Ex. 16. Complete the following sentences by putting the verbs in brackets into the right 

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Ex. 16. Complete the following sentences by putting the verbs in brackets into the right



1. Inflation ____________________ (increase) steadily this year.

2. Unemployment ____________(peak) last year and since then _________(go) down.

3. As the international debt crises _______________(grow), the world economy ___________

(become) more unstable.

4. The IMF ________________ (carry) out a study last year. In this study they _____________

(project) a decline in GNP in most countries.

5. The world economy ______________(seem) to be going into decline.

6. The state of international trade ______________ (remain) a worry. Projections for the rest of

the nineties ______________ (bring) very little hope.

7. We _____________________(study) the effect of the fall in the dollar’s value at the moment.



Ex. 17. Translate into Russian. (The Infinitive)


1. The purpose of each business process is to offer each customer the right product or service.

2. Efforts to increase the productive capacity of the poorer nations will only be effective if these

nations are able to increase their export.

3. To enter this market requires a lit of hard work.

4. The advanced countries provide technical experts to advise and assist the developing countries

in their efforts to achieve growth.

5. One of the fundamental decisions to be taken by entrepreneurs concern the geographical

location of their enterprise.

6. The employees agreed to accept the terms of the pay deal.

7. At the last moment they decided not to continue with negotiations.

8. It is impossible for us to accept these terms.

9. There are two ways to increase production: one is to use an economy’s resources to the fullest;

the other is to increase its ability to produce with its available resources.

10. The engineers must test the system to be used.






Usually a great fortune and success in business

come not only because of luck and happy

circumstances in somebody’s life, but due to

thinking ahead, to the knowledge of people’s

psychology and market.




1. What is marketing?

2. Is marketing important?

3. What should a good marketing manager know?

4. What components does marketing strategy consist of?

5. What role does marketing play in international trade?


Text 1





self-sufficient – самодостаточный

division of labour – разделение труда

trades and occupations – ремесла и профессии

inevitable - неизбежный

to obtain – приобретать

to seek out – пытаться найти

stall holders – владелец киоска (палатки, ларька)

arrangement – соглашение, договоренность

to conduct a transaction – осуществлять сделку

net profits – чистая прибыль, доход

location - место

to browse through – просматривать

advertisement – реклама

actual – фактический, реальный

determinant – определяющий фактор

to cope with – справляться с чем-либо

to ration- нормировать, распределять



No matter how independent we may be in spirit, virtually none of us is self-sufficient. Our mutual interdependence for goods and services is a fact of life. We rely on others to satisfy our most basic needs. There is an incredibly complex division of labour and specialization in economic activities. Specialized firms and agencies make particular goods and services available to consumers, investors and government. Workers specialize in particular trades and occupations and this makes economic interdependence inevitable. The most common way we obtain goods and services is to buy them from others who specialize in producing them. To make such purchases, buyers seek out sellers in markets.

What is a market?

You may think of a market as a place outside in the open air, where you can go and buy things from stall holders. This is the oldest form of a market but only one type of market.

A market is an arrangement through which buyers and sellers meet or communicate for the purpose of trading goods and services. Markets are a way in which buyers and sellers can conduct transactions resulting in mutual net profits. To have a market for a product, buyers and sellers simply have to be brought together in some way to exchange products for money. Many market transactions are conducted without buyers and sellers actually meeting at a particular location. For example, you can browse through catalogues or magazine advertisements to see what various sellers are offering. If you find something you like, you can order it by mail or telephone or Internet, without face-to-face contact with the seller.

The purpose of a market is to make information available on the goods and services sellers are willing to sell and buyers want to purchase. This exchange of information is the basis for determining prices which in turn influence the actual amount of goods and services exchanged. Prices are a major determinant of the choices we make as both buyers and sellers. Market prices play a vital role in coping with the problem of scarcity because they ration available amounts of goods and services.





Ex. 1. Study the different meanings of the following words and use them to translate

the sentences.


