecting signals or limits, then you can call the number on the sign to report the incident. This invitation to make the normal citizen responsible has proven to be very useful to transport companies who have to pay large insurance premiums and feel the need to make sure that their drivers are behaving correctly and efficiently at all times. Of course, the scheme has been criticized by many people, as they feel that they can be abused – some people have reported drivers simply because they had an argument with them, for example; and others feel that it also encourages a form of spying. Whatever you think the “fleet monitoring” scheme is certainly popular with employers in the field, so it appears destined to grow.

  1. What is “fleet monitoring” scheme?
  2. Why was it introduced?
  3. When should the public use the telephone number?
  4. Why was the scheme been criticized by some people?
  5. Is there anything similar in your country? What is your opinion of it, and why?

 

Ex. 1. Mind the words

Depot - база, депо

To perform – выполнять, исполнять

To charge/to load – загружать

To discharge/to unload – разгружать

Forwarding services – экспедиторские услуги

Autoloader – автопогрузчик

Workshop – мастерская

Technical maintenance – техническое обслуживание

To implement/to accomplish – осуществлять

Guidance – руководство

Adherence – соблюдение

To submit to – подчиняться

Middle way – среднемагистральный

High way – магистральный

To improve – улучшать, совершенствовать

 

Motor Transport Depot

Motor transport depots perform passenger and cargo transportation. They are responsible for servicing passenger routes, charging/discharging operations, forwarding and warehousing services and intermodal shipment.

Motor depots have territories, warehouses and storage facilities, cargo handling facilities, passenger terminals, access ways to railway, sea and air transport, garages and workshops for technical maintenance, and qualified staff.

Depot performance management is implemented by the following areas: finance, technical guidance, safe traffic control and cargo forwarding and transportation service.

Technical guidance of the depot is headed by the chief engineer. This department is responsible for technical service and maintenance of vehicles, monitoring and supervision of adherence to technical specifications.

Safe traffic control department is submitted to general director of the depot. This department is responsible of drivers training, coordination and regulation of routes, interaction with traffic inspection, and etc.

Cargo forwarding and transportation service is the most complex structure in the depot. Its main function is to deliver cargoes to the customer.

Information Technologies

Information technology (IT) is process and “act upon” information at the right time and place, makes greater market intelligence possible. IT is instrumental in supporting the basic internal and inter-company transactions associated with distribution, transport and related services: preparation of the logistics process; planning of the process; operations and control; financial settlement; fleet maintenance and mornitoring.

The benefits of all information technology innovations in road freight operations result from improved, real-time electronic exchange of data and information. Information technology innovations enable or will require the electronic exchange of data and information concerning:

  • cargo, vehicle and driver identification and status;
  • vehicle location;
  • current traffic conditions;
  • optimal routing, taking into consideration the availability of loads and appropriate equipment to move them, traffic and weather conditions, the nature of the cargo being transported, using routing algorithms or "artificial intelligence" (so-called "real-time routing”);
  • optimal routing of cargo (package or whole shipments);
  • optimal routing o f load units (trailers, containers, swap bodies, etc).

Here are the main innovations in information technology:

1. Automatic vehicle identification: transmits vehicle information (identification, size and weight, vehicle type or class);

2. Bar coding: provides product and picking information (identification. size and weight, origin and destination);

3. Electronic data interchange: transmits business data and provides electronic business documentation (purchase order; bill of lading; packing slip; invoice; electronic funds transfer);

4. In-vehicle navigation systems: provides driver with information (highway and traffic conditions; location (of vehicle, destination, etc.); alternate routes; automatic vehicle spacing);

5. On-board computer (mobile IT): monitors vehicle and driver behavior (vehicle speed; engine idle time; engine oil temperature and pressure; vehicle stop time and distance; driver's braking habits);

6. Two-way communication systems: exchange messages between a dispatcher and a driver (trip and shipment information; location (of vehicle, destination, etc.) including location of maintenance and repair shops).

Technological innovation provides an excellent opportunity to integrate the transport modes, optimise their performance, make them safer and help make the transport system compatible with sustainable transport development.

I. What is 'information technology"?

2. What do information technology innovations enable?

3. What are the main innovations in information technology?

4. What does technological innovation provide?

Ex.5. Analyze the table below and discuss advantages and disadvantages of the mentioned features.

IT in Transport

Technological developments enhance the usual methods of control and penalties, with the introduction of automatic devices and onboard driving aids. In the same context, the eventual fitting in road vehicles, as in other forms of transport, of black boxes to record parameters which help explain the causes of accidents, will make motorists more responsible and enable more effective prevention measures to be taken. The introduction of electronic driving licenses could also help with the enforcement of penalties, such as the immobilisation of vehicles whose drivers have lost their licenses.

Intelligent transport systems are another opportunity. It would be useful to encourage the introduction of active safety systems for all new vehicles. Fitted with innovative technologies, for example, in the area of traffic management and collision-avoidance systems, such vehicles hold out the prospect of road safety being improved by 50%.

