Active Words and Word – Combinations

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Active Words and Word – Combinations


benefit — приносить пользу, помогать;

оказывать благоприятное (воз)действие;

contact patch — поле зацепления

deceleration — уменьшение скорости, замедление; торможение

lock up — заклинить;

monitor — управлять, контролировать

to make sure — убедиться

о kick in — начать работать, задействовать

to refer to — ссылаться на...

to release — отпускать

to slow down — замедлять движение, тормозить

to spin — быстро вращаться; вертеть(ся); крутиться

 to steer — управлять (автомобилем и т.п.)

surface — поверхность

valve — клапан

traction — 1) тяга; тяговое усилие, сила тяги,

2) сила сцепления (напр., шины с дорогой)


Answer the following questions:

1.What is the ABS?

2. Why do we need the ABS?

3. What are the main components of the ABS?

4. What kind of information do the speed sensors provide?

5. What does the pump serve for?

6. What does the controller do?

7. How does the ABS work?

8. Describe different types of Anti-Lock Brakes.


2. Finish the following sentences according to the text above:

1.Stopping a car in a hurry on a slippery road ...

2. On slippery surfaces, even professional drivers can’t stop as quickly without ABS as ...

3. By keeping the wheels from skidding while you slow down, anti-lock brakes benefit you in two ways: ...

4. There are four main components to an ABS system: ...

5. The anti-lock braking system needs ...

6. Since the valve is able to release pressure from the brakes, ...

7. The controller monitors...

8. The ABS controller knows that such a rapid deceleration is impossible, ...

9. When the ABS is in operation you will feel...

10. Antilock braking systems use different schemes...

11. The controller monitors each wheel individually...

12. This system provides individual control of the wheels,...

13. With this system, it is possible that...

14. This system mmonly found on ...

15. The rear wheels are monitored together and both have to start...

16. In this system it is also possible that one of ear wheels...

17. You can locate the speed sensor by ...


3. Find in the text equivalents to the following phrases:

In a hurry, challenging, slippery surfaces, average driver, skidding wheel, no traction, by keeping the wheels from skidding, the speed sensors, in some cases, main components, provide this information, the master cylinder, reduces the pressure, watches the speed sensors, consider, out re ordinary, significantly change speed, maximum braking power, in ration, a pulsing, depending on, a separate valve, provides individual control, reducing brake effectiveness.


4. Find the English equivalents for the following Russian words:

1) блокировать

a) to lock     

b) lock  

c) to lock up


2) сила сцепления

a) tract      

b) traction   

c) tractable


3) скользкий

a) to slip   

b) slippage  

c) slippery


4) торможение

a) deceleration    

b) to decelerate   

c) decelerating


5) отдельный

a) separated    

b) separate  

c) separately


6) значительно

a) significantly  

b) significant  

c) significance


7) зависящий

a) to depend   

b) dependable  

c) depending


8) передний

a) frontal      

b) front      

c) frontality


9) станина

a) housing    

b) to house   

c) house


10) эффективность

a) effectless    

b) effective   

c) effectiveness


11) определять

a) identical    

b) to identify 

c) identity


12) соединение

a) connection    

b) to connect   

c) connectivity



Match a line in A with a line in B



emergency braking       

traffic accident    

the main pole      


total static friction force

slipping motion force   



cross direction    

spin round and round  

to break interruptedly


rate-of-turn sensor       


rotation sensor



1) занос

2) датчик вращения

3) тормозить прерывисто

4) качение

5) поперечное направление

6) юз

7) максимальная сила трения покоя

8) сила трения скольжения

9) полная блокировка

10) важная веха

11) датчик углового ускорения angular

12)датчик угла поворота

13)крутиться «волчком»

