МАТЕРИАЛЫ ВХОДНОГО, ТЕКУЩЕГО И ИТОГОВОГО КОНТРОЛЯ



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

МАТЕРИАЛЫ ВХОДНОГО, ТЕКУЩЕГО И ИТОГОВОГО КОНТРОЛЯ



3.1. ВХОДНОЙ КОНТРОЛЬ

 

Ответьте на вопросы:

1. Как вы думаете, почему английский язык принадлежит к группе германских языков?

2. В какой степени события политической и социальной жизни страны влияют на развитие национального языка?

3. Почему учителю иностранного языка необходимо знать историю становления языка, который он преподаёт?

 

3.2. ПРОМЕЖУТОЧНЫЙ КОНТРОЛЬ

 

Данный вид контроля включает в себя вопросы для самопроверки.

1. Name the closest linguistic relations of English.

2. What languages were spoken in the British Isles prior to the Germanic invasion? Which of their descendants have survived today?

3. What historical events account for the influence of Latin on OE?

4. Describe the linguistic situation in Britain before and after the Germanic settlement.

5. The OE language is often called Anglo-Saxon. Why is this term not fully justified?

6. Why can we regard the group of OE dialects as a single language despite their differences, which continued to grow in later OE? What binds them together?

7. Explain why OE can be called a “synthetic” or “inflected” language. What form-building means were used in OE?

8. Speak on the differences between the categories of case, number and gender in nouns, pronouns and adjectives.

9. Why are noun declensions in OE referred to as “stems”? Point out relics of the stem-suffixes in the forms of nouns.

10. Describe the events of external history which favoured the growth of the national literary language.

11. Compare the historical productivity of different form-building means: synthetic (inflections, sound interchanges), analytical, suppletive.

12. Which part of speech has lost the greatest number of grammatical categories? Which part of speech has acquired new categories?

13. Compare the development of case and number in nouns, adjectives and pronouns.

14. What conclusions can be drawn about the nature of contacts between the English and the Scandinavians from the nature of Scandinavian loan-words?

15. Compare n the English-Scandinavian etymological doublets – skirt – shirt; scatter – shatter.

3.3. ИТОГОВЫЙ КОНТРОЛЬ

 

Итоговый контроль включает в себя:

- контрольную работу,

- устный экзамен.

 

Тесты для контрольной работы:

Test on History of English

Variant I.

  1. Analyze the morphological structure and grammatical of the words.
  2. Give both Russian and modern English translation of the text.

 

py ylcan зeare onforan winter Þā Deniscan Þe on Meresiзe sæton tuзon hiera scipu up on Temese; Þæt wæs ymb twā зear Þæs Þe hider ofer sæ comon. (The Parker Chronicle)

 

Словарь к тексту

py –instr. case of se

ylc,prn. – the same

зear, n.n.a- year

onforan, prp. - before

winter,n.m.a- winter

Þe, rel. part. - who

Meresiзe– the Mersey(the name of the river)

sæton,past pl. ofsittan,sv.5 – to sit, to dwell

tuзon,past. pl. ofteonsv.2 – to draw, pull

scip,n.n.a– ship

ymb,prp.about, by

hider,adv.- hither

Þæs,Þe, dem. prn.– since the time

sæ, n.f.i - sea

comon,past. pl. of cumin, sv. 4 – to come

 

Variant II.

  1. Analyze the morphological structure and grammatical of the words.
  2. Give both Russian and modern English translation of the text.

 

And therfor, hoste, I warne thee biforn,

My jolly body shal a tale telle,

And I shal clinken yow so merry a belle,

That I shal waken al this companye.

(The Shipman’s Tale, Prologue)

Словарь к тексту

therfor –therefore; OE Þærfore

hoste –host (<OF)

warnen –warn; OE wearninan; OHG warnon

body –body; OE bodiз; OHG potah

tale –tale; OE talu; OHG zala

telle –to tell; OE tellan; OHG zellan

clinken –to clink, to tinkle (borr. fr. Dutch)

merry –merry; OE myriз, myrзe; Gth. Ga-maurgian

belle –bell; OE belle, rel. to bellan, wv. 1; OHG bellan; Skt. bhash (to bark)

waken –to wake; OE wacan, wv. 1; Gth. waken; wok, wakens; OHG wachen

al –all; OE eal; Gth. alls; OHG all

companye– company (<OF)

 

 

Variant III.

  1. Analyze the morphological structure and grammatical of the words.
  2. Give both Russian and modern English translation of the text.

