INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN SCIENCE



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INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN SCIENCE



 

Now the time has come for mankind to carry out detailed studies of Mars which is known to be a planet in many respects similar to the Earth. It is necessary that man should understand the origin and development of the Solar System in order to understand the history of our own planet and the reasons of the appearance of life on it.

New knowledge about Mars might help us to explain the multitude of natural phenomena occuring on earth and enable us to predict these phenomena, as well as control them. This would help mankind begin exploring the Solar System's resources in the not so distant future.

The most representative community of space research — the International Astronautical Federation (IAF), now incorporating some eighty space agencies, institutes and industrial enterprises in 36 countries — considers the preparation of manned and unmanned expeditions to Mars to be one of its main priorities.

Russia has proposed that a broad international programme of detailed study of Mars and its natural satellites should be carried out. Scientists and space experts suggested that automatic stations for Mars' expeditions should be designed and produced by Russia, and the scientific instruments for them should be jointly prepared by ten countries: six East and four West European. It was reported that the programme would enable us to deliver to Mars the automatic station for global studies of the planet from the orbits of its artificial satellites, determine the most promising areas for detailed investigations and study the planet's atmosphere by landing special vehicles as well as balloons.

A new generation of the Phobos space probes has been developed for this purpose in Russia. It should be noted that these probes are sophisticated programmed space robots. They are believed to be the basic means for the expedition to Mars. It is planned to launch six unmanned spacecrafts. The spacecraft to be launched to Mars is to make a soft landing on the planet and send a self-propelled vehicle, so-called rover, to gather soil samples and specimens of Mars rock. It is to travel several hundred kilometers on Mars' surface, encountering storms, frosts and heat.

Besides being a major step in the progress of space science, the implementation of the programmes described may serve as a transitional stage from the study of space to its exploration for the benefit of earth.

 

TELECOMMUNICATION

A group of people enter a room, the lights go down, the screens come... the videoconference is under way.

Tomorrow's scientific fiction has become today's new technology - daily reality for global companies who recognize the importance of regular communication between groups of people in different locations round the world.

Essentially the videoconference room resembles a usual conference com. Delegates sit along one side of a table facing their colleagues on screen on the other side. They can see, hear and talk to each other simultaneously and can present slides of diagrams, even pieces f equipment. The technology is relatively simple. A device called video codec takes the picture, digitalizes it for transmission over a special network and reforms the picture at the other end.

The problem today is to manufacture codec to the new international standard and to improve picture quality through faster transmission needs. Research and development is also focusing on mobile videoconferencing with broad cast quality pictures which enable to have instant communication with colleagues around the world.

There is no doubt about the effectiveness of videoconferencing, as tie videoconference eliminates the working time lost through travel.

 

VORONEZH INSTITUTE OF THE FEDERAL PENAL SERVICE

 

Voronezh College of the Ministry of Justice of Russia was set up in 2001. In 2007 it was transformed into the Institute of the Federal Penal Service of Russia. It is situated in the regional center of Voronezh, about 500 km south of Moscow.

Our Institute has three departments: full-time; correspondence and special (non-budget). Besides there are courses of improving qualifications for the officers of the correctional and educational establishments.

The Institute trains officers for agencies of the Ministry of Justice. During their study at the Institute they are cadets and privates of the Internal Service. They wear uniforms.

Cadets learn social and economic subjects, law disciplines, skill-oriented subjects and some theoretical courses such as physics, fundamentals of radioengi-neering, radioelectronic devices, civil and labour law, constitutional and administrative law, criminal law and criminology, criminal process, criminalistics, theory of legal history and state.

After a five years term of studies the graduates get a diploma and a special rank of lieutenant of the Internal Service.

According to the training curriculum the Institute cadets have special training courses, such as range practice, tactics, drill training. They have all possibilities to prove their physical skills in a number of gymnasia and they train to shoot in the shooting gallery.

The special law faculty is aimed on the graduating civil lawyers. The students study the principles of academic law rather than legal principles of its practicing. Skills of interpretation and logical reasoning are developed. The students read law for five years. The range of subject on offer is wide - Constitutional Law, Administrative Law, Civil Law, Criminal Law, Criminology, Criminalistics, State and Legal History, etc. According to preference a student may develop his or her interest in a particular law area. A special law faculty graduate gets a diploma of a lawyer and may serve in any sphere of Russian legal system (prosecution, advocating, judging etc.)

 

VORONEZH MILITIA INSTITUTE

 

Voronezh Militia Institute is a state higher educational and research institution of the Russian Ministry of the Interior. It is situated in the regional centre of Voronezh, about 500 km south of Moscow. The Institute has international contacts with research, academic institutions and law enforcement agencies.

Voronezh Militia Institute has four departments: the radio-engineering department, the law department, the special department and the correspondence department. Besides, there are higher specialisation courses, the external studies department and specialised post-graduate courses.

There are twenty four chairs at the institute. Some of them are the chairs of social-humanitarian subjects, physics, theoretical fundamentals of radioengi-neering, radioelectronic devices and some others belonging to the radioengineer-ing department. The law faculty has 7 chairs: civil and labour law, constitutional and administrative law, criminal law and criminology, criminal process, criminalistics, state and legal history and theory, detective activities.

One can get high standard militia education studying at the radio-engineering department and obtaining one of the two specialities, i.e. "Radio-engineering" or "Information protection". After a five years term of studies the graduates get a special rank of militia lieutenant and a radio-engineer qualification.

The law faculty of Voronezh Militia Institute gives great possibilities for cadets to master two specialities: "Law" and "Law enforcement".

According to the training curriculum the Institute cadets have special training courses, such as range practice, tactics, drill training. They have all possibilities to prove their physical skills in a number of gymnasia and they train to shoot in the shooting gallery.

All cadets are privates of the Militia and wear service uniforms. Every Institute graduate gets a diploma and a special rank of lieutenant of the Militia.

The special law faculty is aimed on the graduating civil lawyers. The students study the principles of academic law rather than legal principles of Militia practicing. Skills of interpretation and logical reasoning are developed. The students read law for five years. The range of subject on offer is wide - Constitutional Law, Administrative Law, Civil Law, Criminal Law, Criminology, Criminalistics, State and Legal History, etc. According to preference a student may develop his or her interest in a particular law area. A special law faculty graduate gets a diploma of a lawyer and may serve in any sphere of Russian legal system (prosecution, advocating, judging etc.)



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