Market (n) - базар, рынок, сбыт, спрос


domestic (home) market – внутренний рынок

foreign market - внешний рынок

foreign exchange market - FOREX market, FOREX, FX market, рынок иностранной валюты

black market - рынок запрещенных к торговле товаров или рынок, на котором

заключаются незаконные сделки

active market – оживленный рынок

dull market - вялый рынок

steady market – устойчивый рынок

open market – открытый рынок

Stock Market (Am) фондовый рынок (биржа), рынок ценных бумаг

Stock Exchange (Br)

world market – мировой рынок, общемировой спрос


to shop at the market — делать покупки на рынке

to create a market — создавать спрос

to depress a market — понижать спрос

to find a market — пользоваться спросом

to be on (in) the market — продаваться

to come into the market — поступать в продажу

to put on the market — пускать в продажу, выпускать на рынок

to flood a market — насыщать, наводнять рынок

to study a market — изучать рынок

to develop a market – осваивать, развивать рынок

to enter the market – выйти (выходить) на рынок


market research - изучение возможностей рынка; исследование рынка сбыта

Buyer’s market

- конъюнктура рынка, выгодная для покупателя (когда предложение значительно

превышает спрос)


Seller’s market

- конъюнктура рынка, выгодная для продавца (когда спрос превышает предложение)



- ходовой, пользующийся спросом, легкореализуемый (о товаре)



- маркетинг (система методов и средств продвижения товаров или услуг от производителя

к потребителю)



1. Chesterham is a small market town with a population of 2000.

2. Access to new foreign markets was assured.

3. They have never had to operate in a market economy.

4. It a seller’s market at the moment.

5. A talking watch will shortly be on the market.

6. Many labour-saving devices have come onto the market.

7. You’ll never get a picture as good as this one on the open market.

8. Exxon might well be in the market to buy up a competitor too.

9. They took the mineral water off the market while tests were being made.

10. There's no market for these goods.

11. Marketing is determining and satisfying the needs and wants of consumers through the

exchange process.

12. The market is flooded with goods.



Ex. 2. Match the word-combinations listed in the box with their Russian definitions.


black market, steady market, stock market, foreign exchange market, active market, open market, dull market, world market


Рынок ценных бумаг или товаров, на котором совершается большое количество сделок ________________________

Рынок с небольшим объемом торговли и практически неизменными ценами ___________

Рынок, цены на котором держатся твёрдо __________________________

Рынок на котором осуществляются операции с иностранной валютой __________________

Рынок, на котором товары или валюта продаются и покупаются нелегально_____________

Вся сфера торговли ценными бумагами в определенном географическом районе_________

Рынок, на который может выйти любой желающий продавец или покупатель ___________

Потенциальный спрос на какой-либо. товар со стороны потребителей всех стран _________________



Ex. 3. What are the synonyms from the text of the words in italics?


1. We depend on others to satisfy our most basic needs.

2. Specialized firms and agencies make definite goods and services available to consumers.

3....this makes economic interdependence unavoidable.

4. The most common way we get goods and services is...

5....buyers look for sellers in markets.

6....sellers can carry out transactions

7. to meet at a particular place

8.... you can look through catalogues...

9. The aim of a market is...

10....sellers are ready to sell and buyers want to buy.

11. Market prices play a very important role...



Ex. 4. Match the verb with an appropriate preposition and word-combination to make

a phrase.


to seek to browse to result to order to cope to specialize to exchange products to rely in for by out in on through with money others the problem of scarcity catalogues sellers producing goods and services mutual net profits mail



Ex. 5. Give English equivalents to the following phrases.


быть независимым по духу _____________________________________________________

специализироваться в ремеслах и профессии ______________________________________

общаться с целью торговли (обмена) товарами и услугами __________________________


сделки, приводящие к обоюдному чистому доходу _________________________________

обменивать продукцию на деньги _______________________________________________

встречаться в определенном месте _______________________________________________

заказывать через Интернет ______________________________________________________

общаться лицом к лицу ________________________________________________________

устанавливать (определять) цену ________________________________________________

рыночные цены _______________________________________________________________




Ex. 6. Say if the sentences are true or false. Correct the false ones.


