I. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на сослагательное наклонение

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I. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на сослагательное наклонение

1. Hence, a higher temperature is required to convert water into steam at a high pressure than it would be necessary at a low pressure.

2. It would be quite wrong to think that conducting materials are the only materials to be used for power transmission.

3. One might ask: "Can every substance exist in all of these four states?"

4. Suppose that one could live in a world where the average temperature were 2500C. At our ordinary pressures, water and ether would be in a gaseous state.

5. In this case the substance acts as if it were compressed by a very great pressure.

6. We should like to make some remarks about this work.

7. The new system of units suggested that the joule be used as the unit of work and energy.

8. It is necessary that the preliminary reaction be essentially complete.

9. Without friction our world would be very strange, indeed. Without friction between the tyres and the road, a car could not move.

10. The point of application of the resultant force is called the centre of gravity. It is as if the body's weight were concentrated at this point.

11. Much was expected from this method under which it would be possible to repair or replace district heating pipes.


II. Определите тип условного предложения и переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. If superheated steam is heated to high temperatures, decomposition may take place if the steam is in contact with a suitable agent; it is likely to take place between 600 and 12000C.

2. If the magnetic circuit consisted of non-magnetic material, the field would be proportional to the current.

3. As a rule, if the length of a conductor is doubled, the resistance is doubled and if its cross-sectional area is doubled, its resistance is halved.

4. If a piece of wire were replaced by another one of the same length but of double cross-sectional area, it would offer half its former resistance.

5. If we had used a coil with half the number of turns during our last experiment, we should have got a much lower e.m.f.

6. If we had lowered temperature, the reverse transformation would have taken place.

7. If the specific heat at constant volume, for a given gas, has the same value for that gas at all temperatures and pressures, and if the specific heat at constant pressure, for a given gas, is assumed to remain constant at all temperatures and pressures, then it follows that the ratio of the two specific heats of any given gas is also constant.

8. If we were asked today to prove the existence of a connection between electricity and magnetism, we could not do better than point to the electromagnet.

9. The study of semiconductors wouldn't have clarified the relation between the electric charges and matter, if it hadn't enriched physics with new ideas and laws concerning electrical phenomena.

10. The experiment would have been carried out a week ago, if the device hadn't been broken.

11. If you had changed the conditions of the experiment you would have obtained better results.

12. If he knew something about semiconductors, it wouldn't be so difficult for him to understand the Hall effect.


III. Переведите следующие условные предложения. Объясните отсутствие союзов в них.

1. Had the pipe a small cross-section, the water flow per second would be certainly small.

2. Were there a conducting wire between two points of unequal potential, the electrons would flow from one of the points to the other.

3. Were it possible to divide the magnets until we reached the molecules, we should find that each molecule was a minute magnet having a north pole and a south pole.

4. On the other hand, the object would not be in equilibrium were it gaining speed or slowing down (accelerating or decelerating).

5. Had he taken into account the properties of the substance under investigation, he would have been careful while working with it.

6. Could one live in a world where the average temperature were 2500C, water and ether would be in a solid state at our ordinary pressures.

7. Were the vapour pressure of a solid at any temperature greater than one atmosphere, the substance would pass directly from the solid to the vaporous condition.

8. Had we raised the temperature, this substance would have been transformed into a gaseous state.

9. Could mercury not expand when heated, it would not be used for taking temperatures.


Многофункциональный глагол "to do"

Смысловой глагол Вспомогательный глагол Усилительный глагол Заместитель предшествующего сказуемого
This machine-tool does various operations.   Этот станок делает (выполняет) различные операции. Do you know this law?   Вы знаете этот закон? Some substances do not conduct heat.   Некоторые вещества не проводят тепло. This equipment does help them a lot in their work.   Это оборудование действительно очень помогает им в работе. (См. раздел "Эмфатические конструкции") Metals conduct electricity better than most of the non-metals do.   Металлы проводят электричество лучше, чем большинство неметаллов.


4 Упражнение

I. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на функции глагола "to do".

1. Carbon resistance does increase unless its temperature rises.

2. The energy of a body or system is the capacity of that system or body for doing work.

3. The amount of the accomplished work does not depend on the time spent on lifting the weight.

4. Copper has a greater conductance than iron does.

5. In fact, to measure the current strength and the voltage is not difficult at all, because all you have to do is to connect an ammeter or a voltmeter in the circuit and then you can directly read off the amperes of the former or the volts of the latter.

