Active Words and Word-Combinations



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Active Words and Word-Combinations



 

flourish                      процветать

excavation                 раскопки        

was devoted              уделялось

drain pipes                канализационные трубы

grout                         цементный раствор

lime                           известь

recognize                  осознавать

unity                         единство

depend                     зависеть

quality                     качество

border                      граница

mouth                      устье

was responsible       (зд.) отвечало

marking                   опознавательные знаки

ferry                         паром, переправа

 

1. Match English and Russian equivalents:

 

a) mouth, lime, drain pipes, border, grout, ferry, excavation, marking.

 

b) раскопки, канализационные трубы, цементный раствор, известь, граница, опознавательные знаки, устье, паром.

 

2. Answer the following questions:

 

a) When did the Indus civilization flourish?

b) What were the streets of the Indus civilization paved with?

c) The houses had drain pipes, hadn’t they?

d) By what time were methods of road construction known in India?

e) Which of them were known in ancient India?

f) What kinds of drainage were common in cities?

g) Which parts of India had a network of well-built roads in the period 300 to 150 BC?

h) On what does the unity of a great empire depend, according to the rules of the Mauryan empire?

 

3. Insert the proper words from the text:

 

a) The Indus civilization probably … in the period 3250-2750 BC.

b) Great attention was devoted to … .

c) The houses had … .

d) A street drain was two to four feet deep and covered with … or … .

e) Street … seems to have been common in the towns in India.

f) The crowning of the roadway and the use of … and … was common in the towns.

g) The Great Royal Road of the Mauryans began at the Himalayan … .

h) A "Ministry of Public Works" … for construction, marking, and maintenance of the roads and rest houses and for the smooth running of … .

 

4. Translate from Russian into English:

 

a) Раскопки показывают, что в городах индийской цивилизации улицы мостили обожженными кирпичами, соединенными цементом.

b) Дренажные трубы выводили воду из домов и соединялись с дренажной системой улиц.

c) Археологические и исторические источники свидетельствуют, что к 75 году нашей эры в Индии знали несколько методов мощения улиц, среди них такие, как каменная мостовая, покрытие, подобное цементному, и умели заполнять трещины гипсом, известью и битумом.

d) В период с 300 до 150 года до нашей эры в северных и западных районах Индии была сеть хорошо построенных дорог.

 

Make up the plan of the text and retell it in accordance with the plan.

INCA ROADS OF SOUTH AMERICA

 

Across the Atlantic, the period witnessed the rise of another notable road-building empire, that of the Incas. The Inca road system extended from Quito, Ecuador, through Cuzco, Peru, and as far south as Santiago, Chile. It included two parallel roadways, one along the coast about 2,250 miles in length, the other following the Andes about 3,400 miles in length with a number of cross connections. At its zenith, when the Spaniards arrived early In the 16th century, a network of some 14,000 miles of road served an area of about 750,000 square miles (1,940,000 square kilometres) in which lived nearly 10 million people. The network was praised by 16th-century explorers as superior to that in contemporary Europe. The Andes route was remarkable. The roadway was 25 feet wide and traversed the loftiest ranges. It included galleries cut into solid rock and retaining walls built up for hundreds of feet to support the roadway. Ravines and chasms were filled with solid masonry, suspension bridges with wool or fibre cables crossed the wider mountain streams, and stone surfacing was used in difficult areas. The steeper gradients were surmounted by steps cut in the rocks. Traffic consisted entirely of pack animals (llamas) and people on foot; the Inca lacked the wheel. Yet they operated a swift foot courier system and a visual signaling system along the roadway from watchtower to watchtower.

 



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