Complete these sentences using the correct form (Present Simple or Present Continuous) of the verbs in brackets.

1. I never (work) at the weekend.

2. He (smoke) 30 cigarettes a day but at the moment he (try) very hard to cut down.

3. What you (think) about?

4. Business (become) more international and secretaries (need) international communication skills.

5. He (make) paper products.

6. The speaker (wait for) a telephone call.

7. The manager (check) the production levels every day.

8. They (sign) the contract in the conference room. Don't trouble them.

9. Multinationals (compete) for a market share.



10. The express train always (arrive) on time.

11. The delegation (to come) at 5 p.m. tomorrow.

12. She (run) her own business.

13.I feel that we (make) too much noise.

14. The firm (specialize) in green tourism.

15. At present we (do) business with Japanese companies.



Correct the e sentences that use the wrong form of the verb.

1. Although we sometimes go to a restaurant, we usually are eating at home.

2. Most American families has at least one automobile.

3. I am usually going to the supermarket on Fridays.

4. My friend often go on business trips abroad.

5. Any businessman is wanting to make a profit.

6. Multinationals now operate in every sector of industry.

7. The largest bank in the country plans to close some of its branches.

8. The firm makes excellent progress this week. .

9. My friend has collected necessary information about markets and now he establishes his own business.

10. The South is depending more on small businesses for jobs than on large corporations.

11. Women run 25 per cent of existing small businesses.

12 .I can't talk now. I make a report.

13. Due to expansion, we are looking for new business partners to join our



Translate into English.

1. Ця компания виробляе найсучасніші телевізори.

2. Не заважай мені! Я працюю над перекладом економічної статті.

3. Транснаціональні корпорації працюють в багатьох країнах світу.

4. Miй брат займаеться мал им бізнесом.

5. Економічна ситуація в країні впливае на розвиток бізнесу.

6. Багато европейських компаній торгують з Японіею.

7. Зараз уряд намагаеться знизити щни на продовольчі товари.

8. Mій приятель вивчас економіку.

9. Моя фірма зараз шукае нових партнерів по бізнесу.

10. Він заробляе $ 15, ООО на рік.

11.Мене не цікавить ваша пропозиція. Я розширюю свій власний бізнес.

12. Власники торгових підприємств зустрічаються завтра о 9 годині.

13. Ця фірма завжди надає якісні послуги.

14. Biн немає ніякої уяви про те, як керувати підприємством.



Modals: can/ could/ would


+ I/You/He/She/It/We/They can go.

- I/You/He/She/It/We/They can't (= cannot) go.

? Can l/you/he/she/it/we/they/go?


1 We use can and couldto:

• make requests.

Can I make a phone call?

Could you tell me the time, please? (a little more formal)

• give or refuse permission.

You can use my mobile phone. You can't go in there. It's private.

• make an offer.

Can I take your coat?

I can take you to the station if you like.

• describe ability.

Women can become train drivers.

When he was younger he could (= was able to) run a marathon in under three hours.

• say that something is possible or impossible.

You can make a lot of money if you work hard.

I can't get through to them. Their phone's always engaged.

2 We also use could to refer to future possibilities.

/ think we could increase our market share in the long term.

3 We use would to:

• make requests.

Would you open the door for me, please?

• make offers.

Would you like a glass of water?

• describe imaginary situations.

I would buy a Ferrari if I had enough money.


Modals : necessity and obligation: must, need to, have to, should


1 We often use must, needto and has/have to to say that something is compulsory or necessary.

We must be patient when our goals are for the long term.

Companies have to advertise to let consumers know they exist.

I need to have the figures before next Monday's meeting.

2 Need can also have a passive meaning.

The report needs to be checked before the end of the week.

3 We use had to to refer to a past obligation.

When I lived in Tokyo I had to learn Japanese.

4 We use should and shouldn't to give advice or to suggest the right course of action.

A CV should be printed on good quality note paper.

It shouldn't be more than two pages long.


Should often follows the verbs suggest and think.

I suggest/think we should aim at the top end of the market.

5 We use should to say that something is likely in the future.

Interest rates should come down soon - that's what the economists are predicting.

6 We use don't have to and don't need to when there is no obligation.

You don't have to queue up when you buy online.

If you buy now, you don't need to pay anything until next year.

7 We use must not when things are forbidden or against the law.

Drivers must not park their vehicles by a traffic light.

• Compare the uses of must not and don't have to in the sentence below.

In many companies employees must not wear jeans, but they do not have to wear a formal suit and tie.



1. Match the personal qualities with abilities. Then make sentences using can.

For example:

If you are outgoing, you can easily mix with people socially.


1 outgoing a) speak two languages fluently

2 independent b) work for a longtime without a break

3 bilingual c) express your thoughts and feelings clearly

4 creative d) easily mix with people socially

5 articulate e) work well without the help or advice of other people

6 energetic f) find new solutions to problems




Complete the interviewer's questions with the words from the box.

contact let moving send sharing start working

1 Would you mind ------------- at weekends?

2 Could you --------------- us have your previous employer's details?

3 Would you mind ------------- our appointment to Monday?

4 Could you -------------------- in two weeks' time?

5 Could you ---------------------- us as soon as possible?

6 Would you mind----------------------- an office with three other people?

7 Could you------------------- us a copy of your certificates?

Match the interviewee's responses to the interviewer's questions in exercise 2.


a) Not at all, as long as it's in the morning.

b) Certainly. I'm free to start as soon as you like.

c) Yes. I'll let you know my decision by Friday, if that's alright.

d) Sure. I'll put copies in the post straightaway.

e) That's fine, as long as it's a non-smoking area.

f) How often would that be?

g) Well, in fact they're all included in my CV.


Past abilities

Complete the dialogues with could or was able to.

For example:

1 A: Can you use a PC?

B: Yes, I can. In fact, I could use a PC when I was 12! (general ability)

2 A: So, were you late for the interview?

B: No. Sue gave me a lift, so I was able to get there in time, (one occasion)

1 A: What foreign languages can you speak?

В: I--------------- speak Italian quite fluently when I was a child, but I've

forgotten a lot.

2 A: What was your greatest achievement in your previous job?

B: Well, I----------------- reorganise the Sales Department in less than a


3 A: What did you like best about your previous job?

B: Well, my boss really trusted me, so I--------------- use my own

initiative at all times.

4 A: So you worked in Turkey three years ago. Could you give us some


B: Certainly. As a matter of fact, I-------------------- win a very important


5 C: So how did the interview go?

B: Fine, I think. I ----------------------------- answer all the questions!



Match the personal qualities with the abilities on the right

If you you can

1 are computer literate a) work well on your own.

2 are trilingual b) use different types of software

3 are good at mental arithmetic c) solve problems rationally.

4 are autonomous d) be a good leader.

5 have a creative personality e) calculate quickly in your head.

6 have a logical mind f) speak three languages.

7 are decisive and people accept

your authority g) bring new ideas to projects.


В Past abilities

6 Complete the sentences using either could or managed to.

1 After a lot of discussion we ------------------ strike a deal.

2 He was a brilliant linguist and ------------------ speak over a dozen languages fluently.

3 I thought I was going to miss the plane but I --------------- get to the airport on time.

4 When I was younger I ------------------- run several kilometres without feeling tired.

5 She --------------------------- find a good job despite her lack of formal qualifications.


6 When we lived near the beach we------------------- go swimming every day.

Modals 2: must, need to, have to, should

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