6. The addition of heat does not increase the weight of metal, however, the combination with air does increase its weight.

7. As the temperature of water rises, so does the pressure of water vapour required to stop further evaporation.

8. Thus, to measure the amount of energy given to an object, one must do more than simply determine its temperature change.


Многофункциональные слова


Выполняя различные функции в предложении, многофункциональные слова переводятся на русский язык по-разному.



Указательное местоимение Союз Слово-заместитель упомянутого ранее существительного Союзное слово
They designed that part of the building efficiently.   Они успешно спроектировали эту часть здания. It is known that copper has a greater conductance than iron.   Известно, что медь обладает большей проводимостью, чем железо. The direction of a body's motion is the same as that of the force acting on it.   Направление движения тела такое же, как и направление силы, действующей на него. The properties of gold are different from those of iron.   Свойства золота отличаются от свойств железа. You have to call the company, that will be the prime user of the facility.   Вы должны позвонить компании, которая будет основным пользователем данного сооружения.



сочетание now that переводится "теперь, когда"

that is –то есть

that is to say –то есть, следовательно, таким образом

that is why -вот почему


4 Упражнение

I. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, определив функцию "that".

1. The main characteristics of this garage is that more than 5000 cars can be parked in the automated structure.

2. Semiconductors' electrical conductivity at ordinary temperature falls between that of metals and that of insulators.

3. The current flowing through the wire heats that wire.

4. Rihman established the rule that defines the temperature of a mixture consisting of two unequal masses of water at different temperatures.

5. The temperatures outside the steel superstructure were the same as those in the first test.

6. To utilize that generated energy we need another machine that will reverse the process, that is, will reconvert electrical energy back into mechanical energy.

7. They know that the temperature of steel tunnel is higher than that of concrete.

8. Besides voltage, resistance and capacity in the circuit, an alternating current is influenced by an additional factor, namely, inductance. That is why we shall turn our attention to inductance here.

9. One of the most interesting was superconductivity, that is to say, the complete loss of resistance to electric current.



Личное местоимение Указательное местоимение Формальное подлежащее в безличных предложениях Вводное слово в предложениях с эмфатическим оборотом
Nothing in the world moves faster than light. It moves at the rate of 300,000 km/sec. Ничто в мире не движется быстрее света. Он движется со скоростью 300000 км/сек. I have just told them it was your project.   Я только что сказал им, что это был ваш проект. It is important that the building be rebuilt.   Важно, чтобы здание восстановили. (См. раздел "Неопределенно-личные и безличные предложения") It was in May when we received the new equipment.   Именно в мае мы получили новое оборудование. (См. раздел "Эмфатические конструкции")



it will be noted– следует отметить

it is unlikely – маловероятно

it is safe to say – можно с уверенностью сказать

it is the case – дело обстоит так, это имеет место

it is appropriate – уместно, целесообразно

it goes without saying – само собой разумеется


4 Упражнение

I. Определите функцию "it" и переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. It is necessary that the first tunnel comes on line in September.

2. It is one of the oldest bridges in New York.

3. The energy of a body may be measured in either of the two ways: 1) by the work which it is capable of doing; 2) by the work which has been done upon it to bring it into condition in which it possesses energy.

4. It goes without saying that the prohibition of atomic and hydrogen weapons would create favourable conditions for peaceful use of atomic energy.

5. Adhesion is the attraction between two surfaces in contact. It depends upon the areas in contact and is independent of the pressure.

6. But why had Faraday's previous experiments failed? It was because his magnets, wires, and coils had been stationary. It was only when the magnet was moving that an electric current was generated.

7. At this discussion it is assumed that as a result of the temperature swings the structures will be subject to intense thermal loads.

8. A third mode of transference of heat is known as radiation. It is the process by which the heat of the sun reaches us, and it is exactly similar to the propagation of light.

9. It turns out that the strength of a magnetic field is proportional to the amount of current.

10. Liquids, except for liquid metals, are poor conductors of heat, but it does not mean, however, that they are incapable of conducting heat.


Числительное Неопределенно-личное местоимение Слово-заменитель упомянутого существительного
Many substances exist only in one state.   Многие вещества существуют только в одном состоянии. One has to be careful while testing ventilators for conditioning rooms.   Нужно быть внимательным при испытании вентиляторов, кондиционирующих помещения. (См. раздел "Неопределенно-личные и безличные предложения") Some materials are good conductors of heat and others are poor ones.   Некоторые материалы – хорошие проводники тепла, а другие плохие.


