﻿﻿ Text B. Binary System of Numerals
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# Text B. Binary System of Numerals

The binary system plays an important role in computer technology. For example, the first 20 numbers in the binary notation are 1, 10, 11, 100, 101, 110, 111, 1000, 1001, 1010, 1011, 1100, 1101, 1110, 1111, 10000, 10001, 10010, 10011, 10100.

Any number can be expressed in the binary system by the sum of different powers of two. For example, starting from the right, 10101101 represents (1 x 2°) + (0 x 21) + (1 x 22) + (1 x 23) + (0 x 24) + (1 x 25) + (0 x 26) + (1 x 27) = 173. That is: 10101101 in the binary code is equal to 173.

Arithmetic operations in the binary system are extremely simple. The basic rules are: 1 + 1 = 10, and 1x1 = 1. Zero plays its usual role: 1x0 = 0, and 1 + 0= = 1. Addition, subtraction, and multiplication are done in a fashion similar to that of the decimal system:

100101 +110101= 1011010

1011010- 110101= 100101

× 101

1001

101

Because only two digits (or bits) are involved, the binary system is used in computers, since any binary number can be represented by, for example, the positions of a series of on-off switches. The on position corresponds to 1, and the off position corresponds to 0. Instead of switches, magnetized dots on a magnetic disk or small dots on a laser CD-ROM disk also can be used to represent binary numbers: a dot stands for the digit 1, and the absence of a dot is the digit 0. Electronic devices, called flip-flops, can be used to represent binary numbers. They can only carry two different voltages at their outputs, andthey can be switched from one state to the other state by an electric impulse. Logic circuits in computers carry out the different arithmetic operations in binary numbers. The conversion of decimal numbers to binary numbers for processing, and of binary numbers to decimal numbers for the readout, is done electronically.

2. Переведите письменно текст А и текст В.

3.Выпишите из текстов английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений: разум, манера (способ), процедура (операция), микроволновая, цель, соединять, необработанный (сырой), принятие решения, превращать, очищать, передача, знак, римский, бесконечный, позиционное представление, принимать, бит, двоичная система, двоичное число, триггер, точка, логическая схема, считывание.

4. Определите форму и функцию инфинитива. Переведите предложение на русский язык.There is one more important factor to be considered.

5. Определите форму и функцию причастия. Переведите предложение на русский язык. Generally speaking, a liquid having a free surface is one on whose surface there is absolutely no pressure.

6. Определите форму и функцию герундия. Переведите предложение на русский язык. Two special cases are worth highlighting.

7. Напишите аннотацию к тексту А, используя клишированные выражения, используя образец в Приложении.

8. Составьте свое жизнеописание (С.V.), используя образец в Приложении.

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА № 2

Вариант № 2.

Выполните следующие задания:

1. Прочтите текст.

Text A. Hardware

What is hardware? Webster's dictionary gives us the following definition of the hardware - the mechanical, magnetic, electronic, and electrical devices composing a computer system.

Computer hardware can be divided into four categories:

1) input hardware

2) processing hardware

3) storage hardware

4) output hardware.

Input hardware

The purpose of the input hardware is to collect data and convert it into a form suitable for computer processing. The most common input device is a keyboard. It looks very much like a typewriter. The mouse is a hand held device connected to the computer by small cable. As the mouse is rolled across the mouse pad, the cursor moves across the screen. When the cursor reaches the desired location, the user usually pushes a button on the mouse once or twice to signal a menu selection or a command to the computer.

The light pen uses a light sensitive photoelectric cell to signal screen position to the computer. Another type of input hardware is optic-electronic scanner that is used to input graphics as well as typeset characters. Microphone and digital camera can be also used to input data into the computer.

Processing hardware

The purpose of processing hardware is retrieve, interpret and direct the execution of software instructions provided to the computer. The most common components of processing hardware are the Central Processing Unit and main memory.

The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the brain of the computer. It reads and interprets software instructions and coordinate of main memory it can use effectively. With a well designed CPU in your computer, you can perform highly sophisticated tasks in a very short time.

Memory is the system of component of the computer in which information is stored. There are two types of computer memory: RAM and ROM.

RAM (random access memory) is the volatile computer memory, used for creating loading, and running programs and for manipulating and temporarily storing data;

ROM (read only memory) is nonvolatile, nonmodifiable computer memory, used to hold programmed instructions to the system.

The more memory you have in your computer, the more operations you can perform that is the faster it works.

Storage hardware

The purpose of storage hardware is to store computer instructions and data in a form that is relatively permanent and. Storage hardware serves the same basic functions as do office filing systems except that it stores data as electromagnetic signals. The most common ways of storing data are Hard disk (HDD), floppy disk and CD-ROM.

