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Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
Match the definitions and the people in the court. If you ran into difficulties, look through the text above.
1. An official who gives evidence of the arrest.
2. A lawyer who pleads in the higher courts and presents cases in the Crown Court.
3. A public official with authority to hear and decide cases in a law court.
4. A lawyer who prepares legal documents, advises clients on legal and speaks for them in the lower courts.
5. Public officials who investigate violent, sudden, or suspicious (unnatural) deaths.
6. A person who gathers news for a newspaper or broadcasting organization.
7. A group of people who swear to give a true decision of in a law court.
8. A defendant.
9. A person who has seen or can give first-hand evidence in a court of law.
10. People who look after administrative and legal matters in the courtroom.
11. A public official who tries less serious cases.
JUSTICE AND LAW (I)
Warm up Activities
Read the following sayings. Are they logical? What do you think of them?
“Laws are not for ordinary people, they are for lawyers”; “Laws should govern people and not on the contrary”; “Dura lex, sed lex” (Strict is the law, but a law); “People are equal before the law”; “The law is not something that can be changed at will”.
2. Read the text below. Then try to explain and remember the words in bold.
Justice and Law in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Although Britain is a unitary state, it does not have a single system of law. England and Wales, and Northern Ireland, have similar systems but the Scottish system is somewhat different. In general, however, the law has no complete code. Its sources include parliamentary legislation, European Community law and much “common” law from courts’ decisionsand elsewhere. Criminal law is concerned with wrongs against the community as a whole, civil law with the rights and duties of individuals among themselves.
Keeping the peace and bringing offenders to trial are primarily the concern of the police whose action depends on common consent since the number of officers is small in relation to the population (roughly one to every 400 people). The police are not normally armed and their powers are carefully limited. Strict procedures govern the way complaints against the police are handled. Special efforts are being made to improve relations between the police and the community, especially in inner city areas.
The police service consists of independent local forces, usually linked with local government, and each responsible for its own area.
Most prosecutions are initiated by the police, but in Scotland the police make the preliminary investigations and a public prosecutor decides whether or not to prosecute. As soon as anyone is arrested he or she must be charged and brought to court with the minimum of delay. Unless the case is serious, the arrested person is usually granted bail if he or she cannot quickly be brought to court.
Compensation may be paid to victims of violent crime and people hurt while trying to prevent offences.
Judges are independent and non-political and, except for lay magistrates who tryless serious criminal cases, are appointed from practicing barristers, advocates or solicitors.
Criminal trials take place in open court although there are some restrictions, such as those to protect children. The more serious cases take place before a jury of ordinary, independent citizens who decide on guilt or innocence. People accused of crimes are presumed innocent until proved guilty, and every possible step is taken to deny the prosecution any advantage over the defence.
Cases involving children are heard in special juvenile courts, or, in Scotland, at informal children's hearings.
Other than in cases of murder, for which the sentence is life imprisonment, courts can choose the penalty most appropriate for a particular offender.
The legal profession has two branches: solicitors and barristers (advocates in Scotland). Solicitors undertake legal business for lay clients, while barristers advise on problems submitted through solicitors and present cases in the higher courts.
Match the Russian to the English equivalents.
|жалоба, причина недовольства||to concern||удовлетворять ходатайство о передаче на поруки||restrictions|
|касаться||to prosecute||ограничение||to grant bail|
Fill in the appropriate word(s) from the list, then make sentences using the completed phrases.
similar, against, offences, bring offenders, parliamentary, strict, keep, victims, civil, improve, innocent, special
|to ……………….||to trial||………………….||the community|
|to ……………….||the peace||………………….||of violent crime|
|to ……………….||presume||………………….||juvenile courts|
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