Ex. 13. Translate the text into Russian in written form. 

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Ex. 13. Translate the text into Russian in written form.


An international marketer goes through the same steps in designing a marketing program as domestic marketer. However, the international marketer must decide whether to use a global or customized approach. Marketing research must be done to help the international marketer decide whether to modify or maintain domestic product, price, place, and promotion strategies.

Product. The following options can be considered here: selling the same product in other countries; changing a product to make it more appropriate for a country's climate or preferences; designing a product to serve the unmet needs of a foreign nation.

Price. International products must include not only the cost of production and selling, but also tariffs, transportation and storage costs, and higher payments to intermediaries.

Place. An international marketer must choose a channel of distribution. It is the channel between the two nations, moving the product from the domestic market. Intermediaries include independent wholesalers who buy and sell the product or agents who bring buyers and sellers together. Foreign channels can be very long or surprisingly short, depending on the product line.

Promotion. Promotion is generally the largest item in a global company’s marketing budget. The goal of a global company is to send the same message worldwide.



Text 3




cultural environment – культурная среда

value – ценность

inevitable – неизбежный, неминуемый, неотвратимый

homogeneous – однородный, однотипный

in terms of – в плане, с точки зрения

to fade – постепенно исчезать

obvious – очевидный, заметный

to be aware – быть осведомленным

cross-cultural – межкультурный; межэтнический

society’s beliefs – убеждения, сложившиеся в обществе

to adjust – приспосабливать, согласовывать, приводить в соответствие

color connotation – значение цвета

promotional message – маркетинговое обращение

subliminal – действующий на подсознание

funeral – похороны

infidelity – неверность, измена

door-to-door salesman - торговый агент (ходит из дома в дом, убеждая приобрести товары своей фирмы, часто неходовые)

sacred – священный

behavior patterns – модели поведения

steering wheel – руль

mores – нравы, обычаи, традиции


Companies that want to be successful in foreign markets have to be aware of the local cultural characteristics that affect the way business is done.

One of the fundamental steps that needs to be taken prior to beginning international marketing is the environmental analysis. The cultural environment includes institutions and other forces that affect the basic values, behaviors, and preferences of the society – all of which have an effect on consumer marketing decisions.

Globalization is an inevitable process in the 21st century. On the one hand, the world is becoming more homogeneous, and distinctions between national markets are not only fading but, for some products, will disappear altogether.

However, on the other hand, the differences among nations, regions, and ethnic groups in terms of cultural factors become more obvious. To be aware of the cultural differences is a major factor for the success in the 21st century marketplace.

Cross-cultural marketing is defined as the strategic process of marketing among consumers whose culture differs from that of the marketer's own culture at least in one of the fundamental cultural aspects, such as language, religion, social norms and values, education, and the living style.

Culture is the total of a society’s beliefs, art forms, morals and customs. It dictates the priority of our wants and needs, and how those wants and needs should be satisfied. Because cultures can vary greatly from nation to nation, international marketers must adjust their marketing plans to each culture. Specially, they must consider differences in language, color connotations, and traditions. Let’s consider each of them.

Language. There are thousands of languages and dialects in the world. Marketers, especially in promotional messages, must understand and properly use the language of the host country. In other case there may be marketing mistakes. For example, in Spanish the Chevrolet brand name “Nova” means “It does not go”. In Cantonese the name “Philip Morris” sounds like the phrase meaning “No luck”.

Language becomes a problem in countries that speak many languages. In India, for example, there are 203 dialects. Even in countries that use the same language as the international marketer communication problems can exist.

Colors. Color is a large, though often subliminal part of marketing effort. Colors in advertisements, on packages, and the product itself may communicate different impressions to different cultures. For example, blue is considered a warm color in Holland and a cold color in Sweden. White is for funerals and red is popular in China and Korea. Red, however, is not popular in Africa. Purple is associated with death in Brazil and many Spanish-speaking countries. Yellow flowers are a sign of infidelity in France, but one of death in Mexico.

Traditions and customs. Understanding and working with these aspects of a society are also factors in successful international marketing. For example, a door-to-door salesman would find selling in Italy impossible, because it is improper for a man to call on a woman if she is at home alone. McDonald’s and other hamburger restaurants would not have a chance in India, where the cow is considered sacred.

Behavior patterns. Every nation has some unique behavior patterns. These may largely influence marketing strategies. The English and Japanese drive on the left side of the road. Thus, cars marketed in England and Japan must have the steering wheel on the right side. Other examples of cultural mores include the fact that the average Frenchman uses almost twice as many beauty aids as a Frenchwoman. Pepsodent toothpaste was unsuccessful in Southeast Asia because it promised white teeth in a culture in which black or yellow teeth are symbols of prestige. Maxwell House advertised itself as the “Great American Coffee” in West Germany, where people have little respect for American coffee.

Therefore, the primary task for marketers is to continuously adjust their behaviors and marketing programs to fit into the targeted markets.





Ex. 14. Study the different meaning of the following words and use them to translate

The sentences.


term n 1. срок

2. четверть, семестр

3. термин


terms n 1. условия

2. отношения


in terms of в плане; с точки зрения

to come to terms - придти к соглашению с кем-л.


1. The president spoke about things he was going to realize during his term of office.

2. It is essential for the future of the country that two opposing sides should come to terms.

3. The academic year consists of two terms.

4. He sees everything in terms of money.

5. What are your terms of delivery?

6. We are on easy terms with them.

7. The activities of people are measurable in terms of payment received.

Ex. 15. Match the words with their definitions.


___ values a) to adapt, as to a new environment, etc
___ to fade b) to be different or cause to be different; be subject to change
___ culture c) the moral principles and beliefs or accepted standards of a person or social group
___ to adjust d) high status or reputation achieved through success, influence, wealth, etc.; renown
___ subliminal e) the customs and conventions embodying the fundamental values of a group or society
___ to vary f) to vanish slowly; die out
___ mores g) the beliefs, way of life, art, and customs that are shared and accepted by people in a particular society
___ prestige h) an association or idea suggested by a word or phrase; implication
___ connotation i) affecting your mind in a way that you are not conscious of


Ex. 16. Match the synonyms.


obvious a. difference
to fade b. custom
distinction c. evident
to adjust d. unavoidable
mores e. opinion
subliminal f. esteem
inevitable g. subconscious
belief h. to vanish
respect i. to adapt



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