Text A. M.V. Lomonosov (1711-1765)



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Text A. M.V. Lomonosov (1711-1765)



Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov was a famous Russian writer, chemist and astronomer who made a lot in literature and science.

Lomonosov was born on November 19, 1711, in Denisovka (now Lomonosov), near Archangelsk, and studied at the University of the Imperial Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg. After studying in Germany at the Universities of Marburg and Freiberg, Lomonosov returned to St. Petersburg in 1745 to teach chemistry and built a teaching and research laboratory there four years later. Lomonosov is often called the founder of Russian science. He was an innovator in many fields. As a scientist he rejected the phlogiston theory of matter commonly accepted at the time and he anticipated the kinetic theory of gases. He regarded heat as a form of motion, suggested the wave theory of light, and stated the idea of conservation of matter. Lomonosov was the first person to record the freezing of mercury and to observe the atmosphere of Venus.

Interested in the development of Russian education, Lomonosov helped to found Moscow State University in 1755, and in the same year he wrote a grammar that reformed the Russian literary language by combining Old Church Slavonic with modern language. In 1760 he published the first history of Russia. He also revived the art of Russian mosaic and built a mosaic and coloured-glass factory. Most of his achievements, however, were unknown outside Russia. He died in St. Petersburg on April 15, 1765.

Questions:

Why Lomonosov is often called the founder of Russian science? What had Lomonosov done in the field of Russian education?

Text B. Metals

Heat treatment controls the nature of the grains and their size in the metal. Small amounts of other metals (less than l per cent) are often added to a pure metal. This is called alloying (легирование) and it changes the grain structure and properties of metals.

All metals can be formed by drawing, rolling, hammering and extrusion, but some require hot-working. Metals are subject to metal fatigue and to creep (the slow increase in length under stress) causing deformation and failure. Both effects are taken into account by engineers when designing, for example, airplanes, gas-turbines, and pressure vessels for high-temperature chemical processes. Metals can be worked using machine-tools.

The ways of working a metal depend on its properties. Many metals can be melted and cast in moulds, but special conditions are required for metals that react with air.

Text C. Nuclear Engineering

This branch of engineering is concerned with the design and construction of nuclear reactors. In addition to designing nuclear reactors that yield specified amounts of power, nuclear engineers develop the special materials necessary to withstand the high temperatures and radioactivity. Nuclear engineers also develop methods to shield people from the harmful radiation produced by nuclear reactors.

5. Переведите на русский язык следующие слова:annealing, quenching, tempering, intermediate, to immerse, indicator, treatment, ductile.

6. Переведите на английский язык следующие слова и словосочетания: предвидеть, возрождать, церковно-славянский язык, вредное излучение, деформация, горячая обработка, размер и форма зерен, прокатка, ковка.

7. Переведите на русский язык предложение, содержащее модальный глагол или его эквивалент. The question of the laws of resistances in circuits may now be turned to.

8.Выпишите из текста «C» предложение, содержащее сказуемое в страдательном залоге. Переведите предложение на русский язык.

9.Составьте резюме, используя образец в Приложении.

 

 

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА № 1

Вариант № 10.

Выполните следующие задания:

1. Образуйте форму множественного числа следующих существительных: knowledge, force, material, woman, ship, size.

2. Напишите формы неопределенных местоимений, объясните правила их использования в предложении.

3. Образуйте степени сравнения следующих прилагательных и наречий: mild, big, slowly, well, long, cold, large, little.

4. Прочтите и переведите тексты. Текст «А» переведите письменно и ответьте на вопросы после текста.

Text A. Bill Gates – the founder of Microsoft

William Henry Gates was born in Seattle, Washington, in 1955.

He is an American business executive, chairman and chief executive officer of the Microsoft Corporation. Gates was the founder of Microsoft in 1975 together with Paul Allen, his partner in computer language development. While attending Harvard in 1975, Gates together with Allen developed a version of the BASIC computer programming language for the first personal computer.

In the early 1980s, Gates led Microsoft’s evolution from the developer of computer programming languages to a large computer software company. This transition began with the introduction of MS-DOS, the operating system for the new IBM Personal Computer in 1981. Gates also led Microsoft towards the introduction of application software such as the Microsoft Word processor.

Much of Gates’ success is based on his ability to translate technical visions into market strategy. Although Gates has accumulated great wealth from his holdings of Microsoft stock, he has been known as a tough competitor who seems to value winning in a competitive environment over money. Gates still continues to work personally in product development at Microsoft.

Questions:

Who is Bill Gates? What did he lead in the early 1980s?

Text B. How materials react to external forces

Materials Science and Technology is the study of materials and how they can be fabricated to meet the needs of modern technology. Using the laboratory techniques and knowledge of physics, chemistry, and metallurgy, scientists are finding new ways of using metals, plastics and other materials.

Engineers must know how materials respond to external forces, such as tension, compression, torsion, bending, and shear. All materials respond to these forces by elastic deformation. That is, the materials return their original size and form when the external force disappears. The materials may also have permanent deformation or they may fracture. The results of external forces are creep and fatigue.

Text C. Electronic Engineering

Electronic engineering deals with the research, design and application of circuits and devices used in the transmission and processing of information.

The revolution in electronics is the trend towards integrating electronic devices on a single tiny chip of silicon or some other semiconductive material. Much of the research in electronics is directed towards creating even smaller chips, faster switching of components, and three-dimensional integrated circuits.

Text D. Nuclear Engineering

This branch of engineering is concerned with the design and construction of nuclear reactors. In addition to designing nuclear reactors that yield specified amounts of power, nuclear engineers develop the special materials necessary to withstand the high temperatures and radioactivity. Nuclear engineers also develop methods to shield people from the harmful radiation produced by nuclear reactors.

5. Переведите на русский язык следующие слова:annealing, quenching, tempering, intermediate, to immerse, indicator, treatment, ductile.

6. Переведите на английский язык следующие слова и словосочетания: температура нормализации, мелкозернистая структура, охлаждение, состав стали, оксидная пленка, индикатор, закаленная сталь, промежуточный.

7. Переведите на русский язык предложение, содержащее модальный глагол или его эквивалент. It’s for this reason that many reports on scientific research include discussion of how the research ought to have been done in the light of the experience gained in having done it the first time.

8. Выпишите из текста «C» предложение, содержащее сказуемое в страдательном залоге. Переведите предложение на русский язык.

9.Составьте резюме, используя образец в Приложении.

 

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА № 2

Вариант № 1.

Выполните следующие задания:

 

1. Прочтите текст.

Text A. What is a computer?

The term computer is used to describe a device made up of a combination of electronic and electromechanical (part electronic and part mechanical) components. Computer has no intelligence by itself and is referred to as hardware. A computer system is a combination of five elements:

• Hardware

• Software

• People

• Procedures

• Data/information

When one computer system is set up to communicate with another computer system, connectivity becomes the sixth system element. In other words, the manner in which the various individual systems are connected — for example, by phone lines, microwave transmission, or satellite - is an element of the total computer system.

Software is the term used to describe the instructions that tell the hardware how to perform a task. Without software instructions, the hardware doesn't know what to do. People, however, are the most important component of the computer system: they create the computer software instructions and respond to the procedures that those instructions present.

The basic job of computer is processing information. Computers accept information in the form of instruction called a programme and characters called data to perform mathematical and logical operations, and then give the results. The data is raw material while information is organized, processed, refined and useful for decision making. Computer is used to convert data into information.

 



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