MODULE 1. Methods and approaches to Teaching EFL



Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!



Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

MODULE 1. Methods and approaches to Teaching EFL



Пособие

для студентов старших курсов

И магистров

Специальности

«Теория обучения ИЯ и межкультурная коммуникация»

(Часть 1. Teaching Prerequisites )

Санкт-Петербург

2009
ББК

К

 

 

ISBN

 


Методическая записка

 

Данное пособие предназначено для магистров программы «Теория обучения ИЯ и межкультурная коммуникация» (по специальности 031100-лингвистика) и мо­жет использоваться для студентов старших курсов факультетов иностранных язы­ков педагогических университетов.

Основной задачей пособия является ознакомить магистров программы с лингводидактическим научным дискурсом и научить свободно пользоваться терминологией при обсуждении основных проблем теории обучения иностранным языкам.

Пособие построено на языковом материале фрагментов книг и статей из электронных версий журналов по проблемам теории обучения иностранным языкам.

Основная цель пособия – развитие интегрированного речевого навыка преподавателя ИЯ в системе высшего образовательного учреждения, который не только преподает, но и является активным членом академического сообщества, т.е. регулярно отслеживает все новейшие достижения методической науки, принимает участие в научных и научно-практических конференциях, публикует статьи в журналах, посвященных проблемам образования.

Задача развития интегрированного речевого навыка специалиста – преподавателя ИЯ в системе высшего образовательного учреждения решается в двух направлениях. С одной стороны – пособие предлагает теоретические знания, с другой стороны – содержит элементы практики, т.е. задания, в которых учащиеся могут реализовать себя как будущие специалисты.

Задача ознакомления с терминологией и погружения в лингводидактический дискурс решается в основном посредством заданий «Terminology to study», «Read and Discuss» «Translate and Render». Тем не менее, такие разделы пособия как «Lead-In» «Listen and Discuss», «Discuss and Write» так же построены таким образом, чтобы вовлечь будущих специалистов в беседу, требующую знания терминологии и умения оперировать лингводидактическими категориями и понятиями.

Задание «Exercises» представляет собой серию упражнений в различных видах как в учебной деятельности магистров, так и обучающей деятельности преподавателя иностранного языка.

Каждый из разделов пособия (units) содержит задание по аудированию, которое тематически или методически соотнесено с темой раздела.

Для подготовки студентов к научной деятельности в пособие был включен раздел «Find and Present Information», который предлагает темы для выступлений на занятиях и побуждает к более глубокому изучению деятельности выдающихся исследователей проблем преподавания ИЯ и талантливых практиков,  деятельности международных организаций, объединяющих преподавателей ИЯ и широкого круга других проблем, которые являются неотъемлемой частью сегодняшней лингводидактики.

Пособие состоит из трех частей « Teaching Prerequisites», «Teaching Language System and Skills» and «Being More Efficient»

Данное пособие представляет собой его первую часть.


Contents

PART 1. STARTING TO TEACH.. 7

MODULE 1. Methods and approaches to Teaching EFL. 8

Unit 1.1. Why English?. 8

Terminology to Study 1.1. 8

Lead - In 1.1. 8

Read and Discuss 1.1. 8

Translate and Render 1.1. 10

Listen and Revise 1.1. 12

Discuss and Write 1.1: 12

Unit 1. 2. Global Issues of Higher Education. Approaches and Methods of teaching 1: 13

Terminology to Study1.2. 13

Read and Discuss 1.2. 14

Exercises 1.2. 18

Listen and Discuss 1.2. 20

Read and Write 1.2. 21

Find and present information 1.2. 23

Unit 1. 3. British Universities and Challenges They Face. Approaches and Methods of teaching 2: 23

Terminology to Study 1.3. 23

Lead - In 1.3. 23

Read and Discuss 1.3. 23

Exercises 1.3. 25

Translate and Render 1.3. 25

Listen and Discuss 1.3. 26

Discuss and Write1.3. 27

Find and present information 1.3. 28

Unit 1. 4. Russian Universities and the Bologna Process. Approaches and Methods of teaching 3: 28

