Consult your dictionary and translate the sentences with the following idioms into Ukrainian. Think of situations where you could use them.

1. The secretary led her boss by the nose until she had spent all his money.

2.You will find it difficult to open a shop in the High Street. There is a lot of cutthroat competitionin this town.



Choose the word or word combination to match the definition.

1. A person who works under you.

a) leader b) supervisor c) subordinate

2. A private individual who runs a one-man business

a) supplier b) sole trader c) partner

3. A very large organization that owns companies in more than one country.

a) association b) partnership c) multinational

4. The money gained in a business deal, esp. the difference between the

amount earned and the amount spent.

a) loan b) profit c) loss

5. To enter new types of business.

a) to succeed b) to cooperate c) to diversify

6. The sale of goods in large amounts, and usually at lower prices, to stores

and businesses.

a) retail trade b) wholesale trade c) free trade

7. The sale of a business or service owned by the government to private


a) nationalization b) restriction c) privatization

8. A firm run by two or more partners.

a) consortium b) sole proprietorship c) partnership

9 A company in which the owners are entirely liable for the debts of the


a) unlimited liability company b) partnership c) limited liability company

l0. Money owed by one person or an organization to another.

a) wealth b) debt c) profit

11.A market where stocks and shares are bought and sold under fixed


a) foreign exchange b) commodity exchange c) stock exchange

12. A sum of money invested in a business.

a) stake b) dividend c) interest

13. Combining two companies into one larger company,

a) bid b) witness c) merger

14. A business or part of business bought by another company,

a) purchase b) takeover c) sell-off

15. The workers or employees of an organization,

a) capital b) commodity c) staff

16. A person who works for another person, business or government,

a) employee b) colleague c) employer


17. A group of directors who are responsible for running a company and usually have legal responsibilities to it.

a) senior executives b) managing directors c) board of directors

18.State-owned and-run organizations.

a) insurance sector b) public sector c) retail sector

19.A limit on something.

a) restriction b) reservation c) regulation

20.A person who owns shares in a company.

a) creditor b) shareholder c) investor






employment зайнятість,робота за наймом; надання роботи

reflect відображувати

be self-employed працювати самостійно;працювати не за наймом

work freelance працювати не за наймом;бути вільним художником

flexible гнучкий

employer наймач, роботодавець

entrepreneur підприємець

fixed-term contract строковий контракт

part-time worker робітник,зайнятий неповний робочий день

permanent job постійна робота

temporary job тимчасова робота

administration управління,керування (справами); адміністрація,керівництво

reject відхиляти

Human resources (HR) персонал, людські ресурси

Human resources department відділ кадрів

Recruitment набір (кадрів); надання роботи

staff appraisal оцінка роботи персоналу

welfare соціальне забезпечення; допомога з соціального забезпечення

pension пенсія

ensure забезпечувати,гарантувати

available наявний,доступний

meet the needs задовольняти потреби

team команда, група, бригада

job rotation зміна робіт; ротація робочих завдань


job security гарантія роботи,стабільність роботи,гарантія зайнятості




Work plays a major part in most people's lives. People of all sorts work in business,

and the terms businessman and businesswoman reflect this, referring to a wide range of individuals, from the rich and famous to small company owners, from people in large organizations to those who work for themselves.

Businessmen and women are referred to together as businesspeople.

Many people choose to be self-employed (to have their own business) or to work freelance for several employers.

An entrepreneur is someone who starts their own company.

As the labour market becomes more flexible, many employers respond by increasing the number of fixed-termcontracts and part-time workers. We can also speak about permanent or temporary job.

In large organizations, administrationof people is done by the personnel department, although this expression is now sometimes rejected. Companies talk instead about their human resources or HR.

The Human Resources department of a company is responsible for planning,recruitment of new people, staff training and development, staff appraisal, welfare, pensions administration and industrial relations. It works to ensure that the right people are available to meet the company's needs.

Some companies move their workers regularly between teams or departments. This is called job rotation. Job security is knowing or feeling that a job will last for a long time.



1. Form nouns from the following verbs:


reflect ----------------------

own ----------------------

refer ----------------------

recruit -----------------------

train -----------------------

appraise -----------------------

administer -----------------------

ensure ------------------------

rotate ------------------------

secure ------------------------

express ------------------------

develop -------------------------



2. Give the English for:

зайнятість, ділова жінка, власник компанії, відділ кадрів, відповідати за

планування, нa6ip нових кадрів, підготовка кадрів, соціальне забезпечення,

задовольняти потреби компанії, бригада, зміна робіт, гарантія роботи, строковий контракт, роботодавець, оцінка роботи, працювати не за наймом, підприємець, постійна робота, тимчасова робота.


3.Match the words from list A with the words from list B that have a similar meaning:


available continue

rich business person

famous personnel department

businessman be in charge of

human resources department performance appraisal

be responsible for wealthy

staff renowned

ensure make sure

staff appraisal terminal contract

last personnel

fixed-term contract obtainable


Match the nouns in the left-hand column with the verbs in the right-hand column.


Job recruit


pension sign


fixed-term contract draw up


personnel train

give up

staff appraisal do

retire from

recruitment of new people pay



5. The following sentences could be used to describe jobs. Find sentences:


(a) that describe a positive aspect to a job;

(b) that describe a negative aspect to a job;

(c) that could be either positive or negative.


It's a temporary job.

It's a permanent job.


It's well-paid.

It's badly-paid.

You work full-time.

You work part-time.

It's dull.

It's tiring.

It's demanding.

It's stressful.

It's stimulating.

You have to clock in and clock out every day.

You have to work in shifts.

There are a lot of opportunities.

There's a lot of job rotation.

There's a lot of job satisfaction.

You need to be talented.

You need special training and qualifications.


6These words frequently occur after the word “job”.


title, analysis, evaluation, security, hopper, satisfaction, -sharing, description, advertisement


Find combinations that mean:

1. an outline of the main aims and tasks of the work done by a particular employee;

2. examining how much money a job is worth and how much the person doing it should be paid;

3. the name of a person's job;

4. a situation where a job is likely to be permanent;

5. dividing a full-time job for one person between two or more part-time employees;

6. it is earned out to examine a particular job in detail;

7. a kind of notice put by an organization in a newspaper, company bulletin or on the Internet;

8. the feeling of achievement and enjoyment a worker gets from a job;

9. a person who often changes his jobs.

7. Match the words and phrases with their correct definition:

1 self-employed a) a person or company that provides job;

2 human resources b) the people who work in an organization;

3.pension c) having a paid job;

4 entrepreneur d) without a job;

5.unemployed e) an assessment of the quality of the employee's work;

6.team f) an agreement to employ someone for a limited period only;

7.fixed-term contract g) two or more people working together;


8.employer h) the process of interviewing and choosing people to do a job;

9.employment i) personnel, employees;

10.recruitment j) a regular payment made by the state to a person who has retired from a job;

11.staff appraisal k) someone who works for her/himself and is not employed by a company;

12.employees l) a person who starts or runs a business activity, especially one that involves financial risk.


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