 

When folk had laughen at this nyce cas

Of Absolon and hende Nicholas,

Diverse folk diversely they seyde;

But, for the more part, they loughe and pleyde,

Ne at his tale I saugh no man him greve …

(The Reeve’s Tale)

 

Словарь к тексту

laughen –to laugh; OE hlyhhan (hlæhhan, sv. 6); Gth. hlahjan; OHG lachen

nyce –(<OF<Lat. Nescius – ignorat); ME nice, stupid, wanton

cas –case (<OF<Lat. Casus)

hende –courteous

seyen, seggen –to say; OE secзan, wv. 3; Gth. sagen; OHG sagen

but –but; OE buton (prp.)

part –part (<OF<Lat. pars, parties)

pleyen –to play; OE pleзian, wv. 2; OHG pflegen

greven –to grieve (<OF grever <Lat. gravare)

 

 


ПРИМЕРНЫЕ ВОПРОСЫ ДЛЯ ЭКЗАМЕНА ПО ИСТОРИИ ЯЗЫКА

1. Классификация современных германских языков. Общие
специфические черты германских языков.

2. Периодизация истории английского языка.

3. Фонетическая система древнеанглийского языка.

4. Имя существительное в древнеанглийском языке.

5. Глагол в древнеанглийском языке.

6. Местоимение в древнеанглийском языке.

7. Памятники древнеанглийской письменности.

8. Лексика древнеанглийского периода.

9. Заимствования древнеанглийского периода.
10.Альфред Великий и его вклад в английскую культуру.
11.Норманнское завоевание и его последствия.

12.Изменения в орфографии среднеанглийского периода.

13.Изменения гласных в среднеанглийском языке.

14.Изменения согласных в среднеанглийском языке.

15.Лексика среднеанглийского периода.

16.Имя существительное в среднеанглийском языке.

17.Глагол в среднеанглийском языке.

18.Образование форм будущего времени в среднеанглийском языке.

19.Местоимение в среднеанглийском языке.

20.Чосер и его вклад в английскую культуру и языка.

21. Заимствования среднеанглийского периода.

22.Формирование национального литературного английского.

23.Изменения гласных в новоанглийском языке.

24.Великий сдвиг гласных.

25.Изменение согласных в новоанглийском языке.

26.Характер лексики новоанглийского языка.

27.Заимствование 15-20 веков.

28.Формирование категории вида в новоанглийском языке.

 

 

ТЕМЫ КУРСОВЫХ РАБОТ

1. История развития неличных форм глагола в английском языке.

2. История развития форм на -ing в английском языке.

3. история английского инфинитива.

4. Словообразование в древнеанглийском языке.

5. Руническая письменность.

6. История английских согласных диграфов.

7. Аллитерация в древнеанглийском поэтическом тексте.

8. История английских модальных глаголов.

9. История современных неправильных глаголов.

10. Латинские заимствования в английском языке.

11. Сопоставительная история английского глагола to be и немецкого
глагола sein.

12.Особенности синтаксиса древнеанглийского сложноподчиненного

предложения. 13.Исторические основы вариантности обозначения согласных звуков в

английской орфографии.

14.Становление и развитие древнеанглийского существительного. 15.Прототипы современных аналитических форм английского глагола в

древнеанглийском.


ТЕМЫ РЕФЕРАТОВ

1. The Roman occupation of the British Isles.

2. The Celts and their language.

3. The Anglo-Saxon invasion.

4. The Norman conquest.

5. The secular literature of the M.E. period.

6. The writings of churchmen.

7. Geoffrey Chaucer and his contribution to the language.

8. The Indo-European family of languages.

9. The Italic languages.

10.The relationships between Sanskrit, Greek and Latin.

11 .Karl Verner and his contribution to philology.

12.Celtic place names in the British Isles.

13.Common suffixes and prefixes substantially identical in Old and Modern

English.

14.Dialects of Old English.

15.Literature of the West Saxon kingdom.

16.The influence of the Scandinavian invasions upon Old English. 17.Scandinavian words used in Modern English.

18.Development of analitical forms and new grammatical categories in M.E. 19.Formation of the British nation and the English national language in the

Early New English period. 20.Expansion of English overseas. 21 .Early New English vocabulary. 22.New English spelling.

23. Quantitative and qualitative changes of vowels in Early New English. 24.The Great Vowel Shift, its effect on Modern English.

25.Early New English consonant changes.

26.Historical changes in the nominal N.E. system.

27.Historical changes in the verbal N.E. system.

28.Geographical expansion of English in the course og history.

GLOSSARY

Ablaut- in Indo-European languages a substitution of one vowel for another in the body of a word to indicate a corresponding modification of a use or meaning.

A. D. - abbrev. for: Anno Domini; (in the year) since the birth of Christ.

Afrikaans- the language spoken in the South African Republic.

Agreement - correspondence, as in gender, case or number.

Alliteration - the appearance of the same sound at the beginning of two or more

worlds.

Allophone- a speech sound constituting a variant of the same phoneme.

Anglo-Saxon [angles, saxons] - a member of the nation formed by the Angles, Saxons and other early Teutonic Settlers in Britain; the language of the Anglo-Saxons or Old English.