Terminology to Study 1.4. 28

Lead - In 1.4. 29

Read and Discuss 1.4. 29

Exercises 1.4. 31

Translate and Render 1.4. 31

Listen and Discuss 1.4. 33

Discuss and Write1.4. 34

Find and present information 1.4. 36

Unit 1. 5. Fringe Methods of teaching EFL: 37

Terminology to Study 1.5. 37

Lead - In 1.5. 37

Read and Discuss 1.5. 37

Exercises 1.5. 39

Translate and Render 1.5. 40

Listen and Discuss 1.5. 41

Discuss and Write1.5. 41

Find and present information 1.5. 42

Unit 1. 6. Modern Methods of teaching EFL: 42

Terminology To Study 1.6. 42

Lead - In 1.6. 43

Read and Discuss 1.6. 43

Exercises 1.6. 46

Translate and Render 1.6. 46

Listen and Discuss 1.6. 48

Discuss and Write1.6. 50

Find and present information 1.6. 51

MODULE 2. Syllabus Design and Curriculum Development 52

Unit 2.1.From National Curriculum to a Coursebook Unit 52

Terminology to Study 2.1. 52

Lead-in 2.1. 52

Read and Discuss 2.1. 53

Exercises 2.1. 54

Translate and Render 2.1. 54

Listen and Discuss 2.1. 56

Discuss and Write 2.1. 56

Find and present information 2.1. 57

Unit 2.2. How to Design a Syllabus?. 57

Terminology to Study 2.2. 57

Lead-in 2.2. 58

Read and Discuss 2.2. 59

Translate and Render 2.2. 61

Listen and Discuss 2.2. 62

Exercises 2.2. 64

Discuss and Write 2.2. 64

Find and present information 2.2. 64

Unit 2.3. Approaches to syllabus design.. 64

Terminology to Study 2.3. 64

Lead-in 2.3. 64

Read and Discuss 2.3. 66

Translate and Render 2.3. 68

Listen and Discuss 2.3. 69

Exercises 2.3. 70

Discuss and Write 2.3. 70

Find and present information 2.3. 70

Unit 2.4.Types of syllabi 70

Terminology to Study 2.4. 70

Lead-in 2.4. 71

Read and Discuss 2.4. 71

Translate and Render 2.4. 73

Listen and Discuss 2.4. 74

Exercises 2.4. 75

Discuss and Write 2.4. 75

Find and present information 2.4. 76

Unit 2.5. Syllabus Design Structures.. 76

Terminology to Study 2.5. 76

Lead-in 2.5. 76

Read and Discuss 2.5. 78

Translate and Render 2.5. 80

Listen and Discuss 2.5. 81

Discuss and Write 2.5. 82

BOOKS RECOMMENDED FOR HOME STUDIES. 84

KEYS AND TRANSCRIPTS. 87

REFERENCES. 97


PART 1. STARTING TO TEACH

Unit 1.1. Why English?

Terminology to Study 1.1.

Lead - In 1.1.

Introduce yourself. Speak about your undergraduate studies. What university have you graduated from? Do you have any certificates in English? How often did you have English classes at your University? When did you start studying English? What were your teachers like? What did/didn’t you like in the way you were taught? In the way you studied?Have you ever been teaching? Whom? How long? What are the main areas of your English language deficiency? What other languages can you speak?

Read and Discuss 1.1.

Translate and Render 1.1

Применение Lingvo 9.0

Обычно словари используются как средства, помогающие переводить тексты. Но электронный словарь можно использовать и для расширения своего словарного запаса, для пополнения памяти новыми фразами.

Электронный словарь содержит большое количество основных слов и их произ­водных. Примерно пять тысяч слов озвучены. При нажатии на иконку динамика в программе словаря компьютер прочитает вам слово на чистом английском языке. Это очень важно для правильного запоминания произношения, так как даже транс­крипция передает произношение слова лишь приблизительно.

В открывающемся окошке с переводом слова дается очень подробная справка: разные значения слова, десятки примеров, иллюстрирующих применение слова в разговорной и литературной речи.

Таким образом, электронный словарь Lingvo является отличным учебным по­собием.

Запоминать новые слова изолированно не имеет смысла. Очень важно одно­временно с запоминанием слова запоминать несколько фраз с этим словом.

Если просто просматривать словарь, слушать слова, читать фразы, специально не запоминая их, то уже через час вы обнаружите, что не можете вспомнить новые слова и новые фразы. Без применения специальной техники запоминания изучение новых слов и фраз весьма затруднительно.

Количество запоминаемых за одно занятие слов и фраз зависит от наличия у вас свободного времени и от вашего навыка запоминания. В любом случае следует делать ставку не на объем материала, который вы можете запомнить за одно занятие, а на регулярность занятий. Лучше запоминать за одно занятие два слова и четыре фразы, но делать это каждый день.

Начните с маленького объема. Постепенно, если вы будете чувствовать в себе силы запоминать больше, вы можете увеличивать количество запоминаемых слов и фраз.

Очень важно обеспечить себе доступ к новой информации в памяти для её равномерного закрепления в течение дня. Для этого в мнемотехнике все новые сведения запоминаются на систему опорных образов. Система опорных образов может быть сформирована заранее, а может создаваться по ходу запоминания.

Здесь не рассматривается формирование системы опорных образов, так как этот вопрос анализировался в предыдущих выпусках рассылки. Хочется только напомнить, что система опорных образов является системой внутренней стиму­ляции мозга, с помощью опорных образов вы целенаправленно сканируете свой мозг и заставляете его генерировать (вспоминать) слова и фразы.

После закрепления слов и фраз в мозге они становятся частью вашего со­знания и могут припоминаться выборочно. Опорные образы становятся ненужными. Обычно новые слова и фразы закрепляются в мозге за три–четыре дня. В течение этого времени новый материал интенсивно повторяется мысленно (по памяти) в любое свободное время.

