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Lecture № 3 General characteristics of pedagogical profession
Copy of Typical Curriculum:
Formation and formation of pedagogical specialties. Peculiarities of pedagogical specialties. Teacher professiogram as a model of teacher personality. Qualification characteristics of pedagogical activity by educational levels.
The professional standard of pedagogical activity is a system of minimal requirements for the teacher's knowledge, competence, business and financially.
The current teacher of the Republic of Kazakhstan defined in the regulatory documents. The professional requirements and the rights and duties of the teacher. Continuity of professional-pedagogical education as the main requirement of modern teacher training. Modernization of pedagogical education in the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Basic notions: pedagogical profession, qualification characteristics, professional language, professional standards, normative documents.
1. Formation and formation of pedagogical specialty.
2. Professional tutorship profession
3. Requirements to modern teacher, defined by regulatory documents of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
4. Modernization of pedagogical education in the Republic of Kazakhstan
Purpose: to acquaint future teachers with the social value of the pedagogical profession, public awareness and the requirements to the teacher.
There are so many types of specialties on the earth. Some of the specialties were very old and disappeared after they had served in society. The second profession has appeared only recently, due to the advancement of society. Third specialties have emerged in the past, but have not yet been eliminated and have been used until now. Teacher profession is one of the earliest ancient specialties. This profession is one of the most responsible and noble specialties of our time.
Teacher is the main person who teaches all the productive forces in society. The teacher plays a decisive role in training young people with knowledge, preparing their worldly views, attitudes, and choosing them for life, professionally and intellectually. Therefore, the teacher should be able to use his achievements in the learning and educational process, following the development of modern science and technology. Our people trust the teacher the most valuable, noble perspective - children. In the same confession, the teacher works hard.
If the human race did not deliver its experience to future generations, there would be no development. That's why there is a need for a society-educator profession.
The earliest schools were born on the earth of slavery in society. Ancient Egypt and the first schools in Syria served as teachers. In ancient Greece - the most intelligent, talented hired people. He called them pedo, pedroder, didax, teacher. In Ancient Rome, teachers are appointed by state officials who know the basics of science, have traveled a lot, often saw the language, culture, traditions and customs of several nations.
East culture has largely influenced ancient Greece and Rome. In the schools of the ancient East, most of the children in the upper classes were educated. At the same time, schools in Asia Minor and Egypt began to develop. People begin to monitor natural phenomena, learn how to predetermine the flood, astronomy, geometry, arithmetic, and medicine began to be laid. All of this information is collected in the hands of top-class representatives. Early in China, lower and higher schools work. In high school children of the dominant class were taught to read and write in a complex hieroglyphic way, study philosophical and moral writers and poets' works. There were some astronomical data available. In ancient manuscripts (China, India, Egypt, etc.) there are valuable insights about the upbringing of teachers and the requirements for their upbringing. In these schools strict discipline and physical punishment were widely used.
Early in the East, Greece and Rome, the first systems of education were formed in the states of slavery, and the first pedagogical theories were born.
The earliest information about early school education in ancient Egypt can be attributed to 3,000 years old. For thousands of years, a well-known psychological personality has emerged in the mouth of the Nile. The ancient Egyptians were anxious, immaculate, capable of enduring the hardships and hardships of the fate. He set such a goal to educate and educate.
In the Middle Ages, schools were located near the church. In these schools, the lesson was given by religious leaders who are flexible in their pedagogy. These teachers worked individually in the classroom with each student. In the era of capitalism, the state of the teaching profession has gone a long way. Teachers' seminars, colleges were opened. This was due to the demands of the state.
When speaking about the history of teacher training in Kazakhstan, the need to open a pedagogical institution was increasing day by day, until the opening of the first higher education institution.
In 1928 Under the decision of the Council of People's Commissars of the RSSR and the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, Tashkent Kazakh Pedagogical Institute was moved to Almaty and became the Kazakh State Pedagogical Institute. His first rector was Professor S.D. Asfendiyarov.