4 Упражнение

I. Определите функцию "one" в следующих предложениях и переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. One should distinguish between an electromotive force and a potential difference.

2. One can imagine magnetic lines as emitted from the north pole and passing through the air to the south one.

3. There is but one method for investigating the properties of the substance under test.

4. A long conductor cuts more lines of force than a short one.

5. Let's turn our attention to two properties of an electric current; one of them is resistance and the other one is self induction.

6. One of the most interesting phenomena was superconductivity, that is to say, the complete loss of resistance to electric current.

7. Everyday observations show that hot objects radiate much more heat than cold ones, the quantity of energy radiated increasing very rapidly with increased temperature.

8. A current of liquid or gas that absorbs heat at one place and then moves to another one where it mixes with a cooler portion of the fluid and loses heat is called a convection current.



Наречие: как, в качестве Союз: так как, ибо, когда, в то время как, по мере того как
The steel structures are adopted as being more safe.   Стальные постройки приняты как более безопасные. This substance does not exist in a pure state as it is unstable.   Это вещество не встречается в чистом виде, так как оно нестойкое. The viscosity of a liquid decreases as the temperature rises.   Вязкость жидкости уменьшается, когда (по мере того, как) температура поднимается.



As…as -так (же)…как

as soon as -как только

as long as -пока

as far as -до, насколько

so…as -с тем, чтобы

as against -по сравнению

as per -согласно

as it is -фактически, действительно

as well as -также, как

as late as -уже, только

as regards -относительно, что касается

as a whole - -в целом

as a matter of fact -фактически, на самом деле; в сущности, собственно говоря


4 Упражнение

I. Определите функцию "as" и переведите предложения.

1. As we have just seen, adding heat to a substance will not always cause a rise of its temperature.

2. As a body moves away from the surface of the earth, the force of gravity decreases.

3. The new building must occupy as large territory as it is possible.

4. The work done by the force can also serve as a measure of the change in internal work.

5. As the temperature of the liquid rises, the pressure of the vapour increases as does its volume.

6. As nobody knew then whether the positive charges or the negative ones could freely move in a metal conductor, it was assumed that the current consists of moving positive charges.

7. As long as the current is steady, the magnetic effect does not represent any continuous expenditure of energy as does the heating effect.

8. As for conductivity in open air, air is found to be a conductor only when ionized.

9. As a matter of fact, the term "conductance" means the ability to carry the current; "resistance", on the other hand, is the opposition to the current flow.

10. The magnitude of the current as well as the voltage and resistance may vary from a minute amount to a very large quantity.

11. As a whole the Federal Emergency Management Agency has provided $432 million for the project.



Союз: но Предлог: кроме Наречие: только, лишь
The experiment was made for the second time, but the results obtained did not coincide.   Эксперимент провели вторично, но полученные результаты не совпали. All the cargo but one case of bricks arrived undamaged.   Весь груз, кроме одного ящика с кирпичами, прибыл в неповрежденном состоянии. There is but one way for solving the problem.   Есть только один способ решения этой задачи.



all but -почти, едва не

but for -если бы не; не будь

the last but one -предпоследний



Союз: так как, ибо Предлог: для, за, на, в течение
Wood is the richest source of cellulose for more than one half of its substance is cellulose fiber.   Древесина является богатейшим источником целлюлозы, т.к. больше половины ее составляет волокно целлюлозы. Steel is used for making different parts of machines.   Сталь используют для изготовления различных деталей машин. Lodygin received a patent for his invention in America.   В Америке Лодыгин получил патент на свое изобретение. This chemical process proceeds for two hours.   Этот химический процесс происходит в течение двух часов.



for the rest -в остальном

for all that -несмотря на все это, вопреки всему

for once - -в виде исключения; на этот раз


4 Упражнение

I. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на функции "but" и "for".

1. A thermometer shows the temperature of a substance but not the amount of internal energy in it.

2. The equipment under consideration will require but one worker to handle it.

3. Action and reaction always act on different bodies but never act on the same body.

4. Nothing but the work of designers can make the impression full.

5. The energy lost for work is not really lost but only converted into another form.

6. No machine can be made completely frictionless but the undesirable effects of friction can be reduced, of course.

7. Lavoisier demonstrated the law of the conservation of matter but in 1773.

8. All the devices but one were operating in a proper way.

9. All but five workers were dismissed.

10. Individual atoms and molecules cannot be seen by eye or even by high-powered optical microscopes for they are very tiny.