Долговременное сохранение последовательности материала нужно в редких случаях. Например, если вы работаете преподавателем и вам нужно помнить по­следовательность изложения материала урока.

Не нужно запоминать все значения слов и все фразы, которые приводятся в справочном окошке. Для начала попробуйте запоминать только основное слово и пару предложений, иллюстрирующих использование слова в речи.

Для начала выбирайте для запоминания простые слова и предложения. Запо­миная каждый день всего пять новых слов и десять фраз, вы за месяц существенно пополните свой словарный запас лексикой, которая обычно отсутствует в учебнике английского языка.

Через месяц вы сможете воспроизвести 150 слов и 300 фраз. Без записей, по памяти. Как последовательно (в прямом и обратном порядке), так и выборочно. Со временем последовательность может быть разрушена, но слова и фразы останутся в голове.

При мысленном повторении новых слов и фраз следите за тем, чтобы не было внутреннего перевода на русский язык.

При восприятии слова "nasty" в воображении должен появляться образ-зна­чение, который вы сами подобрали (бомж). При восприятии фразы "a man with a nasty mind" в воображении должна возникать соответствующая сюжетная картинка. Это и есть то, что называют "понимание без перевода".

Сначала вы вспоминаете не фразы, а сюжетные картинки (смысл), по которым строите фразы. В процессе многократной реконструкции фразы, она закрепляется в мозге как одно целое, автоматизируется. Как уже говорилось раньше, автоматизм фраз проявляется в антиципации, в появлении опережающего понимания, когда начало фразы вызывает в голове её продолжение. При специальном запоминании слова и фразы сами лезут в голову, крутятся в сознании как навязчивая мелодия или рекламный слоган. Именно за счет этого и происходит их качественное закрепление в мозге.

Такой принцип запоминания слов и фраз очень похож на процесс усвоения родного языка ребенком. Ребенок запоминает преимущественно фразы. Он знает мало слов, но может ими пользоваться, может говорить, строить новые фразы по аналогии.

Но ребенок находится в языковой среде, которая обеспечивает регулярное повторение языкового материала. Мнемотехника в какой-то степени компенсирует отсутствие языковой среды путем создания возможности многократного повторения нового материала в течение дня непосредственно из памяти.

Самое сложное во всем этом – обеспечить регулярность занятий, запоминать каждый день. Теория переходит в практику при наличии должного уровня само­дисциплины.

 

Listen and Revise 1.1.

 

Listen to this VOA report Where Did the English Language Come From?” and answer the questions below.

What date is believed to be the beginning of period of Norman Rule? What language did the Norman bring to Great Britain? What part of population spoke French? What words came from French? What name did the expert give to this historical version of English?

Terminology to Study1.2.

Choose 2–3 terms and work out Word Map in Visual Thesaurus Style. For reference you might resort to A Handbook of English-Russian Terminology for Language Teaching.[2]

Lead - In 1.2.

1. Read the descriptions for masters’ programs and match them with degree title below the chart\

Read and Discuss 1.2.

Ambitions for Education

Global influences also affect higher education. Today virtually every country has three higher education ambitions. First is a demand for greater levels of access, and in every part of the world access to higher education is rising rapidly. In the late 1960s, there was no nation in Western Europe where the proportion of the age group in higher education (18 to 22) was greater than 8 percent; today there is no nation in Western Europe where the proportion in higher education is lower than 35 percent. Worldwide enrollment is growing between 10 and 15 percent per year, including in middle- and low-income countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America.

The result: There are few parts of the world where higher education constitutes "elite" education, that is, where it reaches less than 15 percent of the age cohort. Higher education has become "mass education." Enrollment at Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México is 269,000; the University of Delhi has 309,000 students; Anatolian University (Turkey) has over one million; and enrollment at what may be the world's largest private university, the Islamic Azad University in Iran, with its 145 campuses, is 850,000 students. The traditional image we may have of higher education institutions as cloistered retreats from the world educating a select few may have to change. The fact is that higher education today is often impersonal—long lines to enter antiquated lecture halls, libraries with many missing books, cracking walls, falling paint, leaky faucets.

The second ambition in every country is to improve the quality of higher education. Over the last decade there has been a revolution in the criteria that help define higher education quality. High-quality higher education now requires electronic modernity in classrooms, dorms, libraries, science laboratories, study halls. Students are often older, work part time, and live far away from the campus. High-quality syllabi are no longer based on textbooks but on the most up-to-date information from print and electronic sources. Information for students is scanned and available online. Students have access to curricular information wherever they live or travel.

What's more, classroom instruction has changed. Class time is no longer devoted to providing information for students; instead it is devoted to the analysis of information absorbed prior to class. The Internet and other forms of electronic information have changed the academic library and enhanced its quality. There is less need for faculty or students to visit the physical place. A high-quality academic library used to be defined by the quantity of its holdings. Today it is defined by the quantity of its access to information. The difference is enormous. Every high-quality academic library has enough money to join exclusive "information networks" where holdings are shared with one another.