Hard disk is a rigid disk coated with magnetic material, for storing programs and relatively large amounts of data.

Floppy disk (diskette) — thin, usually flexible plastic disk coated with magnetic material, for storing computer data and programs. There are two formats for floppy disks: 5.25" and 3.5". 5.25" is not used in modern computer systems because of it relatively large size, flexibility and small capacity. 3.5" disks are formatted 1.44 megabytes and are widely used.

CD-ROM (compact disc read only memory) is a compact disc on which a large amount of digitized read-only data can be stored. CD-ROMs are very popular now because of the growing speed which CD-ROM drives can provide nowadays.

Output hardware

The purpose of output hardware is to provide the user with the means to view information produced by the computer system. Information is output in either hardcopy or softcopy form. Hardcopy output can be held in your hand, such as paper with text (word or numbers) or graphics printed on it. Softcopy output is displayed on a monitor.

Monitor is a component with a display screen for viewing computer data, television programs, etc.

Printer is a computer output device that produces a paper copy of data or graphics.

Modem is an example of communication hardware — an electronic device that makes possible the transmission of data to or from computer via telephone or other communication lines.

Hardware comes in many configurations, depending on what the computer system is designed to do. Hardware can fill several floors of a large office building or can fit on your lap.

2. Переведите письменно текст А.

3.Выпишите из текстов английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений: количество, вместительность, микропроцессор, жесткий диск, клавиатура, устройства ввода данных, «мышь», через, устройства обработки данных, оперативное запоминающее устройство, постоянное запоминающее устройство, накопитель на компакт-дисках, сложный, временно, влиять, управлять, выполнять, переводить, обеспечивать, достигать, нестойкий.

4. Определите форму и функцию инфинитива. Переведите предложение на русский язык. It is of importance to know the basic principle to be observed in the design and use of optical equipment.

5. Определите форму и функцию причастия. Переведите предложение на русский язык. The characteristics of the components so far considered can be presented by the following scheme.

6. Определите форму и функцию герундия. Переведите предложение на русский язык. The question is answered in part by studying the behaviour of the optimal strategy for the task described here.

7. Напишите аннотацию к тексту А, используя клишированные выражения, используя образец в Приложении.

8. Составьте свое жизнеописание (С.V.), используя образец в Приложении.

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА № 2

Вариант № 3.

Выполните следующие задания:

1. Прочтите текст.

Text A. Software

A computer to complete a job requires more than just the actual equipment or hardware we see and touch. It requires Software — programs for directing the operation of a computer or electronic data.

Software is the final computer system component. These computer programs instruct the hardware how to conduct processing. The computer is merely a general-purpose machine which requires specific software to perform a given task. Computers can input, calculate, compare, and output data as information. Software determines the order in which these operations are performed.

Programs usually fall in one of two categories: system software and applications software. System software controls standard internal computer activities. An operating system, for example, is a collection of system programs that aid in the operation of a computer regardless of the application software being used. When a computer is first turned on, one of the system programmes is booted or loaded into the computers memory. This software contains information about memory capacity, the model of the processor, the disk drives to be used, and more. Once the system software is loaded, the applications software can be brought in.

System programmes are designed for the specific pieces of hardware. These programmes are called drivers and coordinate peripheral hardware and computer activities. User needs to install a specific driver in order to activate a peripheral device. For example, if you intend to buy a printer or a scanner you need to worry in advance about the driver programme which, though, commonly goes along with your device. By installing the driver you «teach» your mainboard to «understand» the newly attached part. However, in modern computer systems the drivers are usually installed in the operating system.

Applications software satisfies your specific need. The developers of application software rely mostly on marketing research strategies trying to do their best to attract more users (buyers) to their software. As the productivity of the hardware has increased greatly in recent years, the programmers nowadays tend to include as much as possible in one programme to make software interface look more attractive to the user. These class of programmes is the most numerous and perspective from the marketing point of view.

Data communication within and between computers systems is handled by system software. Communications software transfers data from one computer system to another. These programmes usually provide users with data security and error checking along with physically transferring data between the two computer's memories. During the past five years the developing electronic network communication has stimulated more and more companies to produce various communication software, such as Web-Browsers for Internet.

2. Переведите письменно текст А.

3.Выпишите из текстов английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений: присоединять, управление, разработчик, внутренний, материнская плата, вместимость памяти, периферийный, отношение, несмотря на, безопасность, конкретный (определенный), загружать, проверять, руководить, управлять, обеспечивать, требовать, обеспечивать безопасность, «браузер».

4. Определите форму и функцию инфинитива. Переведите предложение на русский язык. It should be noted that Barbier does not claim his results to be of high accuracy.

