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Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
Read the text again and circle the correct answer.
1. There is a single system of law in
a) England, Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland.
a) England, Wales and Scotland.
b) England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
2. Keeping the peace and bringing offenders to trial are primarily the concern of the
3. In Scotland the police
a) initiate most prosecutions.
b) charge an arrested person.
c) make the preliminary investigations.
4. The more serious cases take place
a) before a jury of ordinary, independent citizens.
b) before children.
c) before practicing barristers, advocates or solicitors.
5. In cases of murder the sentence is
a) life imprisonment.
b) the penalty.
Make notes under these headings. Use your notes to talk about justice and law in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
· The sources of the law
· The concern of the police
· Criminal trials
· The branches of the legal profession
Read the text and translate it into Russian, using a dictionary. Then try to remember the words in bold.
Kinds of Cases
The cases can be criminal, civil, or both.
Civil Cases. Civil cases are usually disputes between or among private citizens, corporations, governments, government agencies, and other organizations. Most often, the party bringing the suit is asking for money damages for some wrong that has been done. People who have been injured may sue a person or a company they, feel is responsible for the injury.
The party bringing the suit is called the plaintiff, the party being sued is called the defendant.There may be many plaintiffs or many defendants in the same case.
The plaintiff starts the lawsuit by filing a paper called a complaint, in which the case against the defendant is stated. The next paper filed is usually the answer, in which the defendant disputes what the plaintiff has said in the complaint. The defendant may also feel that there has been a wrong committed by the plaintiff, in which case a counterclaim will be filed along with the answer. It is up to the plaintiff to prove the case against the defendant. In most civil cases the plaintiff’s burden is to prove the case by a preponderance of evidence, that is, that the plaintiff’s version of what happened in the case is more probably true than not true.
Jury verdicts do not need to be unanimous in civil cases.
Criminal Cases. A criminal case is brought by the state or by a city or county against a person or persons accused of having committed a crime. The state, city, or county is called the plaintiff; the accused person is called the defendant. The charge against the defendant is called an information or a complaint. The defendant has pleaded not guilty and you should presume the defendant's innocence unless the plaintiff proves the defendant guilty. The plaintiff’s burden of proof is greater in a criminal case than in a civil case. In each criminal case you hear the judge will tell you all the elements of the crime that the plaintiff must prove; the plaintiff must prove each of these elements beyond reasonable doubt before the defendant can be found guilty.
In criminal cases the verdict must be unanimous, that is, all jurors must agree that the defendant is guilty in order to overcome the presumption of innocence.
In Russia the right to trial by a jury is possible only if the punishment is going to be severe (life imprisonment or death penalty).
Give English equivalents for the following words and word combinations, then make sentences using them.
подать иск; начать (возбудить дело); судебное разбирательство; истец; признать виновным; встречный иск; ответчик; материальный ущерб; ответный иск; обвинен в преступлении; заявить о невиновности; единодушное решение присяжных; совершить преступление
9.a) Fill in the gaps with the appropriate word(s) from the list below:
innocence,citizen, injury, case, proves, burden, guilty, unanimous
1. He became a ………………. of the United States. ( a person who has full rights in the country he lives)
2. She was elected by a ………………..vote. (in complete agreement)
3. The ……………….made by the earthquake was terrible. (harm, damage)
4. This………………...is very complicated because of the lack of evidences. (question to be decided in a law court)
5. The exception ……………….the rule. (show beyond doubt to be true)
6. The ………………of proof rests with him. (obligation to prove)
7. As Ann was found ………………. she was taken to prison. (having done wrong)
8. We all believe in her…………………(quality or state of being not guilty)
9.b) Fill in the gaps with the prepositions:
1ask….for money; 2 to be accused….having committed a crime; 3 to be….to; 4 the case….the defendant; 5 ….order to overcome; 6 to start….filing a paper.
10. In saying from Ex.1 is reflected people’s respect of law and justice. There is widespread belief that observance of laws is a guarantee against injustice. Do you agree with it? Write what you think about violation of the law and social guarantees in Russia.
Californian State Laws
Animals are banned from mating publicly within 1,500 feet of a tavern, school, or place of worship.
It is a misdemeanour to shoot at any kind of game from a moving vehicle, unless the target is a whale.
Women may not drive in a housecoat.
No vehicle without a driver may exceed 60 miles per hour.
In Baldwin Park
Nobody is allowed to ride a bicycle in a swimming pool.
It is illegal to drive more than two thousand sheep down Hollywood Boulevard at one time.
In Los Angeles
It is illegal for a man to beat his wife with a strap wider than 2 inches without her consent.
You cannot bathe two babies in the same tub at the same time.
You may not hunt moths under a streetlight. It is illegal to cry on the witness stand. Toads may not be licked.
It is a crime for dogs to mate within 500 yards of a church. Breaking this law is punishable by a fine of $500 and/or six months in prison.
In San Francisco
It is prohibited for elephants to stroll down Market Street unless they are on a leash.
It is illegal to wipe one's car with used underwear.
Persons classified as “ugly” may not walk down any street.
It is illegal to pile horse manure more than six feet high on a street corner.
In Pacific Grove
It is illegal to molest butterflies.
Unit 11. JUSTICE AND LAW (II)
Warm up Activities
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