Ex. 13. Group the following verbs into 3 synonymous groups and correlate them with 

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Ex. 13. Group the following verbs into 3 synonymous groups and correlate them with

Their Russian equivalents which follow below.


charge hike reduce increase arrive at lower fix push up raise bring down set cut


Назначать цену _______________________________________________________________

Снижать цену ________________________________________________________________

Повышать цену _______________________________________________________________

Ex. 14. Match the word combinations with “price” with their Russian dictionary

Definitions. Give their Russian equivalents.


advertised price second-hand price equilibrium price wholesale price
dumping price selling price competitive price discounted price
producer price current price agreed price retail price


1. _____________________________ - цена на товар, бывший в употреблении.

2. _____________________________ - цена, складывающаяся на рынке в условиях


3. _____________________________ - цена, действующая в настоящее время.

4. _____________________________ - цена, по которой товар реализуется мелкими

партиями или штучно индивидуальным потребителям.

5. _____________________________ - цена, по которой продается единица какого-л.


6. _____________________________ - цена на товар, приводимая в специальных

фирменных изданиях или рекламных объявлениях.

7. _____________________________ - цена, обеспечивающая равенство спроса и

предложения на рынке.

8. _____________________________ - полная цена товара или услуги за вычетом

предоставляемой скидки.

9. _____________________________ - цена, по которой производитель продает свою


10. ____________________________ - цена, согласованная между продавцом и


11. ____________________________ - цена, установленная на уровне ниже средне-

рыночного или себестоимости; используется для вытеснения конкурентов с рынка.

12. ____________________________ - цена на продукцию при продаже ее крупными



Ex. 15. Complete the text using these words:


Exchange rent commissions tips tuition interest wage

Charges salaries dues bonuses

Various Forms of Price

Price is involved in every marketing_____________________. The fee you pay a dentist to clean your teeth, the amount you pay for a new pair of shoes, and minor __________________ such as bus fares are all prices. ____________ is the monthly price of an apartment. ____________________ is the price of a loan. ________________ are the price of membership. _______________________ is the price you pay for an education. ______________________,

___________________, _________________ and ________________ are the various prices that businesses pay workers for their labor. ____________ is the price you pay as gratuity for the services rendered. Price comes in many forms and goes by many names.

Ex. 16. Use the following words to complete the sentences below.

Salary, wages, charge, fees, fare, tip, commission, payment, bonus


1. The taxi _______________was $18 and I gave the driver $2 _________________.

2. When you purchase over 200 pieces, delivery is free of ____________________.

3. The builders receive their weekly _____________________ in cash.

4. In addition to your basic __________________ you will receive a 25% _______________

on all goods sold.

5. She’s a good lawyer and her __________________ are high.

6. This mechanic’s ________________ for the services he provides are reasonable.

7. I am very well-paid and I have a productivity ________________.



Ex. 17. Match the words with their definitions.


_____ strategy _____ novelties   _____ clientele   _____ mark-down   _____ chain store _____ target _____ mark-up _____ merchandise _____ price _____ dealer   a. a person or firm engaged in commercial purchase and sale b. one of a number of similar shops belonging to the same company c. the percentage of the wholesale or cost price added to set the retail or selling price d. the sum in money or goods for which anything is or may be bought or sold e. commercial goods, commodities f. the quality of being new and fresh and interesting g. a goal or result aimed at; an objective h. a deduction in the price of goods to encourage sales i. all the people who use the services of a particular firm j. a plan of future actions which is usually decided by top management of a company



Ex. 18. Find in the text English equivalents to the following phrases.


приносить доход __________________________________________

владелец предприятия _____________________________________

неправильно установленные цены ___________________________

выдерживать конкуренцию _________________________________

привлекать покупателей ____________________________________

факторы спроса и предложения ______________________________

покупательская привычка ___________________________________

ценовая политика __________________________________________

чистая прибыль ____________________________________________

торговец __________________________________________________

дорогая упаковка ___________________________________________

конкурентный рынок ________________________________________

расходы, издержки __________________________________________



Ex. 19. Generate other forms from these words.


Verb Noun Adjective



Ex. 20. Complete the sentences below with words from the word table:

  1. Marketers m______________ p____________ to customers.
  2. Advertisers a____________________ to c___________________.
  3. Market analysts a__________________ the performance of s_________________ and the behavior of c_______________.
  4. The opposite of demand is _______________.
  5. S ________________ is a person or a firm which donates money to a charity.
  6. M _________________ department is made up of several sections.
  7. The best way to find a job is to look through job a________________ in a paper.




Ex. 21. Complete the following sentences using the information from the text.