The first organized Kazakh Pedagogical Institute in the country for the first time gave its alumni life in 1931.
The emergence of pedagogical specialty has its own objective base. For centuries, society has been underdeveloped and can not survive without the accumulation and development of ancestors' experiences, absorbed and mastered the creative practices practiced in the younger generations. That is, educating young people in social life and job training, the process of teaching them socio - historical experience. From the moment of pedagogical specialization, the main function of the teacher is education. The term "discipline" refers to a disciplinary goal in a narrow sense, and is used in a broader sense as "bringing up life." The discipline is a complex process by which scientists have given different definitions.
The main person in the school is a teacher. The issue of improving the country's socio-economic development is directly related to the human factor in the society, as only versatile, competent young people and competent professionals can make a significant contribution to the development of society. For the dynamic development of our society, there is a need for young professionals who are competitive and social activists. And in the formation of such individuals, their parent and the teachers of the educational institutions have a lot of valuable work and good deeds.
We all know that teaching profession has long been formed. People try to convey their experiences to the younger generations, regardless of their social formation, to teach them what they have learned, and to aim and consciously learn the laws of life. The teaching role of the teacher profession is highly appreciated, no matter at what stage of human society. Schools and educational systems have always made a significant contribution to the socialization of the younger generation, in line with the development of society.
We see the need to upgrade the processes of socialization and career promotion in the future teacher training, considering education itself as a vast social process. Every student who comes to the pedagogical university must master the profession of the highest quality, without which there is no real teacher, no real teacher, and without it the concept of vocational education can lose its original value.
In order to disclose the profession of a teacher, it is necessary to consider the social value of his / her other profession, its place and role in society.
Among the many specialties, the teacher's specialty is a specialty with the "human-human" system, but there are enough other professionals who work closely with the person in that system. For example, doctors, lawyers, artists, sellers, etc. Experts also have close relationships with people. The importance of a teacher profession is determined by his role in the development of society. Leading idea in the profession of a teacher, the main task - to understand the goals of human development and to direct others to achieve those goals.
That means that the teacher works to educate the younger generation as future citizens of the society and their socialization. The teachers are trying to shape the best practices of the society in the centuries-old social practice and try to form the most appropriate aspects of their lives among teenagers. At the same time, the teachers form the outlook of young people, their national consciousness, their attitude towards a healthy lifestyle. That is, teachers can be perceived as a child's adaptation to social relationships and socialization. Great Russian teacher K.D. Ushinsky praised the profession of the teacher: "The teacher profession is one of the greatest things in history, though it is a part-time" - is in line with reality.
One of the most important peculiarities of the teacher profession in the history of mankind is that it is the most widespread in any country.
For example, it can be said that most graduates of high schools of the Republic of Kazakhstan are teachers. What does this mean? This is an indication of the special needs of the pedagogical profession for the development of the society, as there is no need to train such specialists if there is no demand for this profession. This profession is one of the eternal oldest professions. Highly educated pedagogues, who have been trained at universities every year, begin to engage in pedagogical work in educational institutions of our society, but they lack teachers. Due to the development of a modern educational system, the demand for high-quality teachers is growing every year.
Teacher's service is for the future only. The activities and activities of the teacher depend on the future of the children. The effectiveness of the teacher's work is also reflected in the future. For example, the fruit of a teacher's work is evaluated not only after a specific act, but also months, years after the student has achieved success.
Teacher service is always humanistic. Another distinctive feature of tutorship is the ability of teachers to find a way to the heart of every student, and to help them develop their talents. The main thing is that the teacher should help the student to feel as if he is a person who should be able to awaken himself / herself, life, the world, to be responsible for his or her comrades, school, community, and human dignity. Human personality is the most valuable wealth of man. The teacher's professional success in teaching, learning, and cognition is directly related to the confidence of each student, his perseverance and patience, and the ability to come to the pupil in time.