Technological progress should also increase vehicles' impact resistance thanks to the development of new materials and the introduction of new advanced design processes for structural integrity. Current progress with tyres (reduced water projection for HGV tyres, improved road holding on slippery surfaces, warning system to indicate under-inflated tyres) should in the short term make for reduced fuel consumption and rolling noise while maintaining a high level of safety. This should produce a 10% saving on fuel and around 1 000 fewer deaths per year.
Protection of vehicle occupants in the event of impact is progressing remarkably. Electronic systems will enable new smart protection devices (airbags for example) to adjust for the number of vehicle occupants, their morphology and the nature of the impact so as to provide more tailored protection. Reminders to put safety belts on must become standard vehicle equipment. In Sweden, 95% of car occupants wear their seatbelts. However, half of all those killed in accidents were not wearing their at the time of the accident.
Finally, as the volume of traffic increases, better vehicle-speed management is an essential aspect of safety that will also help to tackle congestion. In addition to improved road safety, observation of speed limits will also reduce greenhouse gas emissions significantly. The most promising prospects here are offered by new technologies that can determine optimum speed at any moment with reference to traffic conditions, road features and external conditions (such as weather) and pass the information on to drivers by way of information display boards or on-board communication systems. Roads and vehicles need to be equipped with these new technologies as soon as possible, and information systems made accessible to everyone.

Литература

 

  1. Большой англо-русский политехнический словарь: в 2 т./ С.М. Баринов, А.Б. Борковский и др. – М.: РУССО, 2003.
  2. Боярская А.О., Педько Л.В., Слесаренок Е.В. Английский для специалистов по организации перевозок: пособие. – Минск: БНТУ, 2009.
  3. Ernesto D’Acunto. Flash on English for Transport and Logistics. – ELI S.R.L., 2012
  4. Marie Kavanagh. English for the Automobile Industry. – Oxford University press, 2012.
  5. Swan Michael, Walter Catherine. The New Cambridge English

Course. Practice 1. Cambridge University Press, 1996.

 

Интернет-источники

 

  1. Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org
  2. Transportweekly. http://www.transportweekly.com/

 

 

ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ АВТОНОМНОЕ ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ

«КАЗАНСКИЙ АВТОТРАНСПОРТНЫЙ ТЕХНИКУМ ИМ. А.П. ОБЫДЕННОВА»

УЧЕБНОЕ ПОСОБИЕ

«TRANSPORTATION»

Для специальности 23.02.01.

«Организация перевозок и управление на транспорте»

Авторы-составители: СИТДИКОВА Н.Г.

ФАЙЗРАХМАНОВА Ю.С.

ЯДЛОВСКАЯ Э.Р.

Казань 2015

Пособие предназначено для студентов 3 - 4 курсов специальности 23.02.01. «Организация перевозок и управление на транспорте».

В пособие включены аутентичные тексты и упражнения, направленные на изучение лексических и грамматических явлений, характерных для технической литературы, а также упражнения, направленные на поиск нужной информации в тексте, развитие диалогичной/монологической речи по специальности.
Целью пособия является формирование навыков и умений перевода текстов профессиональной направленности, а также развитие навыков устной речи на профессиональные темы.

Пособие состоит из 10 разделов (Units). Материал пособия охватывают темы: история развития транспорта, различные виды транспорта, перевозки, дорожные пробки, работа автотранспортного предприятия, экологические проблемы, логистика, информационные технологии в транспорте.
Разделы представляет собой комплекс текстов с вопросами для последующего обсуждения, коммуникативно-направленных упражнений, а также иллюстраций и таблиц, которые помогут овладеть профессиональной лексикой. Послетекстовые упражнения способствуют развитию коммуникативной компетенции и предназначены для реализации полученных знаний в будущей профессиональной деятельности.

 

Пособие рекомендовано использовать для работы в аудитории, также даны задания для самостоятельной внеаудиторной работы студентов.


СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

  1. UNIT 1. HISTORY OF TRANSPORT…………………………………………..….4
  2. UNIT 2. ROAD HAULAGE……………………………………………………..11
  3. UNIT 3. PROBLEMS OF CONGESTION………………………………………...15
  4. UNIT 4. RUSH HOURS……………………………………………………..............19
  5. UNIT 5. ECONOMY OF ROAD TRANSPORTATION……………………….....25

6. UNIT 6. ENVIRONMENMENTAL PROBLEMS …………………………….….29

  1. UNIT 7. URBAN TRANSPORT ……………………………………………………34
  2. UNIT 8.TRANSPORTATION AND LOGISTICS…………………………….41

9. UNIT 9. PERFORMANCE OF MOTOR TRANSPORT DEPOTS ……………..46

10. UNIT 10. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN TRANSPORT……………….50

UNIT 1 HISTORY OF TRANSPORT

 

Ex. 1. Mind the new words.

To carry – перевозить traffic – движение, транспорт,

перевозки

Goods – товары to establish – учреждать, создавать

Vehicle – транспортное средство public – общественный

To include – включать stage-coach – почтовая карета

Manufacturer – производитель private – личный, частный

To divide – делить turnpike – главная магистраль, платная

автодорога

To depend on – зависеть toll – пошлина, сбор, плата за проезд

Development- развитие, разработка to undertake – предпринимать

Steam – пар to permit –разрешать, позволять

To follow – следовать за reliable – надежный, прочный

internal combustion engine – двигатель low cost – дешевый

внутреннего сгорания surface – поверхность

wheel - колесо highway – шоссе

advance – прогресс, продвижение rapid – быстрый

to pave – мостить expansion – расширение, рост

troops – войска

 



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