Networks of academic libraries are transnational, and cover university libraries in Europe, Asia, and North America. Access to information is what separates the excellent libraries from the mediocre. All academic services, both teaching and bibliographic, are delivered though broadband facilities. Rankings of universities, in fact, now include the size of a university's bandwidth.Universities with low bandwidth cannot compete in quality with universities with large bandwidth. сеть переноса информации на несущих волнах, пропускная способность (напр. компьютерной сети)

A third common ambition of universities worldwide is to improve equity, that is, to offer scholarships and fellowships to the able students from impoverished families or disadvantaged regions. Many first-class universities will have enough resources to offer scholarships to about one student in three, over and above what may be available through public resources.

Financial Resources

But all three ambitions, taken together, are expensive, and there are few countries where all three can be financed out of public resources alone. With the increase in student numbers and rising expectations for quality and equity, public resources are insufficient. The scarcity of public resources is likely to be permanent, and this poses a global dilemma: How can higher education successfully finance its own objectives, including its traditional objectives for serving the public good?

This dilemma pertains to both public and private institutions. Public universities in the United States, for instance, now receive only 15 to 20 percent of their recurrent budgets from the state legislatures; the university itself is responsible for raising the remainder, hence making high-quality public and private universities similar in their management objectives and strategies. So far as I am aware, all universities have four categories of choices to which they can turn for funding:

  • They can raise revenue from traditional sources (such as by raising fees, charging rent for facilities, and increasing overheads);
  • They can diversify into new sources of revenue (such as by establishing copyrights on inventions or investing in equity markets);
  • They can allocate current resources more efficiently (for instance, by shifting from line item to block funding, differentiating faculty salaries and so forth); or
  • They can eliminate programs or services that are outdated (e.g., domestic science).

All the choices are controversial. High-quality universities are not only successful at raising resources, but are wise in the reallocation of the resources they raise to help preserve their public-good function. Different institutions differ, of course, in how successful they are in financing their own objectives. Some are slow because they may not yet recognize that to be of high quality, all universities now have to take finance and management into their own hands.

Some might see this trend as a "commercialization" of higher education. Others may see it as the globalization of an "American model" of higher education. I see this necessity for maximizing resources differently. I would characterize this not as commercialization but as the professionalization of higher education in its legitimate pursuit of excellence, and not as an American model but as the successful model in which all higher education must participate in order to address what is now a universal dilemma of public resource scarcity.

Social Cohesion

There is one other global influence on higher education that deserves to be mentioned, and that is the way in which higher education contributes to (or hinders) a nation's social cohesion. Both private and public higher education have roles to play in helping to ensure that citizens live at peace with each other and with their neighbors, and that their graduates are technically able to perform in the labor market up to expectations.

Whether the primary purpose is for teaching, research, or vocational preparation, all universities attempt to influence a community's social cohesion through two mechanisms. One mechanism is through their curriculum and professionalism in teaching history, culture, biology, physics, engineering, and ecology. High-quality universities are defined by their openness to the world's literature and evidence, provided freely to all students on as many topics as feasible. No great university restricts access to information.

The second way is the manner by which a university models good behavior and exhibits professional standards. This includes the degree to which a university rewards academic performance honestly and fairly, the degree to which its faculty and administration openly advertise and adhere to codes of conduct, and the degree to which open discussion is cherished and differing opinions respected. The more a university exhibits these characteristics the more likely will its students exhibit human capital through their knowledge and skills and the more they will contribute to social capital, the kind that generates willingness to sacrifice for a common good, as well as tolerance and understanding of other views and opinions.

Universities that exhibit a very high degree of human and social capital are of higher quality, and it is high-quality universities that will have the most positive impact on a nation's social cohesion. What this implies is that universities where corruption occurs, where grades and admission decisions and accreditation itself can be changed through bribes, will threaten a nation's social cohesion. Instead of modeling good behavior, a corrupt university would model the opposite, behavior that is dysfunctional to the nation's future.

Fighting higher education corruption is a global problem today, and the stakes are high. The Bologna process, through which members of the European Union are working to harmonize their higher education systems to allow for increased mobility of students and staff, and the new UNESCO accreditation guidelines hold out an opportunity for universities in different parts of the world to be compared in terms of program quality. The willingness of a high-quality university to be compared to others often seems to depend on whether a university can demonstrate that it is not corrupt.

The burden of proof is on the university undergoing scrutiny. If it cannot prove its own honesty, its students will be at a permanent disadvantage in the labor market, and the public may well ask to what extent public investment has been well spent.

In sum, there is increasingly a successful "model" of higher education that applies in all regions of the world, and that is the model in which higher education institutions themselves are able to finance their own objectives. It is increasingly clear that higher education has a unique role to play in a nation's social cohesion, but it can play either a negative role by modeling unprofessional behavior, or a positive role by living up to international standards of conduct.