14)экстренное торможение





Mazda 3 Touring Sedan

By Aaron Gold

The Mazda has a reputation as the most fun-to-drive car in the compact class. But 2007 brings a host of redesigned competitors, and class standards are moving up. The 2007 Mazda 3 compares to the competition as $14,390 base, $18,980 as tested, EPA fuel economy estimates 26 MPG city/33 MPG highway. For 2007 Mazda has updated the both inside and out. Subtle styling updates include two new grilles (unique for T and ‘s’ models) and squared-off fog light housings. Mazda’s press release says the new bumpers offer ‘superior aerodynamics that contribute to better fuel economy’. Indeed, the highway estimate for the 3s model with manual transmission is up one MPG, but estimates for other versions are unchanged. The 3’s new alloy wheels have been redesigned to both accentuate the aluminum alloy look and convey the image of stability. What hasn’t changed is the lineup: two body styles, 4-door sedan and 5-door hatchback; two engines, a 148 horsepower 2-liter in the ‘i’ model and 156 hp 2.3 liter for the ‘s’; and three trim levels, Sport, Touring and Grand Touring, the latter only in ‘s’ form. Changes to the Mazda 3’s body shell make it more rigid and the suspension has been tweaked for improved steering response and sharper handling. But the most important change is the addition of electronic stability control, standard on ‘s’ Touring and Grand Touring. Electronic stability control can help keep the driver from losing control in a sudden panic maneuver or during over- aggressive driving. Antilock brakes, front-seat-mounted side airbags and side-curtain airbags remain standard on some models, optional on others.

The 3’s interior has also been revised for 2007. Particular attention was paid to revising interior quality on all models. Grey and red trim spruces up the Mazda 3s’ black interior, but overall design seems dated compared to newer designs such as the Honda Civic and Nissan Sentra. The T offers a choice of beige or black interior, the former with glare-cutting black dashboard topper, while the ‘s’ is black-only. The 3s has grey and red plastic trim that spruces it up nicely. The 3s’ gauges feature red numbers on a black background with blue floodlighting while the 3i gets snazzy black-on-white gauges. The three-dial air conditioning controls are simple as can be, but the button stereo takes some getting used to. The 11.5 cubic foot trunk is on the small side. Base price for the Mazda 3i Sport is $14,390; it has a stereo with CD player, steering-wheel-mounted controls and a jack to plug in M P3 player. A/C is optional, but power windows, locks and mirrors require stepping up to the 3i Touring. The top-of-the-line 3s Grand Touring adds leather seats (heated in front), automatic headlights, climate control, and rain-sensing wipers, breaking the $20k barrier. Its optional GPS navigation system is a rarity in this segment.

The Mazda 3’s reputation as a driver’s car is not undeserved. Its steering response is notably sharp, though the firm ride might put some buyers off. This year Mazda has retuned the suspension for less understeer. (Understeer is when the front wheels try to push towards the outside of a curve when cornered hard; the opposite condition is oversteer, when the rear wheels slide or fishtail. Most front-wheel-drive cars like the Mazda 3 are tuned for understeer.) Even so, don’t expect the Mazda 3 to suddenly spin out in a hard comer. The 2.3 liter 156 horsepower four-cylinder engine in the ‘s’ model is big by compact-car standards; most of the 3’s competitors have engines in the 1.8 to 2.0 liter and 126 to 140 horsepower range. Transmission choices are a 5-speed manual or 5-speed automatic. (The 3i gets a 2.0 liter engine and 5-speed manual or 4-speed automatic.) Both 2.0 and 2.3 engines come in a clean-burning Partial Zero Emissions Vehicle (PZEV) version for cars sold in California, New York, Vermont, Masachusetts and Maine. Horsepower drops slightly, but while many cars only offer a PZEV engine with an automatic transmission, the Mazda 3 retains its PZEV rating with the stick-shift as well.

The Mazda 3 has a much sportier feel than its competitors. The big engine, sharp steering response and firm ride set it apart from cars like the Civic, Corolla and Sentra, where driving is a means to an end rather than an enjoyable activity in and of itself. As a hatchback, the Mazda 3 is unique; as a sedan it has to fight harder to stand out, a tall order against newer designs like the Nissan Sentra, Honda Civic and Hyundai Elantra.

2007 brings more driver-oriented compacts into the fray, notably the Civic Si and Mazda’s own Mazda speed 3, a phenomenally souped-up version of the Mazda 3 hatchback. But both carry heftier car payments and neither is available with an automatic transmission. VW’s Rabbit is another sporty-themed hatchback; its engine is more powerful but not as eager to rev, and the Rabbit is likely to spend more time in the dealer’s service department than the Mazda.


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