Функции PERFECT PARTICPLE и способы его перевода

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Функции PERFECT PARTICPLE и способы его перевода




Active Переводится:  
Having + Participle II (-ed)   деепричастием совершенного вида на -в (иногда -я) Having finished his experiments, he compared the results. Закончив свои эксперименты, он сравнил результаты
Passive придаточными обстоятельст- Having been repaired the engine began working better.
  having been + + Participle II (-ed)   венными пред- ложениями, начинающимися союзами после того как, так как После того, как двигатель отремонтировали, он начал работать лучше.

1. Having done a great number of operations, the machine stopped automatically. 2. Having invented computers man got the possibility of making calculations with great speed. 3. Having been repaired the device began operating better. 4. Having made measurements the scientist compared the results. 5. Having been heated for several hours the substance began melting. 6. Having made many tests the engineer obtained a result of great importance. 7. Having used laser beam the scientist obtained Jupiter’s temperature. 8. Having graduated from the school of higher learning this young man got the work according to his speciality. to repair – ремонтировать; to melt – плавиться; beam – пучок, луч; to compare – сравнивать; pressure – давление  



Переведите следующие предложения; сравните, как переводится Participle I и Perfect Participle.

1. Being subjected to high pressure metals become highly conductive. Having been subjected to high pressure metals became highly conductive.

2. When subjecting the metal to high pressure the scientist will obtain the necessary result. Having subjected the metal to high pressure the scientist obtained the necessary result.

3. Making experiments you should write down everything you observe during the work. Having done these experiments you may discuss the results at the conference.

4. Being developed these devices are used in our experiments. Having been developed these devices were used in our experiments.


Независимый причастный оборот и способы его перевода




Независимый причастный оборот     Подлежащее   Сказуемое   Остальные члены предложения
Обстоятельственным придаточным предложением, вводимым союзами: если, когда, так как, после того как  
Some new devices being obtained, the scientists will make more complex experiments.
Когда будут получены новые приборы, ученые проведут более сложные эксперименты.
Подлежащее   Сказуемое   Остальные члены предложения   Независимый причастный оборот
  самостоятельным предложением, вводимым союзами: причем, а, и, но
The students wrote their English test paper, each doing his variant.
Студенты писали контрольную работу по английскому языку, причем каждый делал свой вариант.

1. The meeting being over, we came home. 2. The question being too difficult, no one could answer. 3. The installation was automized, its capacity rising by 25 per cent. 3. Some new devices having been obtained, the researchers could make more complex experiments. 4. Two objects having the same temperature, the average energy of motion of their molecules is the same. 5. One scientist after another have tried cooling some gas to absolute zero, their attempts coming to nothing. 6. There being an extensive system of free correspondence education in our country, a great number of people are correspondent students. installation – установка; capacity – производитель- ность; average – средний; to cool – охлаждать; attempt – попытка; incandescent – накаливание; overcome – преодолевать



Определите тип оборота (зависимый причастный, независимый причастный, сложный герундиальный). Переведите предложения.

1. Several outstanding scientists have made great contributions to the science, Yablochkov and Lodygin being the best known to us.
2. Lodygin’s having produced the first incandescent lamp is a generally recognized fact. 3. The carbon filament not being efficient and economic enough, Lodygin turned to the study of metals. 4. Having developed the device, the scientist applied it in his research. 5. The metals being used in our work possess many important properties. 6. Due to silver being a good conductor of electricity it is widely used in industry. 7. The device functioned all the time, using the energy of the sun. 8. Many difficulties having been overcome, the problem of using this substance in our experiment was solved. 9. The engineer testing this device is a good specialist. 10. The students of our group made a series of very interesting experiments, the instructor being a well-known scientist.



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