Exercises 1.2.

Check your understanding

1) What is professor Stephen P. Heyneman’s occupation?

2) What are his arguments in favour of the statement that Global influences have affected many aspects of daily life and hence our strategies for coping?

Ambitions for Education

Today virtually every country has three higher education ambitions.

1) a demand ______________________________

2) _______________________________________

3) _______________________________________

 

Coment on this:

8 %

35%

10 – 15%

Asia, Africa, and Latin America.

 

Fill in the table:

 

  Country Enrollment
Universidad Nacional Autónoma    
the University of Delhi    
Anatolian University    
the Islamic Azad University    

 

What is traditional image of a university?

What features of “impersonal” universities does the author provide?

1___________

2___________

3___________

4____________

 to improve ______________________________

Fill in the table:

 

Facilities required  Change in Students Change in Syllabi
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 1 2  

 

How does the classroom situation changed?

What is believed to be a good library according to modern criteria?

How do "information networks" work?

How are all academic services deliverd?

What does ranking of a university include nowdays?

to improve _______________________________

That means to offer ________________ and __________________. What makes the difference?

What categories of students should be offerred both ______________________ and _________ .

Financial Resources

1) The scarcity of public resources is likely to be permanent, and this poses a global dilemma: _______________________________________________________________

2) All universities have four categories of choices to which they can turn for funding:

raise ______________________________

(1_________________ 2_________________ 3____________________)

diversify ____________________________

(1___________________ 2___________________)

allocate _____________________________

(1______________________________,2____________________)

eliminate ____________________________ ( i.e. _____________)

3) Different institutions differ . Some are slow because ________________________ ____________________________ ______________________________________

4) How is this trend seen by professor Stephen P. Heyneman?

 

"commercialization" of higher education

maximizing resources of higher education

professionalization of higher education

globalization of an "American model" of higher education

a universal dilemma of public resource scarcity.

Social Cohesion

“national cohesion” – What is it?

There is one other global influence on higher education that deserves to be mentioned _________________________________________________________________

 

Both private and public higher education have roles to play in helping

1)

2)

All universities attempt to influence a community's social cohesion through two mechanisms

1)

2)

a)

b)

c)

How does professor Stephen P. Heyneman understand the notions of

human capital

social capital

What kind of universities according to professor Stephen P. Heyneman threaten to the national cohesion?

1)

2)

3)

What kind of behaviour would a corrupt university model?

What is in this light the Bologna process about?What opportunities do the new UNESCO accreditation guidelines hold out?

What can be the consequences of corrupt practices at a University for..?

its students - itself

What conclusion does professor Stephen P. Heyneman make in the end of his article? Why is higher education so important for a state?

Listen and Discuss 1.2.

 

Listen to this VOA special education report “US Colleges Move to Increase Financial Aid” and answer the questions:

 

1) What University is putting pressure on other schools to expand financial aid for students?

2) What is “college endowment”?

Classical conditioning:

is the process of reflex learning—investigated by Pavlov—through which an unconditioned stimulus (e.g. food) which produces an unconditioned response (salivation) is presented together with a conditioned stimulus (a bell), such that the salivation is eventually produced on the presentation of the conditioned stimulus alone, thus becoming a conditioned response.

This is a disciplined account of our common-sense experience of learning by association (or "contiguity", in the jargon), although that is often much more complex than a reflex process, and is much exploited in advertising. Note that it does not depend on us doing anything.

Such associations can be chained and generalised (for better of for worse): thus "smell of baking" associates with "kitchen at home in childhood" associates with "love and care". (Smell creates potent conditioning because of the way it is perceived by the brain.) But "sitting at a desk" associates with "classroom at school" and hence perhaps with "humiliation and failure"...

Operant Conditioning

If, when an organism emits a behaviour (does something), the consequences of that behaviour are reinforcing, it is more likely to emit (do) it again. What counts as reinforcement, of course, is based on the evidence of the repeated behaviour, which makes the whole argument rather circular.

Learning is really about the increased probability of a behaviour based on reinforcement which has taken place in the past, so that the antecedents of the new behaviour include the consequences of previous behaviour.

The schedule of reinforcement of behaviour is central to the management of effective learning on this basis, and working it out is a very skilled procedure: simply reinforcing every instance of desired behaviour is just bribery, not the promotion of learning.

Withdrawal of reinforcement eventually leads to the extinction of the behaviour, except in some special cases such as anticipatory-avoidance learning.

