Now ask the questions to the word combinations and sentences from the gaps.



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Now ask the questions to the word combinations and sentences from the gaps.



Discuss and Write 2.2.

Write a chapter for a EFL Teacher’s manual about the difference between a curriculum and syllabus.

Find and present information 2.2.

Find some further information on these types of syllabi. Speak about them in class.

A skill-based syllabus

A structural or formal syllabus

A task-based syllabus

A multi-dimensional syllabus

A process syllabus

Unit 2.3. Approaches to syllabus design

Terminology to Study 2.3.

Choose 2- 3 terms and work out Word Map in Visual Thesaurus Style. For reference you might resort to A Handbook of English-Russian Terminology for Language Teaching


Approach to syllabus design

Synthetic approach

Analytic approach

Functional/Notional – functional approach


Lead-in 2.3.

What will you start with when you are to design a syllabus?

Consider these Ideas for Constructing an ESL Syllabus. Which of them do you find useful? Which ones might be of no use according to you?

Ideas for Constructing an ESL Syllabus

 1. Decide what you NEED to teach.

1. Ask yourself WHY your students are studying English, and WHAT do they need to know?

2. Do some sort of need assessment.

A. Find a good needs assessment instrument or create your own from various examples.

B. Do not just ASSUME what your students need to know ­­ask them and make them feel like they are involved in the planning of the course in order to create a nice learner-centered atmosphere.

3. Do not forget to incorporate the things that YOU know (as a professional) that they need.

A. For example, students can't take TOEFL preparation classes only. We should be able to know generally what they need based upon their goals. (Don't expect your students to tell you everything they need and want to know.)

4. Remember that the level of the students determines, to a great extent, what they need to learn.

A. Beginner students want and need survival skills, whereas advanced students want to focus on difficult areas such as research, critical, and creative writing, etc.

Decide what you CAN teach.

1. Remember that you will not likely be able to teach everything you feel you NEED (or even want) to teach.

2. Prioritize topics and areas of study according to the needs of the students.

3. Review various sample lesson plans and ideas, if available.

Decide how to organize the syllabus.

1. Design your syllabus from your list of prioritized topics or areas of study.

2. Be mindful of topics that build upon others and construct syllabus accordingly.

A. For example, you should probably teach demonstratives BEFORE teaching students how to shop for clothing. (Examples: "How much is this shirt?" , "How much are these pants?")

3. Make use of a wide variety of resources and activities.

4. Be mindful of the four skills (listening, speaking, reading, writing) and which ones are most important for your students. (Also, don't spend three hours on grammar instruction only and one on Listening/Speaking. L/S is probably the most important for most students.)

Teacher Expectations

It is good to include on the syllabus the things that you expect from the students. Students sometimes perform better when expectations are in writing. A. What are things you might expect? (Attendance,  homework, etc.)

5. Helpful information (if you are giving your students a copy of the syllabus, which is advised):

1. Place your phone number, office number, etc., on the syllabus so the students can contact you. Often times conscientious students want to call you before they miss a class or an assignment.

2. Valuable resources and texts can also be listed on the syllabus. Most likely, you'll be planning your lessons and developing materials throughout the course and will, therefore, not have a complete list of sources for your students. However, if you know of some you will definitely be using, it's good to list them on the syllabus.*

Read and Discuss 2.3.

 

Read the text and speak about advantages and disadvantages of these types of syllabi:

a) for students different levels of language proficiency (Elementary, Pre-intermediate, Intermediate,Upper -Intermediate, Advanced);

b) for young learners and adult learners;

c) for professionals to communicate in academic communities, for those who need language for private communication (with friends, guests etc.)

A learner-led syllabuses

Breen and Candlin (1984) were the first ones proposed the belief of basing an approach on how learners learn. The emphasis is upon the learner, who it is hoped will be engaged in the implementation of the syllabus design as far as that is practically possible. The learners’ awareness of the course they are studying helps them increase their interest and motivation, attached with the positive effect of developing the skills required to learn.

A predetermined and prearranged syllabus provides support and guidance for the instructor and should not be so simply dismissed. The opponents of this view indicate that a learner-led syllabus seems far-reaching, radical and utopian in that it will be complicated to follow as the direction of the syllabus will be mostly the responsibility of the students. Moreover, without the support of a course book, a lack of aims may come about.

A proportional syllabus

This type of syllabus is basically practical and its focus is upon flexibility and spiral technique of language sequencing leading to the recycling of language. The proportional syllabus mainly tries to develop an overall competence. It seems appropriate and applicable for learners who lack exposure to the target language beyond the classroom.

Specifically speaking, this syllabus comprises a variety of elements with theme playing a linking part through the units. This theme is chosen by the learners. At first, the form is of essential value, but later the emphasis will turn towards interactional elements. The shift from form to interaction can occur at any time and is not restricted to a particular level of learner ability. The dominant view in designing a proportional syllabus centers around the premise that a syllabus has to indicate explicitly what will be taught, rather than what will be learned. In closing, the rationale behind designing such a syllabus is to develop a type of syllabus that is dynamic with ample opportunity for feedback and flexibility.

A content-based syllabus

This syllabus is intended to design a type of instruction in which the crucial goal is to teach specific information and content using the language that the learners are also learning. Although the subject matter is of primary and vital importance, language learning occurs concurrently with the content learning. The learners are at the same time language students and learners of whatever content and information is being taught. As compared with the task-based approach of language teaching that is connected with communicative and cognitive processes, content-based language teaching deals with information. This syllabus can be exemplified by assuming a chemistry class in which chemistry is taught in the language the learners need or want to learn, possibly with linguistic adjustment to make the chemistry more understandable.



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