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Complete the sentences with one of the words given below.
misdemeanour, released, summarily, charges, evidence, parole, fine, guilt, convicted, trial, felonies, booking, rehabilitate, appeal, charge
1. There can be no conviction unless the ... of the defendant is established.
2. After making the arrest the officer may conduct a «limited» search for ... of the guilt of the person.
3. During the arraignment procedure the ... may be dismissed.
4. If a judge finds a verdict of guilt, the accused is sentenced to jail or payment of a ... .
5. In some jurisdictions there is no separate preliminary hearing for misdemeanours and ....
6. At the ... a date for sentencing is set.
7. The procedure of ... includes photographing and fingerprinting.
8. A person charged with a petty offence can be tried.....
9. The purpose of corrections is to ... offenders.
10. The procedure of prosecutions for a felony is the same as for a…
11. If the defendant is ... at the trial the date for sentencing is set.
12. The defendant can ... his conviction before the actual sentence is imposed.
13. Even if the defendant is sentenced to jail, he may be granted…
14. During the arraignment the judge ... the accused with a specific crime.
15. The accused may be ... at the preliminary hearing if there is no reasonable cause to believe that he committed the crime.
7. Give your definition of the following people:
1. The accused is a person who ...
2. A criminal is a person who ...
3. The suspect is a person who ...
4. The convict is a person who ...
Answer the questions on the text.
1. What are the steps of the criminal justice in the USA?
2. In what cases may an arrest be made without a warrant?
3. What is a felony?
4. What is the punishment for a misdemeanour?
5. May the suspect be released without being prosecuted? In what cases?
6.What does booking include?
7. Where does booking take place?
8. In what cases are summary trials held?
9. What is the purpose of preliminary hearing?
10. Who files formal charges against defendants?
11. When is a date for sentencing set?
12. What are the types of punishments?
13. When can the defendant appeal his conviction?
14. What is the purpose of corrections?
15. What is done to reduce the risk of convicting alt innocent person?
Use the questions in Ex. 8 as a plan to talk about the criminal justice process in the USA.
Use the questions in Ex. 8 as a plan to write about the criminal justice process in Russia.
Just for fun
rawrant - …………….. (a formal order given by a judge or a prosecutor to arrest a person)
laib - …………….. (a sum of money paid by the person arrested for being released until the trial)
cemir - …………….. (an act prohibited and punished by law)
cevideen - …………….. (all facts and things presented to court to prove the guilt of the accused)
rapole - …………….. (placing a convicted person under control of a special police officer on condition that he or she behaves well)
simanuromeed - …………….. (a less serious offence punishable by a fine or up to one year in jail, or both)
rujy - …………….. (a panel usually consisting of 12 persons to hold trials)
lonyfe - …………….. (a serious offence punishable by death or imprisonment)
palepa - …………….. (a request for a review of a lower court's decision by a higher court)
Text 1. THIS IS BRITAIN
“Great Britain” has several different names. Some people say “Britain”, or “the United Kingdom”, or just “UK”. Everyone from Britain is British, but only people from England are English. People from Scotland are Scottish, people from Wales are Welsh and people from Northern Ireland are Irish. Don't call Scottish or Welsh people English. They won't like it!
Altogether more than 56 million people live in Britain, many of them in big industrial cities like London, Liverpool and Manchester, but people are often surprised by how much of Britain is open country, with lonely hills and woods, quiet rivers, lakes and farmlands.
Everyone in Britain speaks English. But in some parts of Scotland and Wales people speak an older language as well. The Welsh are especially proud of their language, and you can see road signs in Welsh all over Wales.
Everyone speaks English, but they do not all speak it in the same way. A Scottish person has to listen carefully if he wants to understand a Londoner. And when a Welsh person speaks, everyone knows at once where he comes from!
Many people think that the weather is cold and wet in Britain all the year round. But it isn't! True, it sometimes rains and even snows for days and days, but every year there are weeks of beautiful sunny weather when the British take off their sweaters and go out to sunbathe.
Britain is only a small country, but every part is different. Scotland is a land of mountains, lakes and romantic castles. The winters are cold, with plenty of snow, but the summers are often warm and sunny. Most farmers keep sheep, and there are many small factories which make fine sweaters from their wool. In some parts of Scotland, there are very few people. Deer live in the hills, and the rivers are full of salmon. But Glasgow and Edinburgh are both large and busy, with all that is good (and bad) in modern cities.
Northern Ireland has its problems, but it has beauty, too. In the warm, wet climate, the grass grows a brilliant green, and much of the land is farming country. Belfast is a large industrial city with many fine buildings and a big port from which ships come and go to Scotland and England. But Belfast has had many difficult years, and it is not the busy place it once was.
A hundred years ago the north of England was the industrial heart of the country. From the factories came cloth, wool, machines, engines and china. The old factories have gone now and the workers have to look for jobs in the new “high-tech” industries. Outside the towns, much of this part of England is beautiful countryside, with green hills, lakes and sandy beaches. Fishing is still a big industry in the North East, and every night (except Sunday) the fishing boats go out to sea.
The centre of England (the “Midlands”) is also an important industrial area, especially near the huge cities of Coventry and Birmingham, the centre of the car industry. But everywhere, even in the heart of a modern city, there are buildings from an older Britain - cathedrals, castles, and houses built hundreds of years ago.
Wales is a special place, a country of high mountains and pretty valleys. But Wales has plenty of industry, too, with many factories and coal mines. The people of Wales are very musical. Every year they have a festival of Welsh music and poetry called an “Eisteddfod”.
The west of England is a rich, farming country. It produces milk, cream, butter, cheese (especially Cheddar cheese, Britain's favourite) and apples, which go to make cider, a popular drink. In the villages, country people often grow their own fruit, vegetables and flowers.
Some areas of Britain are very crowded. Around Manchester, in north west England, and Glasgow, in Scotland, are large city areas of houses and factories. The south east of England, too, has many towns and cities, including London, the giant capital. But quite near London there are still some quiet villages and peaceful farms.
Britain is an island, of course, and you are never far from the sea. Some of the coast, especially in the west, is wild and rocky, with small, sandy beaches, and romantic old harbours. Other parts are industrial. The east coast of Scotland, for example, is busy with oil rigs and fishing boats. The most popular beaches are near the many holiday towns on the south coast, where the weather is usually warmer. It is here that Londoners come to relax.
· Which part of Britain do these people come from?
a) The road signs near Margaret Evans’ house are in two languages.
b) The favourite drinkof Tim Robinson is cider. It’s no wonder, he was born in the apple land.
c) When Tom Lewis speaks, everyone knows where he comes from.
d) Jim MacDonaldkeeps sheep and makes fine sweaters from their wool.
e) Mike Wright is very talented as all his ancestors and he’s sent to the festival every year.
f) Chris Taylor likes spending his weekend in the country wherethe grass grows a brilliant green, and much of the land is farming country.
g) Bob Smith works in a car plant, one of the biggest in Birmingham.
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