Text A. History of information technology



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Text A. History of information technology



The term “information technology” evolved in the 1970s.

The history of information technology, however, predates the invention of the modern digital computer by many centuries. Machines for calculating fixed numerical tasks, such as the abacus, have existed since antiquity. Wilhelm Schickard built the first mechanical calculator in 1623. Charles Babbage designed a difference engine in Victorian times, and around 1900 the IBM corporation sold punch-card machines. However all of these machines were constrained to perform a single task, or at best, some subset of all possible tasks.

During the 1940s, as newer and more powerful computing machines were developed, the term computer came to refer to the machines rather than their human predecessors. As it became clear that computers could be used for more than just mathematical calculations, the field of computer science broadened to study computation in general.

The basic concept of information technology, however, can be traced to the World War II alliance of the military and industry in the development of electronics, computers, and information theory. After the 1940s, the military remained the major source of research and development funding for the expansion of automation to replace manpower with machine power.

Since the 1950s, four generations of computers have evolved. Each generation reflected a change to hardware of decreased size but increased capabilities to control computer operations. The first generation used vacuum tubes, the second used transistors, the third used integrated circuits, and the fourth used integrated circuits on a single computer chip. Advances in artificial intelligence that will minimize the need for complex programming characterize the fifth generation of computers, still in the experimental stage.

The first commercial computer was the UNIVAC I, developed by John Eckert and John W. Mauchly in 1951. It was used by the Census Bureau to predict the outcome of the 1952 presidential election. For the next twenty-five years, mainframe computers were used in large corporations to do calculations and manipulate large amounts of information stored in databases. Supercomputers were used in science and engineering for designing aircraft and nuclear reactors and for predicting worldwide weather patterns. Minicomputers came on to the scene in the early 1980s in small businesses, manufacturing plants, and factories.

In 1975 the Massachusetts Institute of Technology developed microcomputers. In 1976 Tandy Corporation’s first Radio Shack microcomputer followed; the Apple microcomputer was introduced in 1977. The market for microcomputers increased dramatically when IBM introduced the first personal computer in the fall of 1981. Because of dramatic improvements in computer components and manufacturing, personal computers today do more than the largest computers of the last century at about a thousandth of the cost.

2. Переведите письменно текст А.

3.Выпишите из текстов английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений: древность, выполнить задание, вакуумный прибор, уменьшать(ся), механический вычислитель, основной источник, восходить к, прогресс, достижение, возможности, прогнозировать, счеты, улучшение, усовершенствование, количество, ограничивать, счетно-перфорационная машина, расширять(ся), интегральная микросхема, тип погоды, результат, самолет, предшествовать, ядерный реактор.

4. Определите форму и функцию инфинитива. Переведите предложение на русский язык. To be sure, much of this work was initiated from actual applications.

5. Определите форму и функцию причастия. Переведите предложение на русский язык. The data obtained outweighed those that we had had before.

6. Определите форму и функцию герундия. Переведите предложение на русский язык. He had died without leaving either a personal or political will.

7. Напишите аннотацию к тексту А, используя клишированные выражения, используя образец в Приложении.

8. Составьте свое жизнеописание (С.V.), используя образец в Приложении.

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА № 2

Вариант № 8.

Выполните следующие задания:

 

1. Прочтите текст.

Text A. Types of computers

The types of computers range from the Hybrid to the Analog types. The computers you come across in the daily course of your day range from laptops, palmtops and towers, to desktop computers, to name a few. But the very word “computers” reminds one of the desktop computers used in offices or homes. Different categories of computers have been devised in keeping with our varied needs.

According to the classification based on operational principle the types of computers: analog and hybrid.

The Analog computer is almost an extinct type of computer these days. It is different from a digital computer in respect that it can perform numerous mathematical operations simultaneously. It is also unique in terms of operation as it utilizes continuous variables for the purpose of mathematical computation. It utilizes mechanical, hydraulic, or electrical energy or operation.

Hybrid computers are a combination of both Analog and Digital computers. The Digital computers which work on the principle of binary digit system of “0” and “1” can give very precise results. But the problem is that they are too slow and incapable of large scale mathematical operation. In the hybrid types of computers the Digital counterparts convert the analog signals to perform Robotics and Process control. Apart from this, computers are also categorized on the basis of physical structures and the purpose of their use. Based on capacity, speed and reliability they can be divided into three categories of computers:

1. The Mainframe Computer – these are computers used by large organizations like meteorological surveys and statistical institutes for performing bulk mathematical computations. They are core computers which are used for desktop functions of over one hundred people simultaneously.

2. The Microcomputer – these are the most frequently used computers better known by the name of “personal computers”. This is type of computer meant for public use. Other than Desktop Computer the choice ranges as follows:

A desktop is a PC that is not designed for portability. The expectation with desktop systems is that you will set the computer up in a permanent location. Most desktops offer more power, storage and versatility for less cost than their portable brethren.

Laptops, also called notebooks, are portable computers that integrate the display, keyboard, a pointing device or trackball, processor, memory and hard drive all in a battery-operated package slightly larger than an average hardcover book.

Palmtops, more commonly known as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), are tightly integrated computers that often use flash memory instead of a hard drive for storage. These computers usually do not have keyboards but rely on touchscreen technology for user input. Palmtops are typically smaller than a paperback novel, very lightweight with a reasonable battery life. A slightly larger and heavier version on the palmtop is the handheld computer.

A tablet PC is a notebook or slate-shaped mobile computer, first introduced by Pen Computing in the early 90s with their PenGo Tablet Computer and popularized by Microsoft. Its touchscreen or graphics tablet/screen hybrid technology allows the user to operate the computer with a stylus or digital pen, or a fingertip, instead of a keyboard or mouse. The form factor offers a more mobile way to interact with a computer. Tablet PCs are often used where normal notebook are impractical or unwieldy, or do not provide the needed functionality.

A workstation is a desktop computer that has a more powerful processor, additional memory and enhanced capabilities for performing a special group of task, such as 3D Graphics or game development.

3. The Mini computer – Mini computers like the mainframe computers are used by business organization. The difference being that it can support the simultaneous working of up to 100 users and is usually maintained in business organizations for the maintenance of accounts and finances.

Yet another category of computer is the Super Computers. It is somewhat similar to mainframe computers and is used in economic forecasts and engineering designs. Today life without computers is inconceivable. Usage of different types of computers has made life both smooth and fast paced.

2. Переведите письменно текст А.

3.Выпишите из текстов английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений: точный, определенный, наблюдение, обзор, настольный компьютер, основная масса, базовый, исходя из, на основе, устаревший, часто, наводить на мысль, означать, натолкнуться на что-либо, одновременно, карманный компьютер, принимая во внимание, робототехника, персональный цифровой секретарь, переменная величина.

4. Определите форму и функцию инфинитива. Переведите предложение на русский язык. T summarize the findings of this tremendous work would require many pages.

5. Определите форму и функцию причастия. Переведите предложение на русский язык.The feasibility of this system depends on several related factors.

6. Определите форму и функцию герундия. Переведите предложение на русский язык. Trying to minimize the importance of the discovery was of no use.

7. Напишите аннотацию к тексту А, используя клишированные выражения, используя образец в Приложении.

8. Составьте свое жизнеописание (С.V.), используя образец в Приложении.

 

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА № 2

Вариант № 9.

Выполните следующие задания:

 

  1. Прочтите текст.

 



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