Total Physical Response approach

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Total Physical Response approach

The comprehension-based methodology mostly commonly found in classrooms is Asher's Total Physical Response approach; Krashen and Terrell's Natural Approach has not been widely applied.

The comprehension approach is based on theories of linguistics, specifically Krashen's Monitor Theory, and is also inspired by research on second language acquisition in children, particularly the silent period phenomenon in which many young learners initially tend towards minimal speaking. In contrast, the communicative approach is largely a product of research in language education.

Winitz founded the International Linguistics Corporation in 1976 to supply comprehension-based materials known as The Learnables; several positive articles have been published testing these picturebooks with their accompanying audio recordings, mostly with Winitz as co-author.

These include Total Physical Response and the natural approach of Stephen Krashen and Tracy D. Terrell.

Silent Way

The Silent Way is a discovery learning approach, invented by Caleb Gattegno in the 50s. It is often considered to be one of the humanistic approaches. It is called The Silent Way because the teacher is usually silent, leaving room for the students to talk and explore the language. It is often associated with Cuisenaire rods and wall charts where words are colour-coded; each phoneme a different colour .

Find and present information 1.5.

Find and present information about some fringe methods of teaching. Provide some further information about the methods mentioned above.

Unit 1. 6. Modern Methods of teaching EFL:

Terminology To Study 1.6.


Choose 2- 3 terms and work out Word Map in Visual Thesaurus Style. For reference you might resort to A Handbook of English-Russian Terminology for Language Teaching

Computer assisted language learning /CALL

Conscious-raising approach /CRA

Data-driven learning/DRL

Task-based learning TBL

Lead - In 1.6.

What do the letters CALL stand for? What do you know about this system of learning?

What are obvious advantages of CALL?

Study the information provided in the right columns and find the heading to it in the left one.


1) Motivation   A/- student controls the pace of the learning- - students can make choices in what and how to learn, skipping unnecessary items or doing remedial work on difficult concepts. - students tend to prefer exercises where they have control over content, the computer has the role of providing attractive context for the use of language rather than directly providing the language the student needs.
2) Adapting learning to the student B/- opportunity to interact in one or more of the four skills (reading, writing, listening, speaking) by using or producing texts meant for an audience in the target language, - students believe they learn faster and better with computer-mediated communication.  -in networked computer environments, students have a conscious feeling of being members of a real community.
3) Authenticity C/- improves self-concept and mastery of basic skills - turns the process into more student-centered – increases engagement in the learning process,  - more active processing results in higher-order thinking skills and better recall, - helps to gain confidence in directing students’ learning.
4) Critical thinking skills D/ -there is an opportunity to personalize information by integrating the student’s name as part of the program or task. - animate objects on the screen provide practice activities that incorporate real-world or fantasy challenges -students tend to spend more time on tasks when on the computer.

Read and Discuss 1.6.

What is your attitude to the spread of IT technologies in learning and teaching? Do you resort to any?

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