Notes

Two points are often misunderstood in relation to behaviourism and human learning:

  • The scale: Although later modifications of behaviourism are known as S-O-R theories (Stimulus-Organism-Response), recognising that the organism's (in this case, person's) abilities and motivations need to be taken into account, undiluted behaviourism is concerned with conditioning and mainly with reflex behaviour. This operates on a very short time-scale — from second to second, or at most minute to minute — on very specific micro-behaviour. To say that a course is behaviourally-based because there is the reward of a qualification at the end is stretching the idea too far.
  • Its descriptive intention: Perhaps because behaviourists describe experiments in which they structure learning for their subjects, attention tends to fall on ideas such as behaviour modification and the technology of behaviourism. However, behaviourism itself is more about a description of how [some forms of] learning occur in the wild, as it were, than about how to make it happen, and it is when it is approached from this perspective that it gets most interesting. It accounts elegantly, for example, for ways in which attempts to discipline unruly students actually make the situation worse rather than better.
  • (This point is heretical!) For human beings, reinforcement has two components, because the information may be cognitively processed: in many cases the "reward" element is less significant than the "feedback" information carried by the reinforcement.

Applied to the theory of teaching, behaviourism's main manifestation is "instructional technology" and its associated approaches.

Burrhus Frederic Skinner

Edward Lee Thorndike

3. John Broadus Watson *

*See Keys and Transcripts 1.2. for assistance.

Terminology to Study 1.3.


Structural approach

Grammatical approach

Lexical approach

Eclectism

Integrated approach

Comprehension approach


Lead - In 1.3.

1) What are the most famous universities of Great Britain?

2) What do you know about the kind of education they provide?

3) Do you think it’s possible to get education for free there?

Read and Discuss 1.3.

Exercises 1.3.

Translate and Render 1.3.

 

Британские университеты могут "сдать мировые позиции"

В течение следующих 10 лет Великобритания может утратить свою репутацию мирового лидера в области университетского образования, предупредила вчера заместитель ректора Кембриджа.

Стандарты образования резко упадут, если университеты не будут противостоять соблазну принимать на учебу недостаточно талантливых студентов в попытке заткнуть дыры в финансировании, заявила профессор Элисон Ричард представителям британского парламента.

В настоящий момент Кембридж и Оксфорд занимают второе и третье места соответственно в мировом рейтинге университетов, пропуская вперед лишь Гарвард. 29 британских университетов входят в число лучших 200, и страна завоевала мировой авторитет благодаря высокому уровню высшего образования.

Профессор Ричард сообщила спецкомитету по образованию, что стремление правительства увеличить число студентов может нанести серьезный урон стандартам образования.

В частности, тенденция принимать иностранных студентов, которые платят более крупные суммы за обучение, может привести к "порочному кругу", заявила она.

Министры постановили приложить усилия к тому, чтобы к 2010 году 50% всех 18-30-летних людей получали высшее образование.

Профессор Ричард, ранее ректор Йельского университета, указала: "Вероятно, у нас есть около 10 лет на то, чтобы консолидировать и сориентировать систему так, чтобы она восстановила свою конкурентоспособность. Риск для британской системы, по моему мнению, заключается в том, что из-за исторического недофинансирования нашей деятельности в области образования появится соблазн сделать упор на объемах вместо качества".

Она призвала к росту инвестиций в университеты и со стороны государства, и со стороны частных спонсоров.

Жизненно важно, чтобы в университеты приходили студенты из всех слоев общества. Кембридж не должен стать "попросту пансионом для богачей".

 

Listen and Discuss 1.3.

 

Listen and complete these sentences taken from another VOA report “With College Endowments, How Much Is Too Much?”

1) An endowment is money from______________________________________

__________________________________

2) Colleges use endowment money for student _______ and ___________ improvements, and for financial _________________.

3) But college costs in the United States have been rising faster _____________

__________________________

4) Critics say schools with a lot of money should be___________________ more of their wealth to ______________________________________for families

5) They say the pressure to help ______________________________families might mean ____________________________for poor students.

6) Colleges and their endowments are__________________________________

______________________

7) Other ______________________________ groups are required to spend at least ________________________of their endowments each year.

8) Lynn Munson says universities pay out only about ________________of their endowments

9) Some experts say most endowment money has to remain ___________so schools are not hurt when markets_____________.

10) Universities point out that donors often ____________________________for their donations

Discuss and Write1.3.

Cognitive Theories

The cognitive school is probably best defined by exclusion: if it ain't biological, behaviourist or humanist, it's cognitive (I'm including information-processing models here).

  • It all starts with Gestalt theories [Köhler and Koffka, and with only the vaguest connection with Gestalt therapy (Perls)]: originally theories of perception, interested in the way the brain imposes pattern on the perceived world, Gestalt moved into problem-solving learning.
  • It is also much influenced by the developmental psychology of Piaget (but also read Donaldson (1984) if reading Piaget), focusing on the maturational factors affecting understanding. The accommodation/assimilation dialectic is the part most useful for understanding grown learners.
  • Broadly, cognitive theory is interested in how people understand material, and thus in;
  • aptitude and capacity to learn (thus fringing onto psychometrics and testing),
  • and learning styles.

It is also the basis of the educational approach known as constructivism, which emphasises the role of the learner in constructing his own view or model of the material, and what helps with that.

Humanistic Theory

Humanistic "theories" of learning tend to be highly value-driven and hence more like prescriptions (about what ought to happen) rather than descriptions (of what does happen).