В. С - abbrev. for: before (the birth) of Christ.

Borrowing = loan word - a word or phrase taken into one language from another. Celt -one of a distinct group of early Indo-European peoples who inhabited many parts of ancient Europe. The Celts now remaining as a distinctive group and speaking a distinctive language are the Bretons, Welsh, Scottish Highlanders, Cornish and a portion of the Irish.

Celtic- the language or group of dialects spoken by the Celts.

Clan - any group of related; a family.

Conjugation - the inflection of a verb in its different forms.

Declension - the formation of the cases of a noun, pronoun or adjective by the addition of inflectional endings to the stem.

Diachronic study dealing with the study of language changes over a period of time; historical.

Dialect - from of a language (grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation) used in a part of a country or by a class of people.

Etymology- the scientific study of the origions, history and changing meanings of words.

Etymological doublets - words developing from the same word of root, but which entered the given language at different time or through different channels.

Faroese - the language spoken in the Faroe Islands.

Frisian - the language spoken in some regions of the Netherlands and in the Federal Republic of Germany.

Gaelic - one of two Celtic languages, Irish Gaelic and Scottish Gaelic, in current use in Ireland and in the Highland of Scotland.

Government - the influence of the inflectional from of one word over the form or position of another word within a sentence.

Goth - one of ancient Teutonic race of people who overran and conguered most of the Roman Empire in the 3-rd to 5-th centuries.

Gothic- the language of the Goths.

Grimm's law [From Jacob L.K. Grimm's in "Deutsche Grammatik', 1822] - a statesment concerning the development of consonants from Proto-Indo-European into German.

Hardening- the process when the P.G. voiced [3] (due to Verner's law or to the third act of the shift) was always hardened to [d] in O.E. and other West Germanic languages.

Hybrid- a word composed of elements belonging to different languages.

Indo-European - language family, made up of most languages spoken in Europe and countries colonized by Europeans, also including Sanskrit and the related languages of Info and Persia.

Invador- a person or thing that eaters a country with armed in order to attack.

I - Umlaut = palatal mutation- the fronting and raising of vowels through the

influence of [i] or [j] in the immediately following syllablt.

Lengthening- making long of longer.

levelling- of unstressed vowels - weakening and reducing them to a neutral vowel

[d] denoted by the letter "e".

Metathesis - the transposition of letters, syllables or sounds in a word.

Morpheme -the smallest meaningful unit in a language consisting of a word or

part of a word, that cannot be divided without losing its meaning: e.g. "gun" is one

morpheme, "gun-s" - two morphemes.

Morphology- the study of word formation.

Mutation- the change of one vowel to another through the influence of a vowel in

the succeeding syllable.

Native- belonging to or being the place of one's birth; not brought in from

another place.

Paradigm - an example or pattern of a word showing all its forms in grammar:

e.g. child, child's, children, children's.

preterite - present verbs - their present forms corresponded to the past of the

strong verbs and their past forms were built according to the past of the weak

verbs.

Proto-Germanic (P.G.) language (also termed Common or Primitive Germanic,

Primitive Teutonic, Germanic) - the parent - language of the Germanic group.

rhotacism - the process when P.G. [z] underwent a phonetic modification through

the stage of [d] into [r] and thus became a sonorant which ultimately merged with

the older I.E. [r]; is characteristic of West Germanic and North Germanic

languages.

'Romanced' - to be subjected to strong Roman influence; e.g. Romanced Celts

spoke local varieties of Latin which gave rise to modern Romance language.

rune - one of the figures or characters of the runic alphabet, which is characterizer

by the arrangement of straight lines, and was used by Germanic peoples during the

years 200 to 1200 A. D., esp. in Scandinavia and Britain.

Scot- a native of Scotland; an ancient Gaelic highlander.

Scotch - the dialect of English spoken in Scotland; the language of the Scots.

Shortening- making shot or shorter.

shift- a series of parallel or similar alterations occuring about the same time in a

language and evidencing an overall patters or system.

stem - a part of a word, usu. a derivative of a root, which serves as the base of

inflectional forms.

strong verbs - formed their Past and Participle II by change of the root vowel.

synchronic - relating to a language feature or system considered at a particular

point in time without reference to its historical background.

Teutons = ancient Germans- Germanic people living in Jutland north of

Germany about 400 В. С

tribe- racial group, esp. one united by language and customs, living as a

community under one or more chiefs.

Verner's Law[From Karl Verner, who developed this law in 1846] - a postulate

or consonantal development of the Germanic language which recognized that the

placement of the primary accent, was responsible for variations from Grimm's

Law.

weak verbs - formed their Past and Participle II with the help of the dental suffix

-d/-t

vowel gradation = ablaut

 

 



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