Active Words and Word-Combinations



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Active Words and Word-Combinations



 

parallel                              проходить параллельно

road network                    сеть дорог

major                                главный

surfaced                            облицованный

steep                                 крутой

traverse                             пресекать

tread                                 ступень, колея

step                                  ступень

trace                                 следы

key route                          основной маршрут

visible                               видимый

trade route                        торговый маршрут

be in existence                 существовать

come into existence         появиться

use                                   использовать

jade                                  жадеит (минерал)

link                                  соединять

constitute                         составлять

watershed                        водораздел

divide                              делить

skirt                                 огибать

join                                  объединять

wound (Past Ind. от wind) извиваться                             

gateway                           ворота

eastward                          на восток

westernmost                    самый западный

 

1. Match English and Russian equivalents:

 

a) key route, link, road network, steep, skirt, tread, divide, come into existence,         join, surfaced, wind, jade, watershed.

  

b) сеть дорог, облицованный, крутой, ступень, основной маршрут, появиться, жадеит, соединять, водораздел, огибать, делить, объединять, извиваться                             

 

2. Answer the following questions:

 

a) When did the major development of China road system begin?

b) How did most roads look like?

c) How long was China road system by AD 700?

d) What is Silk Road?

e) At the time of whose travel the Silk Road had been in existence for 1,400 years?

f) When did Marco Polo travel to China?

g) By what time The Silk Road was carrying active trade between the two civilizations?

h) Which place did the stone tower mark the symbolic watershed between East and West?

i) Name the cities through which the Silk Road ran.

 

3. Give the English equivalents to the following words and expressions:

 

существовала параллельно; облицованы камнем; пересекать; все еще видны; существовала уже…; когда она использовалась; к 200 году до нашей эры; в 200 году нашей эры; самая длинная дорога на Земле; на юго-восток; в крупнейший торговый центр Бактрии.

 

Find in the text all regular and irregular verbs. Write them out.

5. Retell the text according to the following plan:

 

a) The beginning of China Road System’s major development.

b) The total longitude of Ancient China Road System.

c)  The time, when the Silk Road appeared.

d) The Silk Road’s zenith.

e)  The cities the Silk Road connected.

f)  The route of the Silk Road.

 

THE ROMAN ROADS

 

The greatest systematic road builders of the ancient world were the Romans, who were very conscious of the military, economic, and administrative advantages of a good road system. The Romans drew their expertise mainly from the Etruscans—particularly in cement technology and street paving—though they probably also learned skills from the Greeks (masonry), Cretans, Carthaginians (pavement structure), Phoenicians, and Egyptians (surveying). Concrete made from cement was a major development that permitted many of Rome's construction advances.

The Romans began their road-making task in 334 BC and by the peak of the empire had built nearly 53,000 miles of road connecting their capital with the frontiers of their far-flung empire. Twenty-nine great military roads, the viae militares, radiated from Rome. The most famous of these was the Appian Way. Begun in 312 BC, this road eventually followed the Mediterranean coast south to Capua and then turned eastward to Beneventum, where it divided into two branches, both reaching Brundisium (Brindisi). From Brundlslum the Appian Way traversed the Adriatic coast to Hydruntum, a total of 410 miles from Rome.

The typical Roman road was bold in conception and construction. Where possible, it was built in a straight line from one sighting point to the next, regardless of obstacles, and was carried over marshes, lakes, ravines, and mountains. In its highest stage of development, it was constructed by excavating parallel trenches about 40 feet apart to provide longitudinal drainage—a hallmark of Roman road engineering. The foundation was then raised about three feet above ground level, employing material taken from the drains and from the adjacent cleared ground. As the importance of the road increased, this embankment was progressively covered with a light bedding of sand or mortar on which four main courses were constructed: the statumen layer 10 to 24 inches (250 to 600 millimetres) thick, composed of stones at least 2 inches in size, the rudus, a 9-inch-thick layer of concrete made from stones under 2 inches in size, the nucleus layer, about 12 inches thick, using concrete made from small gravel and coarse sand, and, for very important roads, the summum dorsum, a wearing surface of large stone slabs at least 6 inches deep. The total thickness thus varied from 3 to 6 feet. The width of the Appian Way in its ultimate development was 35 feet. The two-way, heavily crowned central carriageway was 15 feet wide. On each side it was flanked by curbs 2 feet wide and 18 inches high and paralleled by one-way side lanes 7 feet wide. This massive Roman road section, adopted about 300 BC, set the standard of practice for the next 2,000 years.

The public transport of the Roman Empire was divided into two classes: (1) cursus rapidi, the express service, and (2) agnarie, the freight service. In addition, there was an enormous amount of travel by private individuals. The most widely used vehicles were the two-wheeled chariot drawn by two or four horses and its companion, the cart used in rural areas. A four-wheeled raeda in its passenger version corresponded to the stage coaches of a later period and in its cargo version to the freight wagons. Fast freight raedae were drawn by 8 horses in summer and 10 in winter and, by law, could not haul in excess of 750 pounds, or 330 kilograms. Speed of travel ranged from a low of about 15 miles per day for freight vehicles to 75 miles per day by speedy post drivers.

 



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