  • They emphasise the "natural desire" of everyone to learn. Whether this natural desire is to learn whatever it is you are teaching, however, is not clear.
  • It follows from this, they maintain, that learners need to be empowered and to have control over the learning process.
  • So the teacher relinquishes a great deal of authority and becomes a facilitator.

The school is particularly associated with

  • Carl Rogers, and
  • Abraham Maslow (psychologists),
  • John Holt (child education) and
  • Malcolm Knowles (adult education and proponent of andragogy). Insofar as he emphasises experiential learning, one could also include
  • Kolb among the humanists as well as the cognitive theorists.

While the tenor of humanistic theory is generally wishy-washy liberal, its approach also underlies the more committed stance of “transformative learning” (Mezirow) and “conscientization” (Freire).

My heart is with humanistic theory, but I sometimes find it hard to make connections with the reality of routine practice. Its most fertile ground is with intrinsically motivated adult learners. It is not as potent now as it was in the '70s, when it often seemed to be used as an excuse for the abrogation of the realistic authority of the teacher—or perhaps we have just become more mature in our use of it. As the politicised variants show, it poses considerable challenges not only to approaches to teaching, but also to the construction of the curriculum as a whole. As society has become more fragmented and "post-modern", these challenges have become even more problematic.

(Atherton J S (2005) Learning and Teaching: Cognitive theories of learning .//Humanistic approaches to learning )

Jean Piaget

Lev Vygotsky

Jerome Bruner

Carl Rogers

John Holt

6) Paulo Freire*

*See Keys and Transcripts 1.3. for assistance.

Unit 1. 4. Russian Universities and the Bologna Process. Approaches and Methods of teaching 3:

Terminology to Study 1.4.

Grammar-translation method

Direct method

Audiolingvialism

Mim-mem method

SLT

The oral method

CLT


Lead - In 1.4.

Read and Discuss 1.4

State Educational Standards

In the mid-1990s, the Ministry of Education introduced the State Educational Standards for Higher Professional Education (SES, first and second versions, dating from 1994 and 2000 respectively)1,2 that set minimum requirements for the programme content and quality; the time allocated for mastering the programme and basic specialists' qualifications. Though the education system in Russia remained centralized through the governmental control over the structure and content of programs, the HEI were granted academic freedom in programme design. The current Standards define about 60-70% of programme content and have federal, national and regional (HEI) components.

The lack of freedom in programme design and choice of electives for students, strict sequence of disciplines in the curricula and 'synchronous' organisation of the learning process, insufficient time allocated for students' independent work and self-study, and weak control over assessment of achievement of learning outcomes are all among the weaknesses of the current SES that need to be eliminated.

Two-tier system

In parallel with the first version of the State Educational Standards [3]a new Classifier (List) of educational specialisations was approved. The Classifier reflected the transition to the multi-level educational system that was initiated by the Decree of the Committee for Higher Education of the Ministry of Science, On the introduction of a multi-level structure for higher education in the Russian Federation adopted on 13 March 1992.3 In accordance with the Decree, 4-year Bachelors programmes were introduced as first cycle degree (FCD) programmes. Upon completion of FCD programmes, graduates had a choice either to enter the labour market or to continue their studies to obtain the second cycle degree (SCD). The SCD was awarded to the graduates who had completed the 5-year Diploma Specialist (one more year of studies after obtaining the FCD) or 2-year Masters programmes. Thus, the multi-level system added the new types of educational programmes to the Russian system of higher professional education: the traditional 5-year Diploma Specialist programmes coexisted with newly introduced Bachelors and Masters programmes.

Though introduced in the mid-1990s in many Russian HEIs, Bachelors programmes are still viewed as the intermediate level of specialists' training: upon completion of a Bachelors programme up to 80-90 % of students continue their studies and enter a SCD, [4]mainly Specialist Diploma programmes. The graduates of Bachelors programmes are willingly accepted by the employers in such areas as management, economics, law and arts. In engineering education holders of the Bachelors Degree are usually neglected by industry. The main reason is that Bachelors programmes are theoretically orientated and lack practical training (compared with the Specialist Diploma programmes).

The problem of quality assurance in higher education became crucial in the mid- 1990s, when HEIs were given more academic freedom and flexibility in programme design and the number of HEIs and programmes began to increase. In order to ensure the quality of higher education, the procedure of accreditation was implemented by the Federal Law "On Education" of 10 July, 1992.4 According to the Law, the accreditation exists as state (run by the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation) and professional (run by public professional organizations). The state accreditation is an institutional one while professional accreditation deals with educational programmes.

The state accreditation system is presented by the integrated assessment of HEI aimed at conducting comprehensive analysis of HEI activities. It includes three procedures for licensing, attestation, and state accreditation, respectively.