1. The price of meat, cotton and other agricultural products can be decided in________________

2. The price of industrial products are usually decided by _______________________________

3. The price of public services can be set by __________________________________________

4. To understand how price is arrived at, we must first understand the concept of_____________

5. When active competition exists between firms, _____________________________ must be


6. Special goods, such as luxuries and style items carry_________________________________

7. An amount or percentage cut from the original selling price is called ____________________

8. _______________________ can be reflected in price policy when a special clientele is served.

9. The term _______________ refers to the amount which a business owner adds to the cost of

an item in order to arrive at a selling price.

10. If a merchandiser wants to have clear profit he has to cover such expenses as _____________




Ex. 22. In each of the following, select the word or phrase that best completes the sentence

Or answers the question.


1. Price policy is significantly affected

a) by the market c) by the competitors

b) by the type of a product d) by the productivity merchandise


2. Manufacturer’s suggested prices are designed by

a) retailers c) middlemen

b) wholesalers d) manufacturers


3. Initial prices on merchandise must cover

a) operating expenses c) cost of goods sold

b) shortages d) all of the above


4. The selling price may be expressed in a formula

a) cost price – mark up = selling price

b) cost price + operating expenses = selling price

c) initial price + mark up = selling price

d) cost price + mark up = selling price


5. What things must you take into consideration in setting the price on your goods and services?

a) how does the price of your products compare with your competitors?

b) how must a basic promotion idea or philosophy be developed?

c) how should advertising, display and public relations be studied?

d) how should responsibilities be assigned to employees?


6. Which of the following is the definition of discount?

a) charge quoted as a per cent

b) a minimum, an amount below which commissions are reduced

c) an amount deducted from the total of a bill for any of several reasons

d) planned percentage mark-up on cost to cover overheads (накладные расходы)


7. The typical mark-ups on manufacturers’ prices are for:

a) tobacco products c) greeting cards

b) bakery products d) perfumes



Text 4

The role of place in the marketing mix




set – ряд, совокупность

institution - учреждение, организация

wholesaling – оптовая торговля

retailing – розничная торговля

distribution channel / channel of distribution – канал распределения

distribution management – управление распределением

to gain access – получить доступ

warehouse – товарный склад

cost effective –экономически эффективный, рентабельный

retail outlet – розничная торговая точка

stock – запасы

shelf life – срок хранения

to deteriorate - портиться

on behalf of – от имени


The channel structure, or the set of institutions and agencies through which the product must move to get to consumers, can be amazingly complex.

Usually, combinations of institutions specializing in manufacturing, wholesaling, retailing, and many other areas join forces in distribution channel arrangements to make possible the delivery of goods to industrial users or customers and to final consumers.

Therefore, channel of distribution can be viewed as sets of independent organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption.

A major focus of distribution management is on delivery. Consumers cannot obtain a finished product unless the product is transported to where they can gain access to it.

Businesses have to decide where to sell their products. They also have to decide how to get the product to the consumer, that is, what channel of distribution to use. Large expensive products like a house or a yacht will usually be sold by the producer directly to the consumer. If the product is low cost and sold regularly, for example chocolate bars, it would be difficult for a manufacture to sell it to millions of individual customers. So these types of products are often sold to wholesalers or very large retailers who have their own warehouses. The channel of distribution used must be cost effective and efficient.

Channel of distribution 1

This channel of distribution is very simple. In this case manufacturers sell their products directly to the consumer. This is usually impractical for most products because the consumers probably do not live near the factory and could not go there to buy the products.

The types of product which may be sold in this way include certain types of agricultural products which are sometimes sold straight from the farm. Products can be sold by mail order catalogue or via the Internet. This method may not be suitable for products which cannot easily be sent by post, it may be very expensive to send the products by post and therefore it will not be cost effective.

Channel of distribution 2

The second channel of distribution is where the producer sells directly to the retail outlets and then they sell the product to the consumer. This is most common where the retailer is large, such as a large supermarket, or when the products are expensive, such as furniture or jewellery.

Channel of distribution 3

This channel of distribution involves using a wholesaler.

Wholesalers buy products from manufacturers in large quantities and then divide the stock up into much smaller quantities for retailers to buy. Many smaller retailers, especially food retailers, do not want to buy large quantities of different products because they cannot sell them very quickly. Also, they do not have enough space to store large quantities of products. Some food products can only be purchased by retailers in small quantities because they have a relatively short 'shelf life' before they deteriorate.

Channel of distribution 4

When products are exported, the manufacturer sometimes uses an agent in the other country. The agent sells the products on behalf of the manufacturer. This can allow the manufacturer to have some control over the way the product is sold to consumers. The manufacturer may export to many countries and may not know the best way to sell the product in other markets. Agents will know local conditions and will be in the best position to decide the most effective places to sell.





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