Collective character of pedagogical work. The teacher always works with the children's team. And it is not easy to manage the relationships of different children within the team, with their character, interests, developmental and educational levels. It requires great pedagogical skills. To develop this skill, it is necessary to have a good understanding of the theory of collectivism and the collective education of the person who founded the founder A.S. Makarenko in pedagogical science. This pedagogical idea is the basis of the experience of many subsequent creative teachers.
Teachers are motivated by their intellectual development, emotional, spiritual and physical education in shaping the personality of each child. And the fact that the student's identity formation is a very complex process depends on the fact that children are always under psychological, physiological and pedagogical changes.
There are no special tools that measure the results of teachers' work than other professions, and they have to wait for the change in personality attitudes to measure them. Even though the teacher plays a leading role, it should be able to manage the relationships that arise in the process of education, through which the student should maintain the personality of the student and build his personality traits.
Teachers have a very responsible job. In today's society, teachers need to be conscious that they have a very important responsibility, and they must pursue a successful outcome by caring for all their will, strength, knowledge and skills. Teachers are given the most important stage of their development, the formation of the child's behavior, outlook, moral qualities. Teachers who undertake such a great deal of responsibility have always had to play their part in the child's life at a high level. And if the teacher is indifferent to pedagogical activity, he may encounter many errors and omissions that will fail him in his work.
Because of the low professionalism of some teachers, spots on the child's childhood, their parents, colleagues reduce their prestige, dignity, and their mistakes remain in the heart of a child. Unfortunately, such teachers are uncertain about their shortcomings and are skeptical about the future of their students. And pupils' mistakes should be forgiven, because they are those who are still in the process of measuring their power and ability.
The teacher can open his / her inner potential by relying on his / her student. Likewise, if a teacher can instill a sense of human emotions on the child, it can become a lifelong spiritual nutrition of the child, if he can sow good seeds and feed them deeply.
In the history of humanity, the requirements for the teacher's personality have changed depending on the socio-economic and cultural conditions in society.
Even the Ancient Greece, Ancient Egypt, The Ancient Roman Philosophers Democritus, Aristotle, Socrates, Mark Fabius Quintilian, and others. their works and ideas.
The ideas about the moral, psychological and ethical qualities of the teachers were one of the plight issues of the Oriental philosopher Abu Nasr Al-Farabi. He deemed it necessary for the teacher to be truthful, and to protect his disciples, as well as the temptations, such as demanding, sympathy, harshness, strength, and pedagogical throne. Al-Farabi writes that the norm of behavior of a teacher: ".. It must not be too harsh or too rigid, because too rigidly puts the disciple against his teacher, and too old - giving away the teacher's dignity. . His lesson and his disciple will be indifferent. "
The founder of pedagogical science, J.A.Komensky (XVII century), told the teachers that "the most beautiful task is to have nothing to do with the sun" - that requires teachers to comply with nature and didactic principles in the teaching process.
In the history of pedagogy, the requirements to the teacher are described by well-known educators, such as A. A. Distverg, K.A. Helvetsi, K.D. Ushinsky, P.F Kapterev, A.S. Makarenko, Y. Altynsarin, M.Zhumabayev, V.A. Sukhomlinski S.P. Kapterev requires the observance of the principle of "education and upbringing" during the whole process of education and upbringing, focusing on the importance of teachers' moral values.
As a result of the growing demand for the teacher, professorial studies in pedagogical theory have begun to take place. Scientists, specializing in this area, are F.N. Gonobolin, N.V. Kuzmina, A.I. Shcherbakov, V.A. Slasken, Yu.S. Alferov, E.I. Anypova and others.
The system of requirements for the teacher of Slasten is considered as his professional training in pedagogical work. It includes psychological, physiological, teacher training, and scientific-theoretical and practical competence of the teacher. According to V.A. Slastenin, "Teacher's profession should include the qualifications of the profession as well as the qualitative characteristics of the profession, political and socio-psychological and pedagogical knowledge, as well as the scientifically justified relationship, as well as pedagogical, methodological skills and skills necessary for the future teacher". Professiogram is the ideal model, standard, model of a teacher, teacher, class teacher, teacher.