5. Определите форму и функцию причастия. Переведите предложение на русский язык. This means that a space program must be flexible and diverse, making it possible to explore completely new fields.

6. Определите форму и функцию герундия. Переведите предложение на русский язык. It is worthwhile reconsidering this case as well as adding another even more impressive example.

7. Напишите аннотацию к тексту А, используя клишированные выражения, используя образец в Приложении.

8. Составьте свое жизнеописание (С.V.), используя образец в Приложении

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА № 2

Вариант № 4.

Выполните следующие задания:

1. Прочтите текст.

Text A. Operating systems

When computers were first introduced in the 1940's and 50's, every programe written had to provide instructions that told the computer how to use devices such as the printer, how to store information on a disk, as well as how to perform several other tasks not necessarily related to the programme. The additional programme instructions for working with hardware devices were very complex and time-consuming. Programmers soon realized it would be smarter to develop one programme that could control the computer's hardware, which others programmes could have used when they needed it. They created the first operating system. Today, operating systems control and manage the use of hardware devices such as the printer or mouse. They also provide disk management by letting you store information in files. The operating system also lets you run programmes such as the basic word processor. Lastly, the operating system provides several of its own commands that help you to use the computer.

DOS is the most commonly used PC operating system. DOS is an abbreviation for disk operating system. DOS was developed by a company named Microsoft. MS-DOS is an abbreviation for «Microsoft DOS». When IBM first released the IBM PC in 1981, IBM licensed DOS from Microsoft for use on the PC and called it PC-DOS. From the users perspective, PC-DOS and MS-DOS are the same, each providing the same capabilities and commands.

The version of DOS release in 1981 was 1.0. Over the past decade, DOS has undergone several changes. Each time the DOS developers release a new version, they increase the version number.

Windows NT (new technology) is an operating system developed by Microsoft. NT is an enhanced version of the popular Microsoft Windows 3.0, 3.1 programmes. NT requires a 386 processor or greater and 8 Mb of RAM. For the best NT performance, you have to use a 486 processor with about 16 Mb or higher. Unlike the Windows, which runs on top of DOS, Windows NT is an operating system itself. However, NT is DOS compatible. The advantage of using NT over Windows is that NT makes better use of the PC's memory management capabilities.

OS/2 is a PC operating system created by IBM. Like NT, OS/2 is DOS compatible and provides a graphical user interface that lets you run programmes with a click of a mouse. Also like NT, OS/2 performs best when you are using a powerful system. Many IBM-based PCs are shipped with OS/2 preinstalled.

UNIX is a multi-user operating system that allows multiple users to access the system. Traditionally, UNIX was run on a larger mini computers to which users accessed the systems using terminals and not PC's. UNIX allowed each user to simultaneously run the programmes they desired. Unlike NT and OS/2, UNIX is not DOS compatible. Most users would not purchase UNIX for their own use.

Windows 95 & 98, are still the most popular user-oriented operating systems with a friendly interface and multitasking capabilities. The usage of Windows95 and its enhanced version Windows 98 is so simple that even little kids learn how to use it very quickly. Windows 95 and 98 are DOS compatible.

The new series of operating system by Microsoft are Windows Millenium, Windows 2000 and Windows XP. Each of these new products is addressed to the both corporate and private clients. New strategy of the Microsoft is aimed at creating «a one for all» product, which will be useful for both the beginners and advanced users.

2. Переведите письменно текст А.

3.Выпишите из текстов английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений: сложный, потребитель, понимать, умный, верх, поставлять, на основе ДОС, многочисленные пользователи, одновременно, желать, одним щелчком кнопки, использование системного оборудования, текстовый редактор, персональный компьютер.

4. Определите форму и функцию инфинитива. Переведите предложение на русский язык. It is ironical that we publish articles on cybernetics yet fail to develop simple and effective feedback mechanisms to serve our purpose.

5. Определите форму и функцию причастия. Переведите предложение на русский язык. Strictly speaking, this somewhat arbitrary division may be justified taking into account an imperfect technique.

6. Определите форму и функцию герундия. Переведите предложение на русский язык. Programming a computer involves analyzing the problem to be solved and a plan to solve it.

7. Напишите аннотацию к тексту А, используя клишированные выражения, используя образец в Приложении.

8. Составьте свое жизнеописание (С.V.), используя образец в Приложении

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА № 2

Вариант № 5.

Выполните следующие задания:

1. Прочтите текст.

Text A. Windows 98

Windows 98 is an operational system with an easy interface based on the expanding windows principle which uses icons to graphically represent files and their types. Windows 98 is the enhanced version of Windows95.