11. Edison worked at the improvement of the incandescent lamp for a long period of time for this problem interested him greatly.

12. Every engineer should be responsible for the job.

13. For the best illumination there were made two more windows.

14. The water rheostat is often used as an emergency device for controlling large currents for a certain period of time, for water is found almost everywhere.

15. The specialists came here for aerodynamic tests.

16. But for the opposition to the motion of a body, no force would be needed to change its position.

17. But for friction it would be impossible to control the motion of any machine.



Союз: прежде чем, до того как Предлог: до, перед Наречие: раньше, прежде
Helium was discovered on the sun before it was found on the earth.   Гелий был обнаружен на солнце до того, как его нашли на земле. Before building the hospital, all the expenditures must be calculated.   Все затраты должны быть подсчитаны до строительства этой больницы. That the brick is made of clay was known before.     То, что кирпич сделан из глины было известно и раньше.


shortly (long) before -незадолго (задолго) до

before long -вскоре, скоро



Союз: после того, как Предлог: после, за Наречие: затем, потом, впоследствии
It was necessary to paint the fence after the house was built.   Необходимо было покрасить забор после того, как дом был построен. After the invention of the shaper James Nasmyth invented the steam hammer in 1839.   После изобретения поперечно-строгального станка Джеймс Насмит изобрел в 1839 г. воздушный молот. Tell me, please, what did take place after.   Расскажи мне, пожалуйста, что все-таки произошло потом.



after a while -через некоторое время

shortly after -вскоре после (того, как)

after all -в конце концов

well after -значительно позже



Союз: так как, с тех пор как Предлог: с, после Наречие: с тех пор
Here the acoustical tests have been performed since the seismic activity stopped.   Здесь акустические испытания проводятся с тех пор, как прекратилась сейсмическая активность. Since the weight of a body is a force, it must be expressed in force units.   Так как вес тела – это сила, его нужно выражать в единицах силы. Here the acoustic tests have been performed since 1980.   Акустические испытания проводятся здесь с 1980 г. Whether they have been used continuously since then is not known.   Неизвестно, употребляются ли они непрерывно с тех пор.


Наречие: только, исключительно Союз: но Прилагательное: единственный
Only concrete can be used in realizing this project.     Только бетон можно использовать при реализации этого проекта. Gases can conduct heat only their conductivity is very low.     Газы могут проводить тепло, но их проводимость очень низкая. The only company that can build the rail bridge is "Edinbery Co".   Единственная компания, которая может построить железнодорожный мост – "Edinbery Co".


4 Упражнение

I. Определите функции "after", "before", "since", "only" и переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Never before has motion been so important as it is today.

2. The law of the conservation of matter had been discovered by Lomonosov many years before Lavoisier.

3. In a gas a molecule usually covers a distance corresponding to many molecular diameters before it collides with another molecule.

4. Before active combustion can take place, the substance to be burned must be raised in temperature…

5. After the train has passed a short distance from its starting point, it might, perhaps, cover only about 60 km per hour, its speed gradually increasing all the time.

6. After determining the number of amperes and volts one can find the resistance of the coil.

7. After the boiling point has been reached, the temperature of the water cannot be increased any more even if more heat were added.

8. After the London Exhibition of Physical Instruments in 1876, Yablochkov's invention was demonstrated many times more at several other world exhibitions in Paris.

9. Since the boiling temperature of a liquid depends on the pressure above the liquid, one must be exact when speaking of the boiling point.

10. Since that time it has become the usual thing to speak of the current as flowing from positive to negative.

11. Since the electrons in the wire constitute the current flow, they will certainly tend to flow from the point of lower potential towards that of higher potential.

12. An electric current passes through a gas only when the molecules or atoms of the gas are ionized.

13. The only requirement consists in placing the rod in the field of the magnet.

14. But the cutting of the lines of force occurs only during the very short time that the magnetic field is collapsing, so only then is the extra current induced.

15. Kinematics is the only branch of physics which describes motion with respect to speed, time and distance.

16. Liquids can conduct heat only they are very poor conductors.


Конструкция the…, the…


Конструкция the+прилагательное (наречие) в сравнительной степени…, the+прилагательное (наречие) в сравнительной степени переводится на русский язык чем+прилагательное (наречие) в сравнительной степени, …тем+прилагательное (наречие) в сравнительной степени.

The greater the mass of a body and its velocity, the greater its kinetic energy.

Чем больше масса тела и его скорость, тем больше его кинетическая энергия.


4 Упражнение

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