Teacher is the organizer and the implementer of educational and educational work at school or other educational institution. Fair arbitrators place high demands on pupils, parents, teachers, and moral personality. Teacher's requirements are a set of professional qualities that ensure the success of pedagogical activity. Half of pedagogical activity is based on rational technology, the other half is art, pedagogical skills. Therefore, the first requirement for a teacher should be a special pedagogical talent, which is the ability to properly communicate and communicate with children, to love children.
The teacher is a creative person. Only the educated, pedagogical and psychologically educated teacher can do it only by the will of the students, motivated by their interest, knowledge, and motivation. A teacher should always be an example to his students. The teacher should have the following personal qualities and professional abilities. Personal qualities are discipline, responsibility, diligence, high professionalism, fairness, morality, goal setting and achievement, always ready to improve their professional qualifications and quality of work.
Ability is a psychological trait of the individual's outcome.
B.P. Zyazun provides eight types of teacher abilities.
• Didactic ability is the ability of the teacher to deliver the learning material to the pupil, the student's ability to properly define his / her level of education, ability, skills, curiosity and gameplay.
Academic ability is the ability of the teacher to comply with the discipline (mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, history, etc.), to conduct his / her own research on the basis of the science development.
• Perceptual ability - to know the inner world of the student, the mental state of the learner.
• Expressive ability - to deliver their thoughts, feelings, knowledge through external abilities. (tongue, mimic, pantomime, gesture);
• Organizational ability - to unite and manage the children's team;
• Communicative ability - ability to communicate (literary sensitivity, kindness, loyalty, rapid communication);
• Constructive abilities - search for effective ways to solve educational and teaching tasks, to define the content and types of educational and training activities, to be selfish, responsive and pedagogical. (presumably know) to predict the future of the child and to find the right solution;
• Applied ability is a teacher's attitude to his / her profession
without the knowledge of sports, art, fine arts, to attract and attract students to the child should contribute to the development of comprehensive development;
In general, at the present time there is a great experience in the creation of a teacher profession. Requirements for the teacher can be divided into three large sets:
- universal human qualities;
- professional and pedagogical qualifications;
- Knowledge, skills, skills in a specific subject.
Nowadays, demand for teachers in the modern world is intensified. The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "On Education" (2007) defines the main rights and duties of teachers. Paragraphs 50-51 of chapter 7 of the above-mentioned Law define the status of pedagogue's employees and their responsibilities and responsibilities for their professionalism, the quality of education and upbringing of the pupils.
Article 50 Status of a teacher.
Article 51. Rights, duties and responsibilities of a teacher.
A teacher can be held liable in accordance with the laws of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the employment contract for breach of obligations and pedagogical ethics. Thus, the general requirements for contemporary teachers can be attributed to high professional development, competitiveness, social activity, and creativity.
1. What is the social significance of a teacher profession?
2. What is the humanistic nature of the teacher profession?
3. What is the collective character of pedagogical activity?
4.Why are the requirements for the teacher's personality related to the development of society change?
5. What is a Teacher Profession?
1. The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "On Education". Astana, Akorda, July 27, 2007 No.319
2. State program of education development of RK for 2005-2010. Astana, 2005.
3. I.I.Sinitsa Pedagogical ethics and teaching skill.
4 А.Е. Berikkhanova, Pedagogical specialties. Teaching material: А.2009
5. Babaev С.B., Onalbek Zh.К. General pedagogy. Almaty.- 2006.
6. S.Sh. Abenbaev, А.М. Kudiyurova, Zh.А. Abiyev "Pedagogy". Astana 2003.
7. J. Abiyev, A.M. Kudiyarova, S. Babaev "Pedagogy". Almaty. - 2004.
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