Put 10 questions to the text (alternative, special, general and disjunctive).



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Put 10 questions to the text (alternative, special, general and disjunctive).



Give annotation of the text.

Acid Rain

Acid Rain is a form of air pollution, currently a subject of great controversy because of widespread environmental damage for which it has been blamed. It forms when oxides of sulfur and nitrogen combine with atmospheric moisture to yield sulfuric and nitric acids, which may then be carried long distances from their source before they are deposited by rain. The pollution may also take the form of snow or fog or be precipitated in dry forms. In fact, although the term “acid rain” has been in use for more than a century — it is derived from atmospheric studies that were made in the region of Manchester, England — the more accurate scientific term would be “acid deposition.” The dry form of such precipitation is just as damaging to the environment as the liquid form.

The problem of acid rain originated with the Industrial Revolution, and it has been growing ever since. The severity of its effects has long been recognised in local settings, as exemplified by the spells of acid smog in heavily industrialised areas. The widespread destructiveness of acid rain, however, has become evident only in recent decades. One large area that has been studied extensively is northern Europe, where acid rain has eroded structures, injured crops and forests, and threatened or depleted life in freshwater lakes. In 1984, for example, environmental reports indicated that almost half of the trees in Germany's Black Forest had been damaged by acid rain. The northeastern United States and eastern Canada have also been particularly affected by this form of pollution; damage has also been detected in other areas of these countries and other regions of the world.

Industrial emissions have been blamed as the major cause of acid rain. Because the chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain in the atmosphere are complex and as yet little understood, industries have tended to challenge such assessments and to stress the need for further studies; and because of the cost of pollution reduction, governments have tended to support this attitude. Studies released by the U.S. government in the early 1980s, however, strongly implicated industries as the main source of acid rain, in the eastern U.S. and Canada. In 1988, as part of the United Nations-sponsored Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Agreement, the United States, along with 24 other nations, ratified a protocol freezing the rate of nitrogen oxides emissions at 1987 levels. The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1967 put in place regulations to reduce the release of sulphur dioxide from power plants to 10 million tons per year by January 1, 2000. This amount is about one-half the emissions of 1990.

 

Fill the gaps with the proper words:

1. Acid Rain is a form of …, currently a subject of great controversy because of widespread … for which it has been blamed.

2. The pollution may also take the form of snow or fog or be … in dry forms.

3. The problem of acid rain … with the …, and it has been growing ever since.

4. The widespread … of acid rain, however, has become evident only in recent decades.

5. … have been blamed as the major cause of acid rain.

6. Because the … involved in the production of acid rain in the atmosphere are complex and as yet little understood, industries have tended … such assessments and to stress the need for further studies; and because of the cost of …, governments have tended to support this attitude.

 

 

Answer the questions:

 

1. What do you think of the Acid Rain problem?

2. Which forms of Acid Rain exist?

3. How old is the term “Acid Rain”?

4. How can Acid Rain damage the environment?

5. What is the main cause of Acid Rain?

6. Which actions do people take to liquidate consequences of acid rains?

 

Make 8-10 questions (of all types) of your own.

Give annotation of the text.

 

Air Pollution

Air Pollution is contamination of the atmosphere by gaseous, liquid, or solid wastes or by-products that can endanger human health and the health and welfare of plants and animals, or can attack materials, reduce visibility, or produce undesirable odours. Among air pollutants emitted by natural sources, only the radioactive gas radon is recognised as a major health threat. A by-product of the radioactive decay of uranium minerals in certain kinds of rock, radon seeps into the basements of homes built on these rocks. According to recent estimates by the U.S. government, 20 percent of the homes in the U.S. harbour radon concentrations that are high enough to pose a risk of lung cancer.

Each year industrially developed countries generate billions of tons of pollutants. Many come from directly identifiable sources; sulphur dioxide, for example, comes from electric power plants burning coal or oil. Others are formed through the action of sunlight on previously emitted reactive materials (called precursors). For example, ozone, a dangerous pollutant in smog, is produced by the interaction of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides under the influence of sunlight. Ozone has also caused serious crop damage. On the other hand, the discovery in the 1980s that air pollutants such as fluorocarbons are causing a loss of ozone from the earth's protective ozone layer has caused the phasing out of these materials.

 

Answer the questions:

1. What is Air Pollution?

2. Which of air pollutants emitted by natural sources is recognised as a major health threat?

3. Where does sulphur dioxide come from?

4. What kind of damage can ozone cause?

5. How is ozone produced?

 

2. Insert proper words:

 

1. Air Pollution is … of the atmosphere by gaseous, liquid, or solid wastes or by-products that can endanger human health.

2. Among air pollutants … by natural sources, only the radioactive gas radon is recognised as a major health threat.

3. Each year industrially developed countries generate billions of tons of … .

4. Other pollutants are formed through the action of sunlight on … materials.

5. Ozone has also caused serious crop … .

 



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