Windows 98 makes the way you and your computer interact easy. Most everyday tasks are now easier to accomplish than ever before. For example, the second mouse button has become a powerful weapon. The old Windows 3.0 Programme Manager and File Manager have been replaced. The desktop tools that replace them are very like those found on a Macintosh. For example, there is a Recycle Bin that makes it easier to recover accidentally deleted files.

Your computer probably will crash and buzz less running Windows 98 than it did with Windows 3.1 and 3.0 or even DOS. Most memory related problems have been removed. Built-in networking features make it easy to reliably share files with co-workers across the room or across the world. Still you can run DOS programmes and older Windows applications but most users will probably want to spend most of their time using Windows 98 applications instead.

Microsoft says that it is moving forward to the time when we'll all think more about our data and less about the specific name-brand programmes used to create them.

Window 98 plug-and-play capability makes it easy to upgrade your computer hardware. And portable computer users will like what Microsoft has done to make their lives calmer.

A new Windows shortcuts capability makes it easy to reach frequently used files and other necessities. A new Find feature helps you to locate and examine the contents of files in a flash.

Most of this is accomplished without sacrificing performance. In fact, many things (like printing) usually happen faster now, due to 32-bit support and other Windows 98 advancements.

2. Переведите письменно текст А.

3.Выпишите из текстов английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений: замещать, «корзина», удалять, коллеги, редко, подключать, поддержка, необходимость, вспышка, торговая марка, спокойный, встроенный, жертвовать, оружие, зависать.

4. Определите форму и функцию инфинитива. Переведите предложение на русский язык. To construct an experiment of this kind seems nearly impossible.

5. Определите форму и функцию причастия. Переведите предложение на русский язык. Based on a stage-by-stage schedule, the program embraces different fields of space research and exploration.

6. Определите форму и функцию герундия. Переведите предложение на русский язык. Having the source code is a way of achieving independence.

7. Напишите аннотацию к тексту А, используя клишированные выражения, используя образец в Приложении.

8. Составьте свое жизнеописание (С.V.), используя образец в Приложении.

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА № 2

Вариант № 6.

Выполните следующие задания:

1. Прочтите текст.

Text A. Internet

Millions of people around the world use the Internet f to search for and retrieve information on all sorts of topics in a wide variety of areas including the arts, business, government, humanities, news, politics and recreation. People communicate through electronic mail (e-mail), discussion groups, chat channels and other means of informational exchange. They share information and make commercial and business transactions. All this activity is possible because tens of thousands of networks are connected to the Internet and exchange information in the same basic ways.

The World Wide Web (WWW) is a part of the Internet. But it's not a collection of networks. Rather, it is information that is connected or linked together like a web. You access this information through one interface or tool called a Web browser. The number of resources and services that are part of the World Wide Web is growing extremely fast. In 1996 there were more than 20 million users of the WWW, and more than half the information that is transferred across the Internet is accessed through the WWW. By using a computer terminal (hardware) connected to a network that is a part of the Internet, and by using a programme (software) to browse or retrieve information that is a part of the World Wide Web, the people connected to the Internet and World Wide Web through the local providers have access to a variety of information. Each browser provides a graphical interface. You move from place to place, from site to site on the Web by using a mouse to click on a portion of text, icon or region of a map. These items are called hyperlinks or links. Each link you select represents a document, an image, a video clip or an audio file somewhere on the Internet. The user doesn't need to know where it is, the browser follows the link.

All sorts of things are available on the WWW. One can use Internet for recreational purposes. Many TV and radio stations broadcast live on the WWW. Essentially, if something can be put into digital format and stored in a computer, then it's available on the WWW. You can even visit museums, gardens and cities throughout the world, learn foreign languages and meet new friends. And, of course, you can play computer games through WWW, competing with partners from other countries and continents.

Just a little bit of exploring the World Wide Web will show you what a lot of use and fun it is.

2. Переведите письменно текст А.

3.Выпишите из текстов английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений: «всемирная паутина», разнообразие, компьютерная сеть, делить, развлечение, гуманитарные науки, коммерческие операции, доступ, рассматривать, «браузер», обеспечивать, передавать в прямом эфире, соединять, гиперссылка, соревноваться.

4. Определите форму и функцию инфинитива. Переведите предложение на русский язык. Under these circumstances the computer cannot be made to function.

5. Определите форму и функцию причастия. Переведите предложение на русский язык. However, speed and power consumption specifications for the devices can be misleading.

6. Определите форму и функцию герундия. Переведите предложение на русский язык. The opening words of this curious treaty are worthy of being recorded.

7. Напишите аннотацию к тексту А, используя клишированные выражения, используя образец в Приложении.

8. Составьте свое жизнеописание (С.V.), используя образец в Приложении.

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА № 2

Вариант № 7.

Выполните следующие задания:

1. Прочтите текст.

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