Licensing identifies that the HEI's facilities, financial support and resources including information ones are adequate to meet the state requirements. The aim of licensing is to establish the right of HEI to provide educational services. Attestation is the establishment of equivalency between the content, level, and quality of the education offered and the requirements set by the State Educational Standards. State accreditation grants to the HEI the right of awarding state degrees and confirms the status of HEI (academy, institute or university). The Certificate of State Accreditation is issued for a five-year period.

While state accreditation has an institutional basis, i.e. evaluates a HEI in general, professional accreditation focuses on assessment of the content and quality of a particular educational programme against the accreditation criteria, which are to be higher than the requirements of the State Educational Standard. In accordance with the Federal Law 'On Education', professional accreditation lies within responsibility of public professional organisations. For the time being, the system for professional accreditation is well developed in engineering education. It is the Russian Association for Engineering Education (RAEE)5 that is responsible for professional accreditation in engineering and technology. The RAEE activities in setting up the national system for professional accreditation in engineering and technology are discussed below (see 'National system of quality assurance in engineering education').

Exercises 1.4.

Translate and Render 1.4

Фундаментальная методика

Это действительно самая старая и традиционная методика. Именно так учили лицеисты латынь и греческий, в то время как французский впитывался естественно, вместе со строгими внушениями гувернанток и общения с maman и papan. Класси­ческий метод как ни один другой подходит под описание "плана захвата крепости": шифр фонетики, наглядные изображения синтаксических конструкций, обяза­тель­ный лексический запас ... Студент четко понимает: чтобы прослыть сэром Спо­кой­ствие, месье Галантность или герром Здравомыслие, он: а) готов затратить 2-3 года; б) запастись терпением (учеба начинается с азов); в) должен вспомнить, чем в родном, "великом и могучем", может быть выражено подлежащие, дополнение, и что это вообще такое - синтаксис...

На фундаментальную методику серьезно опираются в языковых вузах. Переводчик никогда не уверен в своих знаниях иностранного языка, он прекрасно понимает непредсказуемость возникающих речевых ситуаций. Занимаясь по классической методике, студенты не только оперируют самыми разнообразными лексическими пластами, но и учатся смотреть на мир глазами "native speaker" - носителя языка.

Самым, пожалуй, известным представителем классической методики преподавания иностранного языка является Н.А.Бонк. Ее учебники английского языка, написанные совместно с другими авторами, давно стали классикой жанра и выдержали конкуренцию последних лет. Классическую методику иначе называют фундаментальной: никто не обещает, что будет легко, что не придется заниматься дома и опыт преподавателя спасет от ошибок в произношении и грамматике. Но наградой будет, развивая метафору крепости, состояние настоящего местного жителя, который знает, как не заблудиться в лабиринте сослагательного наклонения или прошедшего времени.

И еще. Фундаментальная методика предполагает, что любимый ваш вопрос - "по­чему?" Что вы не удовольствуетесь объяснениями "так надо", а готовы погрузиться в интересный, сложный и очень логичный мир, имя которому - система языка.

Listen and Discuss 1.4.

L.Kuznetsova

"I'm also _______________and I always tell my _____________ that they shouldn't be afraid of _________________________students, to trust them more and to involve them more. Not only _____________________to the teacher's questions or doing exercises, _________or other____________, but to create materials for the language classroom -- to __________their _________________and use it ______________________of the students."

D.Klementiev

"What I usually say, the first thing we should think about is the___________________. You should use each _________________________________________when it is really ________________________than the one you used to offer before.

Programme 4 - 'Content and Language Integrated Learning' (CLIL) - Part 2
Duration 13 minutes 49 seconds

Team teaching, talking about volcanoes, and making presentations on Geometry - all happening in Italy, and all showing new ways of teaching English. Warrill Grindrod goes to Milan to continue our look at Content and Language Integrated Learning - or 'CLIL' for short.

Discuss and Write1.4.

Read the information about these traditional methods of teaching and complete the chart. Find the missing information in WWW.

Method of teaching Background information Focuses on Advantages Disadvantages
  The grammar translation method          
  The direct method          
  The audio-lingual method          
  Communicative anguage teaching          
  Language immersion          
  Directed practice          
  Learning by teaching        
  Pimsleur language learning system          
  Comprehension approach.          
  Total Physical Response        
  Silent Way          

The direct method

The direct method, sometimes also called natural method, is a method that refrains from using the learners' native language and just uses the target language. It was established in Germany and France around 1900.

The audio-lingual method

The audio-lingual method has students listen to or view tapes of language models acting in situations. Students practice with a variety of drills, and the instructor emphasizes the use of the target language at all times. The audio-lingual method was used by the United States Army for "crash" instruction in foreign languages during World War II. Despite the documented success of these programs, audio-lingual methods are no longer common.

Language immersion



Последнее изменение этой страницы: 2021-04-04; Нарушение авторского права страницы; Мы поможем в написании вашей работы!

infopedia.su Все материалы представленные на сайте исключительно с целью ознакомления читателями и не преследуют коммерческих целей или нарушение авторских прав. Обратная связь - 3.231.230.177 (0.065 с.)