1. All people are interdependent for goods and services.

2. Whenever people who are willing to sell a commodity (товар) contact people who are willing

to buy it, a market for that commodity is created.

3. Any market has a fixed geographical position.

4. The only way of communication between buyers and sellers is to meet in person.

5. All markets are perfect.

6. Prices guide our decision to buy certain goods.


Ex. 7. Complete the ideas.


1. There is an incredibly complex division of labour and specialization in economic activities...

2. Many market transactions are conducted without buyers and sellers actually meeting at

a particular location....

3. The exchange of information is the basis for determining prices which in turn influence the

actual amount of goods and services exchanged....



text 2






to occur - возникать

to feel deprived – чувствовать себя лишенным чего-либо

necessities – предметы первой необходимости

a felt need – назревшая потребность

is shaped – сформирована

to confuse – путать

a drill bit – сверло, дрель

a driving force – движущая сила

promotion – продвижение (товара)

storing (storage) - хранение

marketing concept - концепция маркетинговой деятельности (принципы осуществления

мероприятий по продвижению товаров к потребителю)



Marketing is closely related to economics, the social science which deals with the production, distribution and consumption of useful goods and services. Thus, marketing is a key factor in business success. The term marketing must be understood not in the old sense of making a sale but in the new sense of satisfying customer needs.

It is impossible to speak about marketing without understanding what “needs and wants” mean. A human need occurs when a person feels physiologically deprived of basic necessities like food, clothing, and shelter. When a need is not satisfied, a person will do one of two things – look for an object that will satisfy it or try to reduce the need. A want is a felt need that is shaped by a person’s knowledge, culture and personality. So if you feel hungry, you have developed a basic need and desire to eat something. You then want to eat an apple or a chocolate bar because, based on your past experience and personality, you know these will satisfy your hunger need.

Many sellers confuse wants and needs. A manufacture of drill bits may think that the customer needs a drill bit, but what the customer really needs is a hole. These manufactures forget that a physical product is only a tool to solve a consumer problem. But to satisfy his need to make a hole a customer may use any of the numerous types of drill bits on sale. All of them are designed for making holes but they differ in style and price. Thus, a customer with the same need may want different tools to satisfy this need.

What does the term marketing mean? Many people mistakenly think of marketing only as selling and promotion. And no wonder many students are surprised to learn that selling is only the tip of the marketing iceberg. It is one of several marketing functions – and often not the most important one.

Marketing includes all the business activities connected with the movement of goods and services from producers to consumers. On the one hand, marketing is made up of such activities as transporting, storing and selling goods and, on the other hand, a series of decision you make during the process of moving goods from producer to user. Marketing operations include product planning, buying, storage, pricing, promotion, selling, credit, traffic and marketing research.

Underlying all marketing strategy is the marketing concept – «we must produce what people want, not what we want to produce». This means that we put the customer first. We organize the company so that this happens. We must find out what the customer wants. We carry out market research.

To sum up – marketing touches everyone’s life. It is the means by which a standard of living is developed and delivered to people.





Ex. 8. Study the different meanings of the word act and use it to translate the



to act (v) 1. действовать, поступать; вести себя

2. действовать, работать (быть исправным)

3. влиять, действовать.


act for представлять, действовать от лица (кого-л.).


act (n) дело, поступок, деяние

activity деятельность, активность


1. Business activity was paralyzed.

2. This weather acts on my nerves.

3. He committed a heroic act.

4. As the chairman is ill, I am asking you to act for him.

5. The brake refused to act.

6. Has the medicine acted?

7. Don't act from instinct.

8. The soldier acted like a real hero.

9. How did they act towards you?

10. The main activity of this enterprise is timber processing.



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